Advanced Excel for Institutional Researchers

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1 Advanced Excel for Institutional Researchers Presented by: Sandra Archer Helen Fu University Analysis and Planning Support University of Central Florida September 22-25, 2012

2 Agenda Sunday, September 23, :00 am - 2:00 pm 9:00am Load data & get started! 12: 00pm 12:30pm Lunch (if you return early, you can practice some of the things you have learned) 2:00pm end of workshop Download data from Under recent presentations Excel workshop Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 2

3 Overview Analysis ToolPak (9:00-9:45) Formula auditing (9:45 10:00) Advanced formula writing (10:00 12:00) Lunch (12:00 12:30) Excel goal-seek and solver (12:30 12:40) A few fun tips and shortcuts (12:40 12:50) PivotTables (1:00 2:00) Goal: Be able to list 5 things you learned today Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 3

4 Excel Add-Ins File Options Add-Ins Manage: Excel Add-Ins, Click go Analysis TookPak Solver Add-In Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 4

5 Analysis ToolPak Contents Data Analysis Data Analysis ANOVA Correlation & Covariance Descriptive Statistics Exponential Smoothing F-Test Fourier Analysis Histogram Moving Average Random Numbers Rank and Percentile Regression Sampling t-test z-test Refer to the handout for a brief description of each. Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 5

6 Analysis TookPak Features Output type varies Sometimes formulas results will update with data updates Sometimes values results are static Common options: Input Range: Data to analyze Grouped By: Rows or columns Labels In First Row: Yes or no Chart Output: Chart output as well as results Output Range: Cell address of where the results will start New Worksheet Ply: Place results in a new worksheet New Workbook: Place the results in a new workbook Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 6

7 Descriptive Statistics Example: Find descriptive statistics for Age Output Age Mean Standard Error Median 21 Mode 19 Standard Deviation Sample Variance Kurtosis Skewness Range 62 Minimum 17 Maximum 79 Sum Count 7886 Largest(1) 79 Smallest(1) 17 Confidence Level(95.0%) Try: Find descriptive statistics for GPA Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 7

8 Histogram Example: Build a histogram from Age Output Customize the bins Bin Frequency Cumulative % % % % % % % More % Histogram Frequency More Bin % % 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% Try: Build a histogram from GPA for Males or Females Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 8

9 Statistical Tests: F-Test & t-test Is GPA significantly different for Males or Females? Ho= Variance equal Ha = Variances different F-Test Two-Sample for Variances F M Mean Variance Observations df F P(F<=f) one-tail 1.56E-08 F Critical one-tail Ho= Means equal Ha = Mean different t-test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Varia F M Mean Variance Observations Hypothesized Mean 0 df 4913 t Stat P(T<=t) one-tail E-31 t Critical one-tail P(T<=t) two-tail E-31 t Critical two-tail

10 Formula Auditing Formulas Formula Auditing Evaluate formula Show formulas Trace precedents or decedents Show watch window Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 10

11 Advanced Formula Writing Click on the function key To launch the Insert Function wizard Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 11

12 Useful Functions String functions right, left, mid, search, find, len, trim, text, concatenate Conditional operators if, and, or, not, true, false sumif, sumifs, countif Lookup and reference functions vlookup, hlookup, index, offset, indirect Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 12

13 Array Formulas Some functions expect arrays Others, you have to let Excel know you are entering arrays Do this by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER to enter brackets around the formula Depending on the use, Excel will return one value, or many: Single result - simplify a worksheet model by replacing several formulas with a single array formula Multiple result - required by some functions Recommended to lock the cells For evaluating conditions zero = False, positive value = True Array "A" Array "B" A*B 1 * 0 = 0 0 * 1 = 0 1 * 1 = 1 1 * 1 = 1 0 * 0 = 0 1 * 1 = 1 Array "A" Array "B" A+B = = = = = = 2 Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 13

14 Goal Seek Goal seek Excel determines the value for a selected cell that will produce a desired result in another cell Data Data Tools What-If Analysis Goal Seek Excel will find the value of cell C4 so that the value in cell C11 is equal to 1200 Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 14

15 Excel Solver Data Analysis Solver More advanced than Goal Seek Excel will determine the value of up to 200 cells that will satisfy multiple criteria First, formulate the problem Objective function (usually minimize or maximize) Decision variables (which variables Excel will determine) Constraints (constraints on your decision variables) Second, set up worksheet with formulas Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 15

16 Solver Example We want to host an Excel workshop with the continuing education program Offer three classes: Excel Basic ($120) must have at least 50 registrants Excel Intermediate ($180) must have at least 40 registrants Excel Advanced ($220) should have no more than 40 registrants We have a only 300 seats available What number of registrants in each Excel class will Decision variables maximize our revenue? Objective Constraints Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 16

17 Solver Example Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 17

18 Fun Tip: File Options Advanced Edit Custom Lists Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 18

19 PivotTables: Introduction Tool for summarizing large amounts of tabular data Similar to a cross-tabulation table General purpose: Quickly summarize data from a worksheet or from an external source (eg. Access DB) Calculate totals, averages, or counts based on any numeric fields in your table Advanced calculation options are also available Generate charts from your pivot tables Advantages: Interactive, Dynamic, Easy to update Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 19

20 PivotTables: Appropriate Data Data arranged in a list: Columns represent fields Rows represent a record of related data First row = column label Columns contain one type of data For example, text in one column and numeric values in a separate column Remove subtotals You CAN work with subtotals, but use caution De-normalized database extracts are great for pivoting! Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 20

21 PivotTables: Appropriate Data Incomplete records: First Last Gender Semester Major Credit Hours Sandra Archer F Fall 1999 Statistics 15 Fall 2005 Industrial Engineering 6 Hamilton Paws M Spring 2003 Philosophy 12 Summer 2005 Chemistry 12 First Last Gender Semester Major Credit Hours Sandra Archer F Fall 1999 Statistics 15 Sandra Archer F Fall 2005 Industrial Engineering 6 Hamilton Paws M Spring 2003 Philosophy 12 Hamilton Paws M Summer 2005 Chemistry 12 Spelled the same Common error alert: A string followed by a space Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 21

22 Appropriate Data Example Column label issues: YTD Expenses Student Credit Hours College Department Faculty Science Statistics Ima Faculty $4,000 $5,000 $6, Humanities History Hesa Prof $3,500 $4,500 $5, Humanities Art Salvador Dali $2,000 $3,000 $ College Department Faculty YTD Expense 2004 YTD Expense 2005 YTD Expense 2006 Student Credit Hours 2004 Student Credit Hours 2005 Student Credit Hours 2006 Science Statistics Ima Faculty $4,000 $5,000 $6, Humanities History Hesa Prof $3,500 $4,500 $5, Humanities Art Salvador Dali $2,000 $3, Zero or Blank? Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 22

23 PivotTables: Creating Understand your data Ask yourself what you want to know Remember the rules of where to place data fields: Row Fields: display data vertically, in rows Column Fields: display data horizontally, across columns Data Items: numerical data to be summarized Page Fields: display data as pages and allows you to filter to a single item Changing the layout takes only seconds, so don t worry about making it perfect the first time Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 23

24 Create a PivotTable 1. Select any cell in the data table, or select all the data and columns you want to include in the report. On the Insert tab, click PivotTable 2. Select the data Range you wish to include in your PivotTable $A$1:$H$24 (cells that contain your data) Sheet1!$A:$H (columns that contain data) MyData (a named range that contains data) External data source (e.g., MS Access table) 3. Select where you want your PivotTable to reside (the default is a new worksheet within this workbook) Common error alert: Make sure your entire range is selected! Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 24

25 PivotTables: Two Ways to Update Drag fields into the report areas in the field list box Or, drag fields into the blank PivotTable Click options -> options -> display -> Classic PivotTable layout (enables dragging of fields in the grid) Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 25

26 Anatomy of a PivotTable Page Fields Column Fields PivotTable Field List Row Fields Data Items Row and Column Totals Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 26

27 Anatomy of a PivotTable Field Settings (options vary by field type) Row Field Settings Data Item Field Settings Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 27

28 Anatomy of a PivotTable Click on a PivotTable to make the PivotTable Tools ribbon appear Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 28

29 PivotTables: Formatting Rename the fields in the gray boxes. Click the field name, retype, and then press ENTER. Format Numbers: Click a cell that contains numerical data, or the name of the field heading for that data. Click the Field Settings button on the PivotTable tools ribbon, and then click Number Format. In the Format Cells dialog box, click an option in the Category list. Click OK twice. You may use cell formatting buttons Hover at column or row beginning until you get a black arrow to select that column or row before applying the format Click on PivotTables Design ribbon and select a pre-set design Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 29

30 PivotTables: Change the Display Change sort order Click the field heading or any cell in the list that contains the data you want to sort. On the PivotTable Options Ribbon, use Descending or Ascending. Change how data is summarized Click a cell in the data area or the field heading for the data area. Click the Field Settings button on the PivotTable Options Ribbon. Summarize Values By tab to change sum to count, etc. Show Values As tab to change to a % of total calcuation Filter your data with a page field Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 30

31 PivotTables: Change the Data After changes are made to the information source, click the Refresh Data button If you have added columns or rows to your data source, make sure to update the data range Click on the PivotTable, click PivotTable Options Ribbon, Refresh button Note, if you insert rows into your current data range, the PivotTable will automatically update Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 31

32 Calculated Fields or Items Use calculated fields* or calculated items* to enter your own formulas based on the information in the data area in a PivotTable report. Calculated field: when using data from another field in your formula For example, compute student/faculty ratio when student count and faculty count are two separate fields Calculated item: when using data from one or more specific items within a field For example, compute % of students that are female when gender is one field * Use with caution. Make sure you are getting expected results (for example, does your total row sum the percentages or recalculate the percentages?) Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 32

33 PivotTables: Tips Blank Zero Double click on any data point to view the rows that comprise that value To keep file size small Right click on the PivotTable -> table options -> data tab -> uncheck save source data with file Make a PivotTable data source be a previous PivotTable (Excel 2010?) If you want to keep column widths unchanged: Right click on the PivotTable -> table options -> Layout & Format tab -> uncheck Auto fit column widths on update If you want the rows or columns of your pivot tables to remain unchanged, regardless of filter selection: Choose the data item in the field list drop down arrow -> field settings -> layout & print tab -> check show items with no data Turn off GETPIVOTDATA function PivotTable Options Ribbon -> Options -> Generate GetPivotData Warning IR professionals: Even if you delete the source data tab, all data records still reside within the PivotTable Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 33

34 Contact Information & Resources Sandra Archer Helen Fu University Analysis and Planning Support University of Central Florida Research Parkway Suite 215 Orlando, FL Some information in these slides is from the Microsoft Training Webpage: And the Excel Help section Copyright 2004 Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, Washington U.S.A. All rights reserved. Presented by: S.Archer & H.Fu, University of Central Florida 34

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