1 1 Augustus s Victory Monument, 3D Modeling, and New Directions for Warship Research William M. Murray [To be published in Speira, a Festschrift in honor of K. Zachos and A. Douzougli; rev ] Summary Thanks to 3D laser-scanning technology, we can now visualize the different sizes and shapes of warship rams displayed by Augustus on his Victory Monument at Nikopolis. Starting with computer models of the monument s ram sockets, we have reverse-engineered 3D ram models to fit each socket. Such visualization techniques enable us to move beyond older scholarship, which focused primarily on how ancient warships were rowed, to consider the ramming capabilities of late Hellenistic warships. Furthermore, these data can now help us understand warships from other eras and regions. For example, the Nikopolis data provide a fixed metric by which to evaluate a set of warship rams recently discovered off the western coast of Sicily by the RPM Nautical Foundation and the Sicilian Soprintendenza del Mare. Artifacts associated with these rams make it certain that they were lost in the final naval battle of the First Punic War, the Battle of the Aegates Islands (241 BCE). The current collection of 10 Egadi rams (as of 2 July 2012) are revealed by their small size to be no larger than rams from triēreis, a fact that invites a reassessment of the ancient battle narratives as well as our understanding of Roman and Carthaginian threes. The paper concludes by announcing the creation of a new online database to be hosted by the University of South Florida. The website, called RAM 3D, will present data of all kinds (including measureable 3D models) that are relevant to the study of warship rams. The database will be aimed at facilitating research by international teams in order to advance our understanding of ancient warships through computer modeling and ramming simulation experiments.
2 2 Περίληψη William M. Murray: Το Μνημείο της Νίκης του Αυγούστου, τρισδιάστατη αναπαράσταση των εμβόλων και οι νέοι ορίζοντες στη μελέτη των αρχαίων πολεμικών πλοίων Χάρη στην τεχνολογία της τρισδιάστατης σάρωσης με λέιζερ τώρα μπορούμε να σχηματοποιήσουμε οπτικά τα διαφορετικά μεγέθη και μορφές των πολεμικών εμβόλων που είχε εκθέσει ο Αύγουστος στο Μνημείο της Νίκης στη Νικόπολη. Χρησιμοποιώντας ως βάση τα ηλεκτρονικά ομοιώματα των οπών στον τοίχο όπου είχαν αναρτηθεί τα έμβολα, δημιουργήσαμε τρισδιάστατα ομοιώματα εμβόλων που συμφωνούν με το μέγεθος και σχήμα κάθε οπής. Μια τέτοια οπτική σχηματοποίηση μας επιτρέπει να προχωρήσουμε πέρα από τα επιτεύγματα των προηγούμενων μελετών, τα ενδιαφέροντα των οποίων εστιάζονταν κυρίως στον τρόπο με τον οποίο τα αρχαία πολεμικά πλοία κωπηλατούνταν, και να θεωρήσουμε τις εμβολιστικές δυνατότητες κατά την όψιμη Ελληνιστική περίοδο. Επιπλέον, αυτά τα στοιχεία μας βοηθούν να κατανοήσουμε τα πολεμικά πλοία όχι μόνο άλλων εποχών αλλά και άλλων περιοχών. Για παράδειγμα, τα στοιχεία από τη Νικόπολη μας δίνουν τη δυνατότητα να δημιουργήσουμε ένα σύστημα επιμέτρησης βάσει του οποίου μπορούμε να αξιολογήσουμε τα πολεμικά έμβολα που ανακαλύφθηκαν πρόσφατα από το Ναυτικό Ίδρυμα RPM και το Σικελικό Soprintendenza del Mare κοντά στη δυτική ακτή της Σικελίας. Ευρήματα που σχετίζονται με αυτά τα έμβολα επιβεβαιώνουν ότι αυτά χάθηκαν κατά την τελευταία ναυμαχία του πρώτου Καρχηδονιακού πολέμου στις νήσους Αιγούσσες (241 π.χ.), που σήμερα ονομάζονται Egadi. Τα έμβολα της συλλογής Egadi, που μέχρι τις 2 Ιουλίου 2012 απαριθμούνταν σε δέκα, είναι πια φανερό ότι λόγω του μικρού τους μεγέθους δεν είναι μεγαλύτερα από τα έμβολα των τριήρων, γεγονός
3 3 που μας επιτάσσει να επανεξετάσουμε όχι μόνο τις αρχαίες περιγραφές ναυμαχιών αλλά και τις απόψεις μας για τις ρωμαϊκές και καρχηδονιακές τριήρεις. Η παρουσίασή μου καταλήγει με μια ανακοίνωση για τη δημιουργία ενός νέου ηλεκτρονικού αρχείου πληροφοριών που θα εδράζεται στο πανεπιστήμιο της Νότιας Φλόριδας. Η ιστοσελίδα, που ονομάζεται RAM 3D, θα περιέχει κάθε είδους στοιχεία που συνδέονται με τη μελέτη εμβόλων πολεμικών πλοίων (συμπεριλαμβανομένων και τρισδιάστατων ομοιωμάτων που οι διαστάσεις τους μπορούν να καταμετρηθούν). Σκοπός του αρχείου είναι η συνδρομή στις έρευνες των διεθνών επιστημονικών ομάδων ώστε να διευρυνθούν οι γνώσεις μας για τα αρχαία πολεμικά πλοία μέσω ηλεκτρονικών ομοιωμάτων εμβόλων και μέσω αναπαραστάσεων ναυτικών εμβολισμών
4 4 Introduction. In 2001, when Konstantinos Zachos agreed to let me try to visualize the rams originally displayed at Augustus Victory Monument, I had no idea what was about to happen. The original plan was to make 3D computer models of five or six rams and perhaps one physical model at a 1:1 scale if the cost was not too much. 1 Over the past 11 years that we have worked on this project, there has been a revolution in 3D technology and this has impacted every aspect of our original plan. The new technology has not only allowed us to visualize the rams more accurately, it has also enabled new ways of thinking about warships and how they functioned. When we first began our work in 2002, we started with the largest well-preserved socket on the monument the 4 th surviving one from the western end of the main retaining wall. 2 Working from measurements recorded by hand in 1986 along with some detailed photographs, we produced a rough 3D model of this socket, which I present in Figure 1 (left image). 3 I was assisted in this process of 3D modeling by Donald Sanders and Geoffrey Kornfeld (among others) of the Institute for the Visualization of History. 4 In order to make a warship ram with the correct size and shape to fit our digital socket, we next made a 3D computer model of an authentic warship ram the so-called Athlit ram, found off the coast of Israel in 1980 (Figure 1 The intention was to make the model out of fiberglass or dense urethane foam. 2 See Murray 2007 for a description of our first attempt to create a ram from this monument. Our numbering sequence for the monument s sockets begins with the first preserved one on the western end of the main retaining wall. It should be noted that there is room for an additional socket (A) to the left of the first preserved one. 3 See Murray 2007, I: 448 and II: 338, Fig Dr. Sanders is President of the Institute and Mr. Kornfeld is a graphic artist skilled in 3D modeling.
5 5 2). 5 Working from this 3D model of the Athlit ram, we next enlarged it to fit the outline and contours of socket #4. Since this procedure resulted in a ram that was too long and bulky to fit on the ram terrace at Nikopolis, we next adjusted its overall proportions, using as our guide the large warship rams sculpted on a triumphal arch built during the reign of Tiberius at Arausio (modern Orange) in southern France. 6 Our first attempt at producing a ram to fit socket #4 was then presented to the members of the Second International Nicopolis Symposium in September I reproduce it here as Figure 3 (= Murray 2007, II: 341, Fig. 17). 3D Scanning and Model Building. Between 2002 and 2005, we continued to refine the appearance of this ram, which I presented at various conferences in hopes of receiving feedback we could use to make further adjustments. 7 I found that the more I learned about warship rams, the less I liked what we had 5 For the Athlit ram, see Casson and Steffy 1991, and Murray 2012, The data behind this model were extracted from a number of sections of the ram recorded by J. R. Steffy; see Casson and Steffy 1991, (Figs 2-9, 2-10 and 2-11). 6 For the Arch at Orange, see Amy We chose the rams from Orange as our guides because they are roughly contemporary in date (indeed, they may be modeled after Actian rams), because their blocky proportions correspond to a marble ram found at Nikopolis in 1940 (now lost), and because their rear profiles match the profiles of the Actian sockets (see Murray 2007, I: ). Finally, the ratio between their heights and lengths match those of the socket heights and forward edges of bases placed in front of each one to receive the weight of its ram. The full details of these ratios will be presented in a future publication. 7 Papers were presented in January 2004 at the annual meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America in San Francisco ( Computer Modeling of Warship Rams from the Battle of Actium"), in January 2005 at the AIA Gold Medal Session in honor of Lionel Casson in Boston ( Recent Developments in Ancient Warship Studies ), and in August 2005 at the 9th International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity at Agia Napa in Cyprus ( Reconstructing the Ram of a Dekeres from the Battle of Actium ).
6 6 produced. Our ram, for example, was too closely modeled on the Athlit ram, an early 2 nd century weapon that exhibited graceful curves not seen in sculpted or painted rams from Roman contexts of the late Republic and early Empire. Other problems stemmed from our socket model, which did not account for the shifting of the wall s blocks. And finally, our data points roughly 200 in number were too few to reproduce the real complexities of the socket s interior. Since I planned to use ram #4 as a guide to help us model weapons for other sockets, I wanted to make sure that our first model was as reliable as possible. I therefore decided to model the sockets with the aid of a recent technology based on 3D laser scans because I felt this would provide the level of detail we needed. So, in 2009, Dr. Zachos authorized a program of 3D laser scanning for the Monument of Augustus. The work was carried out by Drs. Lori Collins and Travis Doering, co-directors of the University of South Florida s Alliance for Integrated Spatial Technologies (USF-AIST). Over the course of a five day period, USF-AIST carried out a program of 3D laser scanning on the monument s main retaining wall, its inscription blocks and a number of detached blocks that originally came from sockets on the western and eastern ends of the monument. They employed a Faro LS 880 phase shift laser scanner to capture overlapping views of the monument and its sockets, as well as straight-on scans of the sockets we were most interested in modeling. A Konica Minolta VIVID 9i scanner was used to scan socket #13 (the best preserved example) and the ORBEL inscription block at a higher resolution for the purposes of comparison with the Faro scans. 8 Both scanners create photorealistic point clouds that allow measurements to be 8 The Faro LS 880 scanner offers ±3 mm systematical distance error at 25 m. The Konica Minolta VIVID 9i scanner enables 3D measurement accuracy of 50 microns (0.002 inches). We found that the increase in detail offered by the Minolta VIVID 9i scanner did not offset the efficiency of the Faro scanner, which produced scans of
7 7 taken directly from the scans as well as the creation of 3D polygonal computer models. We used software developed by Faro (Faro Scene) to manipulate the point clouds and Geomagic Studio for the creation of polygonal models. USF-AIST processed the raw scans recorded at the site, removed excess noise, and then created a seamless 3D view of the entire monument and hillside by merging 28 files together through a process called registration. Detailed socket models were created by cropping the point clouds to include only the socket of interest and then using Geomagic Studio 12 (later upgraded to Studio 2012) to convert the point clouds into polygonal models. A comparison between the models produced in 2002 and 2011 for socket #4 (Figure 1) reveals the superiority of the new model based on scan data. Additionally, our new model allowed us to isolate each block in the socket so that individual stones could be adjusted, thus removing the worst effects of the wall s deformation. 9 The grid in Figure 4 represents the original plane of the wall s vertical alignment and reveals how the unadjusted socket is slightly skewed. Although barely perceptible to the eye, the blocks of the left side of the socket, when viewed from the front, are currently pushed inward (i.e., into the hillside) away from the plane of vertical alignment. Our model of the socket allowed us to realign these blocks by moving them outward a few centimeters so that they lined up correctly satisfactory quality when placed directly in front of the individual socket or inscription block that was being recorded. 9 The integrity of the main retaining wall has been broken, probably by an earthquake, and the resulting earth slippage at the break has caused the wall to slump downward from sockets #1 to #26 and then rise sharply back to socket Ω at the eastern corner of the monument. In other words, the top of the first course block at socket # 26 is 2.4 m below the top if the first course block at socket #1 on the western end of the wall, and 2.1 m below the top of the first course at the eastern most end of the wall (at socket Ω). Along with this general slumping, the blocks of each socket have also experienced other deformations that have shifted them out of their original alignment.
8 8 with the other blocks. The result of this realignment can be seen in Figure 5, which shows the differences in shape between a new model adjusted to fit this new socket and the ram produced and refined between 2002 and The light gray surface represents the model before straightening and the dark gray surface the straightened model. Our methodology for making further adjustments to ram #4 involved two major steps: 1) insuring that the ram s exterior touched the back exterior of the socket cutting from top to bottom, and 2) making the ram s interior come as close as possible to the uncarved core (i.e., the central portion of each socket) at the surface of the wall from top to bottom. 10 Figure 6 shows the ram in its socket, sectioned at the surface of the 1 st course so that one may see the weapon s exterior and interior in relation to its cutting and core blocks. Since we were dealing with a threedimensional object, each refinement involved a number of related decisions, which we recorded in a set of build doctrines or modeling rules to insure consistency from model to model and allow others to check our work. After finishing the ram for socket #4, we then moved to socket #6, then to #8 and so forth through #11, #13, #18, and #22. As I prepare this draft (January 2013), the work on the rams is still in progress. I present our current versions of rams #4, #6, #8 and #13 in Figure 7, while Figure 8 presents ram #4 alongside the Athlit weapon for comparative purposes. Although too many uncertain details still remain for me to consider these second- 10 Exceptions had to be made with some of the sockets, like #22, whose core blocks were trimmed back so far that the resulting angle from the back exterior of the socket to the core resulted in an obviously deformed ram. In these cases, we chose to leave gaps between the interior surfaces of our model and the core blocks of the socket. Presumably, these gaps would have been filled by wood left inside the weapon, perhaps because hardened pitch had made the timbers more difficult to remove from the ram s interior than simply cutting back the core blocks.
9 9 generation models finished, I am now much more satisfied with their general appearance and faithfulness to their socket s nuances. 11 Warship bows from warship rams. The next logical step involves proceeding from the rams to the ships that originally carried them. Of course we cannot expect to reconstruct the entire ship from just the ram, nevertheless we can design on computer a generalized bow structure to fit inside our 3D ram models. This is because the sockets uncarved cores preserve in outline the timbers that were originally inside each weapon. For guidance, we can follow the similarly shaped Athlit ram, whose bow timbers enabled J. R. Steffy to theorize a design (see Figure 9). 12 We might also build on John Coates s design of the trireme replica Olympias, as shown in Figure 10. We can gain a general sense of the ship classes represented by our models by considering their relative sizes on the Nikopolis monument, which displays a selection of rams from a fleet known to include ship classes from ones to tens. According to Strabo 7.7.6, after the war s conclusion, Augustus dedicated a dekanaian akrothinion or ten ship dedication resulting from his first pick of the spoils taken from the enemy. He placed the 10 ships in a naval yard across the straights from Nikopolis on Cape Actium and included in his selection a warship from each of the different classes that fought in Antony s fleet, from a one to a ten. Because we thus know the limits of the classes available to Augustus for his Victory Monument, and because the Nikopolis monument preserves physical evidence from a range of different warship sizes, 11 We must still refine the precise sizes and shapes of the different ramming heads, for example. 12 When the ram was found, 16 different timbers were preserved inside its hollow casting. For Steffy s description of the preserved timbers and design of the bow just behind the preserved sections of the ram, see Casson and Steffy 1991, 6-39.
10 10 something you can actually see when you compare the sockets side by side, I have argued elsewhere that we have here the bow dimensions of fives, sixes, sevens, eights, nines, and tens. 13 Using the rams created from these sockets, we can now recreate the bows for this range of sizes, at least on computer. When this has been done successfully, our inquiry will be able to follow yet another path. Finite Element Analysis (FEA), RAM 3D, and Ram Studies. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) involves stressing a computer model of a material or design that is then analyzed for specific results. In this way, modern designers can test their designs before they are mass produced. Once we have created our warship bow models, I propose that we employ FEA to help us carry out controlled crash tests. FEA would allow us to account for the properties of the bronze alloy making up the ram, the species and grain direction of the wooden timbers in the ship s bow structure, and the speed, direction and mass of the object colliding with it on a surface of water. Although the calculations will certainly be complicated, there currently exists commercial software for FEA that should allow mechanical engineers to model the various elements necessary to simulate different kinds of battle collisions. Because of the complexities involved, replicating these battle scenarios must be a joint effort, involving naval architects, wood scientists, mechanical engineers and naval historians. In order to explain our project and its goals to potential experts who might help us conduct this research, I am building a web site called RAM 3D (http://aist.usf.edu/ram3d). I hope 13 See further Murray and Petsas 1989, and The full evidence has yet to be digested. Three partially preserved sockets recently uncovered at the eastern end of the wall (sockets X, Ψ, and Ω) as well as some socket blocks recovered from the hillside suggest that even more sizes may eventually be identified. For an illustration showing these size differences, see Murray 2007, II: 334, Fig. 3 and 2012, 41, Fig. 2.6.
11 11 that the site will also prove useful as a focal point for the exchange of data between scholars engaged in the study of warship rams. To this end, I intend to include 3D models of our Actian rams plus a full description of the methodology used to create them. I will also include 3D models of authentic rams, 3D models of large sculpted rams from ancient monuments (like the triumphal arch at Orange mentioned in the Introduction), and photographs of ancient warship representations (painted, modeled, sculpted, and inscribed). Rams (emboloi) as a class of artifact are becoming more plentiful with each year that passes. Since 2005, 10 new warship rams have been found off Sicily s western coast by the RPM Nautical Foundation and Sicily s Soprintendenza del Mare. These new rams have been found on the seafloor beneath the site of an ancient naval battle fought between Rome and Carthage in 241 BC. The battle, traditionally called the Battle of the Aegates Islands, concluded the First Punic War and marked Rome s emergence as a dominant naval power in the western Mediterranean. 14 In brief, what happened was this: Carthage had dispatched a fleet to bring supplies to a besieged force on Mount Eryx (modern Erice) near ancient Drepanum (Trapani), and when this fleet approached the Aegates (Egadi) Islands, the Roman fleet successfully blocked its passage. The ships from Carthage were heavily loaded, the sea was rough, and the results are seen in the scatter of amphoras, helmets and warship rams still lying on the sea floor. Although recorded as an overwhelming Roman victory, evidence from the battle zone makes it clear that both sides lost ships, while the damaged rams and scattered helmets inform us that the ramming attacks were violent and deadly See Polyb and Diod for the best battle accounts. 15 See Tusa and Royal 2012 for a preliminary report of the battle landscape that has been found.
12 12 Many areas remain unsearched. Rams are everywhere, so the odds are good that more will be found in the years to come. Thus far, all the new rams are relatively small, that is, significantly smaller than the Athlit ram, which I have classed elsewhere as coming from a Ptolemaic four or tetrērēs. 16 Since Polybius implies that fives or pentēreis made up a large proportion of the Roman fleet during the First Punic War, I remain hopeful that one or more of the larger rams will eventually be found. 17 Whether this occurs or not, we still have a growing body of artifactual evidence that should reveal much about the physical workings of ancient warship bows at precisely the place where the ship delivered and absorbed the forces of the ramming collisions. When you add to the Egadi rams the four rams recovered elsewhere (the Acqualadroni, Bremerhaven, Piraeus and Athlit rams) and our models from Actium, we now possess an impressive range of weapons for testing in different battle scenarios. 18 My hope is that such testing will teach us about the physical reality of ancient naval warfare during the Hellenistic and Roman periods. I also hope that our involvement of engineers and other scientists will produce new ways of looking at the evidence and mirror in a small way what happened with the 16 For the Egadi rams, see Tusa and Royal 2012, 39-42; for the classification of the Athlit ram as a four, see Murray 2012, See Polyb ; in like manner, when Polybius sums up the devastating losses during the First Punic War ( ), his fleet and casualty totals include only pentēreis or fives. 18 A brief discussion of authentic waterline rams known up to June 2011 (with references) can be found in Murray 2012, 48-52; more information can be found in Tusa & Royal 2012, (for the Egadi 1-7 rams), and in Buccellato & Tusa, forthcoming (for the Acqualadroni ram).
13 13 construction and testing of the trireme replica Olympias. By this, I mean the fertile interaction between humanists and scientists reflected so clearly in that project s various reports. 19 Conclusion. I suspected years ago when I first saw the sockets at Augustus Victory Monument that this site was important for the study of ancient warships. Still, I had no way of knowing just how important it would become until we produced our 3D models and began to reconstruct the rams that were originally displayed here. Thanks to 3D visualization techniques and other kinds of computer analysis, we are now poised to learn much more. When I first came to Nikopolis in 1978, the Victory Monument lay open and unprotected. It remained that way until the 1990s when Drs. Zachos and Douzougli, along with their colleagues many of you who are here today began a systematic program of study at and around Nikopolis. Now, the Victory Monument is protected within a fence, the thorns that once choked its blocks have been replaced by grass, and the site is properly conserved and managed by responsible officials. The monument has been excavated, the finds subjected to careful analysis, the preliminary results have been published in a separate monograph, and a fuller publication is in preparation. 20 The fact that we are here today to discuss this important site and share with one another our results is a direct result of the life s work of Konstantinos Zachos and Angelika Douzougli. I am grateful to them 19 For a listing of the various reports and papers, see Rankov 2012, 1 and 9. A few chapter titles from this volume, which represents the project s Final Report, demonstrate the kinds of research that embody this multidisciplinary interaction: Human Mechanical Power Sustainable in Rowing Ships for Long Periods of Time (161-64); Paleo-bioenergetics: clues to the maximum sustainable speed of a trireme under oar (165-68); Trireme Life Span and Leakage: a wood technologist s perspective ( ); and Collision Damage in Triremes (214-24). 20 See Zachos 2001 (in Greek) and Zachos 2003 for an English translation.
14 14 both for allowing me to join their efforts and I hope that my remarks in some small way honor their considerable accomplishments.
15 15 Bibliography Amy, R. et al L Arc d Orange. Gallia, 15 th Supplement. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Buccellato, Cecilia and Sebastaino Tusa. Forthcoming. The Acqualadroni Ram Recovered Near the Strait of Messina, Sicily: dimensions, timbers, iconography and historical context, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. Casson, Lionel and J. Richard Steffy, eds The Athlit Ram. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. Murray, William M Recovering Rams from the Battle of Actium. Experimental Archaeology at Nicopolis. In Nicopolis B. Proceedings of the Second International Nicopolis Symposium (11-15 September 2002), edited by Konstantinos Zachos, I: , II: Preveza: Actia Nicopolis Foundation The Age of Titans: The Rise and Fall of the Great Hellenistic Navies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Murray, William M. and Photios M. Petsas Octavian s Campsite Memorial for the Actian War. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 79,4: i-xi, Rankov, Boris, ed The Trireme Olympias The Final Report. Sea Trials Conference Papers Oxford and Oakville: Oxbow Books. Tusa, Sebastiano and Jeffrey Royal The landscape of the naval battle at the Egadi Islands (241 B.C.). Journal of Roman Archaeology 25:7-48.
16 16 Zachos, Konstantinos L Το Μνημείο του Οκταβιανού Αυγούστου στη Νικόπολη. Το Τρόπαιο της Ναυμαχίας του Ακτίου. Athens: Ministry of Culture The tropaeum of the sea-battle of Actium at Nikopolis: interim report. Journal of Roman Archaeology 16:64-92.
17 17 List of Figures: Figure 1: Comparison of 3D models for socket #4 from 2002 and Figure 2: Athlit ram and virtual Athlit ram (side view). Figure 3: Ram #4 as modeled in 2003 (= Murray 2007, Fig. 17). Figure 4: Socket #4 before and after straightening. Figure 5: Superimposed ram models for socket #4; light gray = ram model before socket straightening; dark gray = ram model after socket straightening. Figure 6: Cross section of Actian ram #6 in its socket (cross section at surface of 1 st course). Figure 7: Actian rams #4, #6, #8, and #13 in their sockets (at roughly the same scale). Figure 8: Models of Actian ram #4 with Athlit ram for comparison (rams at the same scale). Figure 9: Athlit ram mounted on the bow of its ship (after a drawing by J. R. Steffy). Figure 10: Forward part of Olympias (drawing John Coates, by courtesy of the Trireme Trust).
18 18 Augustus s Victory Monument, 3D Modeling, and New Directions for Warship Research William M. Murray FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2
Μοναδική εορταστική προσφορά! Η Louis Cruises και το γραφείο μας ως αντιπρόσωπος Βορείου Ελλάδος, με υπερηφάνεια παρουσιάζουν την Celestyal Cruises με μια μοναδική εορταστική προσφορά: Για όλες τις κρατήσεις
Ancient Ships of the Mediterranean By: Brian Frantz Teacher: Mrs. ---- -------- Date Completed: February 5, 2001 Class: English Introduction There have been great discoveries of ancient artifacts in the
Drawing Accurate Ground Plans from Laser Scan Data Kevin Cain Institute for the Study and Integration of Graphical Heritage Techniques (INSIGHT) Abstract. In addition to the kinds of standard documentation
Bryn Critz Schockmel Boston University History of Art and Architecture Field Report: Caere Project 2015 This summer I had the pleasure of participating in the Caere Project, led by Professor Fabio Colivicchi
SCANNING, PROCESSING AND MODELLING OF OGHAM STONES By Gary Devlin & Rob Shaw (THE DISCOVERY PROGRAMME) January 2013 The Discovery Programme began working in collaboration with Dublin Institute for Advanced
Oil Analysis Services for the European Markets by Pro-Action and Valuation & Research Specialists (VRS) June 2012 Pro-Action www.proaction.gr Value Invest www.valueinvest.gr Investment Research & Analysis
Ancient Greek Arts and Architecture Ancient Greek Architecture The earliest buildings built in Greece in the New Stone Age are small houses or huts with wooden walls around them for protection. Later bigger
Build the ultimate model of Britain s most famous warship Week by week, build an authentic replica of Lord Nelson s famous flagship HMS Victory Overall dimensions Length: 1250mm (49¼ ) Height: 850mm (33½
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS REPORT 40 ISSN 0379-0827 PART TIME FARMING IN CYPRUS A. Antoniades and Chr. Papayiannis AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
NASA s World Wind Planetary Visualisation software identifies proposed site of ancient Ithaca Homer s description of ancient Ithaca now believed to be accurate Former island was furthest to the west all
Martin Kraus Text can add a significant amount of detail and value to an information visualization. In particular, it can integrate more of the data that a visualization is based on, and it can also integrate
The Story of a Reader Chair Michal Polák About the author Michal Polák lives in the Czech Republic, in the town of Újezd u Brna, South Moravia. He graduated in 2001 from the advertising and graphics program
3D SCANNING: A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS MODEL DEVELOPMENT IN ADVANCED MANUFACTURING SYSTEM Dr. Trikal Shivshankar 1, Patil Chinmay 2, Patokar Pradeep 3 Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, SSGM Engineering
Two-Year Post-Professional Degree (Path A) MASTERS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN & URBANISM (MADU) With a Concentration in Classical Architecture ARCH 61011 Introduction to Architectural Representation 0 TOTAL
Chapter 4: The Concept of Area Defining Area The area of a shape or object can be defined in everyday words as the amount of stuff needed to cover the shape. Common uses of the concept of area are finding
Latest News March 2009 NEW RIEGL VZ-400 Laser Scanners The following document details some of the excellent results acquired with the new RIEGL VZ-400 scanners, including: Time-optimised fine-scans The
Consolidated Visualization of Enormous 3D Scan Point Clouds with Scanopy Claus SCHEIBLAUER 1 / Michael PREGESBAUER 2 1 Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
Chapter 4 Crime Scene Sketch The crime scene sketch is an invaluable aid in recording investigative data. It is a permanent record that provides supplemental information that is not easily accomplished
Non-Stop Optical Illusions A Teacher s Guide to the Empire State Plaza Art Collection New York State Office of General Services Curatorial/Tour Services 29 th Floor, Corning Tower Albany, NY 12242 518.473.7521
Emergency Safeguarding of the World Heritage Site of Byblos Emergency Safeguarding of the World Heritage Site of Byblos Introduction Located on the Eastern Mediterranean, 40 km north of Beirut (Lebanon),
Name Date Mastering the Content Circle the letter next to the best answer. Assessment: From Republic to Empire 1. Which of the following did Rome do during the first period of expansion, before 264 B.C.E.?
Development of new hybrid geoid model for Japan, GSIGEO2011 11 Development of new hybrid geoid model for Japan, GSIGEO2011 Basara MIYAHARA, Tokuro KODAMA, Yuki KUROISHI (Published online: 26 December 2014)
DEVELOPING AND OPERATIONALISING STRATEGIC PRIORITIES FOR A LOW-COST ZERO WASTE MUNICIPALITY Karagiannidis A. 1, Karkanias C. 1, Samaras P. 2 1 Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering,
egaming in Cyprus Legal Framework & Recent Developments Outline of Issues 1. Introduction 2. Historical Overview of Cyprus Legislation (or the Lack thereof): Lotteries, Machines, Games of Chance, Taxation
the solution for lidar data managing www.geomaticscube.com geomaticscube by VIRTUALGEO Copyright S&F / La Venta GeomaticsCUBE is the research and development department of Virtualgeo. Virtualgeo was established
TECHNICAL BULLETIN 194 ISSN 0070-2315 GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN PRODUCTION TRAITS OF SHEEP A.P. Mavrogenis, Chr. Papachristoforou and I. Papastylianou AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE MINISTRY
Master s Thesis: ANAMELECHI, FALASY EBERE Analysis of a Raster DEM Creation for a Farm Management Information System based on GNSS and Total Station Coordinates Duration of the Thesis: 6 Months Completion
2 Tectonic processes In this chapter you will study: how the Earth s crust is broken into different types of tectonic s what type of tectonic activity occurs at the boundaries what can happen during earthquakes
A Quantapoint White Paper ABSTRACT Specifying Laser Scanning Services to Help Ensure Trusted and Accurate Results As-built documentation created using laser scanning is rapidly being adopted as the tool
3D Modeling of Monuments: Recent Work of the IU Virtual World Heritage Laboratory ` Bernard Frischer Virtual World Heritage Laboratory, Indiana University April 16, 2015 AGENDA Mission of the VWHL Most
University of Crete School of Sciences and Engineering Computer Science department An Information theoretic view of Game theory Fasoulakis Michail Master s Thesis Heraklion, March 2011 1 2 University of
University of Brescia - ITALY DAMAGED ROAD TUNNEL LASER SCANNER SURVEY Prof. Giorgio Vassena firstname.lastname@example.org WORKFLOW - Demand analysis - Instruments choice - On field operations planning - Laser
Settlement of Precast Culverts Under High Fills; The Influence of Construction Sequence and Structural Effects of Longitudinal Strains Doug Jenkins 1, Chris Lawson 2 1 Interactive Design Services, 2 Reinforced
CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF THE WOODEN ARENA FLOORING OF THE COLOSSEUM IN ROME H.J. BESTE German Archaeological Institute Following a generous offer made by Rome s Archeological Superintendence,
Pipeline Technology Conference 2013 Pipeline External Corrosion Analysis Using a 3D Laser Scanner Pierre-Hugues ALLARD, Charles MONY Creaform, www.creaform3d.com 5825 rue St-Georges, Lévis (QC), Canada,
An Information System to Analize Cultural Heritage Information J.C. Torres 1, L. López 1, C. Romo 1, and F. Soler 1 Virtual Reality Laboratory. University of Granada, Spain email@example.com, WWW home page:
NCTM Annual Conference Boston Convention & Exhibition Center April 18, 2015 Room 205B 8:00 am 9:00 am Putting the M Back in STEM: The Mathematics of Bridging Design in STEM Lesley University Cambridge,
Architecture and landscape in all their subtle detail must work together in harmony to achieve the goal of creating Promontory to be nothing short of a work of art. An authentic mountain ranch character,
HIGH AND LOW RESOLUTION TEXTURED MODELS OF COMPLEX ARCHITECTURAL SURFACES E. K. Stathopoulou a, A. Valanis a, J. L. Lerma b, A. Georgopoulos a a Laboratory of Photogrammetry, National Technical University
Fact Sheet 01 Central Police Station Revitalisation Project Restoration of the Historic Buildings The Principles An artist s impression of the revitalised Central Police Station compound The Central Police
Σάββας Τοκµακίδης, Καθηγητής Τµήµα Επιστήµης Φυσικής Αγωγής και Αθλητισµού ηµοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήµιο Θράκης Validity of Self-Reported Anthropometric Values Used to Assess Body Mass Index and Estimate Obesity
The People s Art Collection The Battle of Lake Erie Perry s Victory The, in partnership with the Ohio Arts Council and the Capitol Square Review and Advisory Board, has developed a set of teacher resources
Απομακρύνοντας τα εμπορικά οχήματα από το κέντρο της πόλης της Θεσσαλονίκης Ευστάθιος Μπουχουράς 1, Σωκράτης Μπάσμπας 2 1,2 Τομέας Συγκοινωνιακών & Υδραυλικών Έργων, Τμήμα Αγρονόμων & Τοπογράφων Μηχανικών,
11.3 Plate Boundaries In this section, you will learn how movement at the boundaries of lithospheric plates affects Earth s surface. Moving plates Three types of boundaries Imagine a single plate, moving
One and Two Perspective: Exterior & Interior Design NAME: Linear Perspective is a system of drawing in which the artist attempts to create the illusion of spatial depth on a twodimensional surface. Two
Anamorphic Projection Photographic Techniques for setting up 3D Chalk Paintings By Wayne and Cheryl Renshaw. Although it is centuries old, the art of street painting has been going through a resurgence.
Leading the Evolution WHITE PAPER BUSINESS RULES AND GAP ANALYSIS Discovery and management of business rules avoids business disruptions WHITE PAPER BUSINESS RULES AND GAP ANALYSIS Business Situation More
3D MODELING OF LARGE AND COMPLEX SITE USING MULTI-SENSOR INTEGRATION AND MULTI-RESOLUTION DATA G. Guidi 1, F. Remondino 2, 3, M. Russo 1, F. Menna 4, A. Rizzi 3 1 Dept.INDACO, Politecnico of Milano, Italy
CABIN A Restored & Preserved 1850 Slave Cabin Cabin A has been restored and preserved to reflect its original 1850 construction and utilization as a slave cabin. This cabin had the most intact architectural
Improved Three-dimensional Image Processing Technology for Remote Handling Auxiliary System Chiaki Tomizuka Keisuke Jinza Hiroshi Takahashi 1. Introduction Remote handling devices are used in the radioactive
Sensor Networks and Software Platform Development for Seamless Traffic Monitoring A. Marousis, T. Economopoulos, A. Panagopoulos School of Electrical and Computer Engineering National Technical University
MATHEMATICS: THE LEVEL DESCRIPTIONS In mathematics, there are four attainment targets: using and applying mathematics; number and algebra; shape, space and measures, and handling data. Attainment target
An Archaeological Settlement Analysis of Goshono Site TAKADA Kazunori YAMADA Masahisa 1. The Planar Distribution of Remains Goshono is a late-middle Jomon settlement site in Iwate Prefecture, Ninohe County,
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS REPORT 42 ISSN 0379-0827 MARKETING OF FRUITS AND CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN CYPRUS M. Markou AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE, NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Works on the Geographical Information System (GIS) in the Ancient Town Kelenderis in Turkey S. Savaş DURDURAN, Ali ERDI, Levent ZOROĞLU, Mehmet TEKOCAK, Turkey Key words: GIS, Archeology, Mapping, Ancient
Application of the Golden Ratio to 3D Facial Models Rachel McDonnell University of Dublin Trinity College Dublin 2 IRELAND Rachel.Mcdonnell@cs.tcd.ie Ann McNamara University of Dublin Trinity College Dublin
Remarks as delivered by Admiral Mike Mullen Western Pacific Naval Symposium Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 31 October 2006 It is nice to be back in Hawaii and very special. One of the ships that I had the fortune
Chapter 2: House Design Tutorial This House Design Tutorial shows you how to get started on a design project. The tutorials that follow continue with the same plan. When we are finished, we will have created
Seven Wonders of the World: Simply the Best: Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6-8 Curriculum Focus: Ancient History Lesson Duration: Three class periods Program Description Discover the ancient "Seven Wonders
Labraunda 2012. Preliminary report The excavations at Labraunda this year were very successful and lasted for eight weeks. Our main new discovery is obviously the gold coin from Philip II discovered in
Multiphysics Software Applications in Reverse Engineering *W. Wang 1, K. Genc 2 1 University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA 2 Simpleware, Exeter, United Kingdom *Corresponding author: University
CHAPTER 4 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?
A HYBRID APPROACH FOR AUTOMATED AREA AGGREGATION Zeshen Wang ESRI 380 NewYork Street Redlands CA 92373 Zwang@esri.com ABSTRACT Automated area aggregation, which is widely needed for mapping both natural
1 Most basements show some signs of leaking and cracking. Through the years, problems with water, poor soils, grading, drainage and possible settling affect the integrity of a basement. Being able to recognize
DOCUMENTATION OF CORPUS CHRISTI CHAPEL IN KUTNA HORA BY LASER SCANNING TECHNOLOGY Martina FALTYNOVA* *Department of Mapping and Cartography Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Civil Engineering
Jürgen Liebsch WALDNER Labor EN 14175 Requirements for Fume Cupboards DIN 12924 EN 14175 The contents of the DIN 12924 part 1 standard is divided into 5 parts in the EN 14175 standard: 14175-1 Terms and
Automotive Applications of 3D Laser Scanning Kyle Johnston, Ph.D., Metron Systems, Inc. 34935 SE Douglas Street, Suite 110, Snoqualmie, WA 98065 425-396-5577, www.metronsys.com 2002 Metron Systems, Inc
- Get hands-on instruction and practice installing and configuring, including R2, in this five-day Microsoft Official Course. This course is part one in a series of three courses that provides the skills
0 High Resolution RF Analysis: The Benefits of Lidar Terrain & Clutter Datasets January 15, 2014 Martin Rais 1 High Resolution Terrain & Clutter Datasets: Why Lidar? There are myriad methods, techniques
FORENSIC SCIENCE INTRODUCTION ACTIVITY #12 NAME DATE HR CRIME SCENE EVALUATION LAB Objective You will draw rough and final sketches of a crime scene. Introduction Once the photographer has completed his
MA IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH (TAUGHT IN BULGARIAN) Brief presentation of the program: The program is research and offers training in the latest methods and theoretical achievements of modern Archeology.
Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices The following represents a systematic investigation for the steps used to solve two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns. The motivation for considering
1 Chapter 8 The Rise of Ancient Rome Section 1 The Roman Republic Section 2 The Roman Empire Notebook Number Mr. Graver Old World Cultures Name Period 2 Just when you thought an Empire couldn t get any
NEW SCIENCE FIRE SAFETY ARTICLE INNOVATING FIRE ATTACK TACTICS SUMMER 2013 UL.COM/NEWSCIENCE NEW SCIENCE FIRE SAFETY OVERVIEW UL s dedicated team of scientists, engineers and researchers is creating New
able abstract acrylic activity aesthetic/aesthetics analyze ancient animation applied arch arches architect architectural architecture art art process artist artistic artists arts artwork artworks assemble
Building Blocks Artist Driven Procedural Buildings James Golding - Epic Games Who Am I Started as Field Engineer at MathEngine Oxford, UK 1999-2003 Senior Programmer at Epic Games Raleigh, NC, USA Worked
Landforms Lesson 2 Fifth-Sixth Grade Models in earth science provide opportunities to investigate and obtain evidence on which to base scientific explanations. Continue establishing working word wall throughout