# Commonly Used Excel Formulas

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1 Microsoft Excel 2007 Advanced Formulas Windows XP Look Up Values in a List of Data: Commonly Used Excel Formulas Let's say you want to look up an employee's phone extension by using their badge number or the correct rate of a commission for a sales amount. You look up data to quickly and efficiently find specific data in a list and to automatically verify that you are using correct data. After you look up the data, you can perform calculations or display results with the values returned. There are several ways to look up values in a list of data and to display the results. There are two Lookup functions: VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP. When to use what: Use VLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a column to the left of the data you want to find. Use HLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a row across the top of a table of data, and you want to look down a specified number of rows. 1. VLOOKUP (Look up values vertically in a list. It searches for a value in the first column of a table array and returns a value in the same row from another column in the table array.) Syntax - VLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,col_index_num,range_lookup) Sample - =VLOOKUP(1,A2:C10,2,True) OR =VLOOKUP(1,A2:C10,2,False) Lookup_value (Required): The value to search in the first column of the table. Lookup_value can be a value or a reference. If lookup_value is smaller than the smallest value in the first column of table_array, VLOOKUP returns the #N/A error value. Table_array (Required): Two or more columns of data. Use a reference to a range or a range name. The values in the first column of table_array are the values searched by lookup_value. These values can be text, numbers, or logical values. Uppercase and lowercase texts are equivalent. You cannot have duplicate values in the leftmost column of the lookup range. Page 1 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

2 Col_index_num (Required): The column number in table_array from which the matching value must be returned. A col_index_num of 1 returns the value in the first column in table_array (in the same row); a col_index_num of 2 returns the value in the second column in table_array (in the same row), and so on. If col_index_num is: Less than 1, VLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value. Greater than the number of columns in table_array, VLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. Range_lookup (Optional): A logical value that specifies whether you want VLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match: If TRUE or omitted, an exact or approximate match is returned. If an exact match is not found, the next largest value that is less than lookup_value is returned. The values in the first column of table_array must be placed in ascending sort order; otherwise, VLOOKUP may not give the correct value. You can put the values in ascending order by choosing the Sort command from the Data menu and selecting Ascending. If FALSE, VLOOKUP will only find an exact match. In this case, the values in the first column of table_array do not need to be sorted. If there are two or more values in the first column of table_array that match the lookup_value, the first value found is used. If an exact match is not found, the error value #N/A is returned. Remarks When searching text values in the first column of table_array, ensure that the data in the first column of table_array does not have leading spaces, trailing spaces, inconsistent use of straight ( ' or " ) and curly ( or ) quotation marks, or nonprinting characters. In these cases, VLOOKUP may give an incorrect or unexpected value. When searching number or date values, ensure that the data in the first column of table_array is not stored as text values. In this case, VLOOKUP may give an incorrect or unexpected value. If range_lookup is FALSE and lookup_value is text, then you can use the wildcard characters, question mark (?) and asterisk (*), in lookup_value. A question mark matches any single character; an asterisk matches any sequence of characters. If you want to find an actual question mark or asterisk, type a tilde (~) preceding the character. See examples in worksheets VLOOKUPValue, VLOOKUPMatch, and VLOOKUPCalculate under the workbook named LookUps.xlsx. 2. HLOOKUP (Look up values horizontally in a list. ) Searches for a value in the top row of a table or an arrayof values, and then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify in the table or array. Page 2 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

3 Syntax Remarks HLOOKUP(lookup_value,table_array,row_index_num,range_lookup) Lookup_value (Required): The value to be found in the first row of the table. Lookup_value can be a value, a reference, or a text string. Table_array (Required): A table of information in which data is looked up. Use a reference to a range or a range name. The values in the first row of table_array can be text, numbers, or logical values. If range_lookup is TRUE, the values in the first row of table_array must be placed in ascending order:...-2, -1, 0, 1, 2,..., A-Z, FALSE, TRUE; otherwise, HLOOKUP may not give the correct value. If range_lookup is FALSE, table_array does not need to be sorted. Uppercase and lowercase texts are equivalent. Sort the values in ascending order, left to right. Row_index_num (Required): The row number in table_array from which the matching value will be returned. A row_index_num of 1 returns the first row value in table_array, a row_index_num of 2 returns the second row value in table_array, and so on. If row_index_num is less than 1, HLOOKUP returns the #VALUE! error value; if row_index_num is greater than the number of rows on table_array, HLOOKUP returns the #REF! error value. Range_lookup (Optional): A logical value that specifies whether you want HLOOKUP to find an exact match or an approximate match. If TRUE or omitted, an approximate match is returned. In other words, if an exact match is not found, the next largest value that is less than lookup_value is returned. If FALSE, HLOOKUP will find an exact match. If one is not found, the error value #N/A is returned. If HLOOKUP can't find lookup_value, and range_lookup is TRUE, it uses the largest value that is less than lookup_value. If lookup_value is smaller than the smallest value in the first row of table_array, HLOOKUP returns the #N/A error value. If range_lookup is FALSE and lookup_value is text, you can use the wildcard characters, question mark (?) and asterisk (*), in lookup_value. A question mark matches any single character; an asterisk matches any sequence of characters. If you want to find an actual question mark or asterisk, type a tilde (~) before the character. See examples under the worksheet named HLOOKUP. Page 3 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

4 Conditional Formulas: Examples in Conditional Formulas.xlsx workbook. 1. Create conditional formulas AND, OR, NOT, and IF functions can be used to create conditional formulas to test whether conditions are true or false and making logical comparisons between expressions. AND Function: Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE; returns FALSE if one or more argument is FALSE. Syntax AND(logical1,logical2,...) Logical1, logical2,... are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE. OR Function: Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE; returns FALSE if all arguments are FALSE. Syntax OR(logical1,logical2,...) Logical1,logical2,... are 1 to 30 conditions you want to test that can be either TRUE or FALSE. NOT Function: Reverses the value of its argument. Use NOT when you want to make sure a value is not equal to one particular value. Syntax NOT(logical) Logical is a value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE. Remark If logical is FALSE, NOT returns TRUE; if logical is TRUE, NOT returns FALSE. IF Function: Returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if it evaluates to FALSE. Use IF to conduct conditional tests on values and formulas. Syntax IF(logical_test,value_if_true,value_if_false) Formula with the IF function logical_test: The condition that you want to check. This argument can use any comparison calculation operator (=, >, <, =>, =<, <>). value_if_true: The value to return if the condition is true. Value_if_true can be another formula. value_if_false: The value to return if the condition is false. Value_if_false can be another formula. Page 4 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

5 When to use what Functions: a) Create a conditional formula that results in a logical value (TRUE or FALSE) To do this task, use the AND, OR, and NOT functions, and operators. b) Create a conditional formula that results in another calculation or in values other than TRUE or FALSE To do this task, use the IF, AND, and OR functions. See examples under the worksheet named Conditional. Note: Up to 64 IF functions can be nested as value_if_true and value_if_false arguments to construct more elaborate tests. See examples under the worksheet named NestedConditional. 1. Check if a number is greater than or less than another number Let's say you want to determine whether a salesperson sold more this year over last year so that you can calculate an appropriate bonus, or one warehouse contains more of an item than another warehouse in order to keep inventory levels balanced. You can simply use one of the comparison calculation operators (=, >, <, =>, =<, <>). To check if a number is greater than or less than another number, use the IF function. See examples under the worksheet named Compare#s. 2. Display or hide zero values a) Display or hide all zero values on a worksheet Click the Microsoft Office Button, click Excel Options, and then click the Advanced category. Under Display options for this worksheet, select a worksheet, and then do one of the following: o To display zero (0) values in cells, select the Show a zero in cells that have zero value check box. o To display zero values as blank cells, clear the Show a zero in cells that have zero value check box. See examples under the worksheet named ZeroValue1. b) Use a number format to hide zero values in selected cells Caution: Follow this procedure to hide zero values in selected cells. If the value in one of these cells changes to a nonzero value, the format of the value will be similar to the general number format. Select the cells that contain the zero (0) values that you want to hide. Page 5 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

6 On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click Format, and then click Format Cells. In the Category list, click Custom. In the Type box, type See examples under the worksheet named ZeroValue2. Notes: The hidden values appear only in the formula bar or in the cell if you edit within the cell and are not printed. To display hidden values again, select the cells, and then on the Home tab, in the Cells group, point to Format, and click Format Cells. In the Category list, click General to apply the default number format. c) Use a conditional format to hide zero values returned by a formula Select the cell that contains the zero (0) value. On the Home tab, in the Styles group, click the arrow next to Conditional Formatting, point to Highlight Cells Rules, and then click Equal To. In the box on the left, type 0. In the box on the right, select Custom Format. In the Format Cells dialog box, click the Font tab. In the Color box, select white. See examples under the worksheet named ZeroValue3. d) Use a formula to display zeros as blanks or dashes To do this task, use the IF function. See examples under the worksheet named ZeroValue4. e) Hide zero values in a PivotTable report Click the PivotTable report. On the Options tab, in the PivotTable Options group, click the arrow next to Options, and then click Options. Click the Layout & Format tab, then select the For empty cells, show check box. In the box, type the value that you want to display in empty cells. To display blank cells, delete any characters. See examples under the worksheet named PivotZeroValue and PivotTable. Page 6 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

7 MORE ON COUNT FUNCTION: COUNTIF The COUNTIF function counts the number of cells within a range that meet a single criterion that you specify. For example, you can find out how many times a particular text or a number value occurs. Syntax: =COUNTIF(range, criteria) Range: Required. One or more cells to count, including numbers or names, arrays, or references that contain numbers. Blank and text values are ignored. Criteria: Required. A number, expression, cell reference, or text string that defines which cells will be counted. For example, criteria can be expressed as 32, ">32", B4, "apples", or "32". See examples under the worksheet named Countif under COUNTIF.XLSX workbook. On the other hand, if you have more than one criterion you want to specify there are two ways to do: 1. COUNTIFS function can be used. Syntax: COUNTIFS(criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2] ) criteria_range1: Required. The first range in which to evaluate the associated criteria. criteria1: Required. The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text that define which cells will be counted. For example, criteria can be expressed as 32, ">32", B4, "apples", or "32". criteria_range2, criteria2,...: Optional. Additional ranges and their associated criteria. Up to 127 range/criteria pairs are allowed. Important! Each additional range must have the same number of rows and columns as the criteria_range1 argument. The ranges do not have to be adjacent to each other. 2. You can use combination of COUNT and IF functions as long as you enter the formula in Array format. Array formula is formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values, and then returns either a single result or multiple results. Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. After entering your formula in a cell, press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER. You will see your entire formula is enclosed between braces { }. If the formula is not entered as an array formula, the error #VALUE! is returned. For these formulas to work, the second argument to the IF function must be a number. Note: Use can use wildcard search with both COUNTIF and COUNTIFS function such as B* to search all the cells begin with B. However, you CANNOT use wildcard search in the combination of COUNT and IF functions. See examples under the worksheet named COUNTIFS under COUNTIF.XLSX workbook. Page 7 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

8 Financial Functions: Getting familiar with financial terms: Rate is the interest rate for the loan. Note: Divide the interest rate by 12 to get a monthly rate. Pv is the present value, or the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now; also known as the principal. Type is the number 0 (zero) or 1 and indicates when payments are due. 0 or omitted = at the end of the period; 1 = at the beginning of the period Nper is the total number of payments for the loan. Note: The number of years the money is paid out is multiplied by 12 to get the total number of payments. Fv is the future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made. If fv is omitted, it is assumed to be 0 (zero), that is, the future value of a loan is 0. PMT is the payment amount (usually monthly). Shows as negative for money you are paying out (such as loan amount, amount to a savings account or investment). See examples in Financial Functions.xlsx workbook. Syntax PMT(rate,nper,pv,fv,type) =PMT(A2/12, A3, A4) OR =PMT(A2/12, A3, A4, 0, 1) A2 (annual interest rate) A3 (number of months of payments) A4 (loan amount) 0 (future value of the loan such as 0 when you paid off) 1 (payment at the beginning of the period) =PMT(A2/12, A3*12, 0, A4) A2 (annual interest rate) A3 (number of months for monthly savings) 0 (present value, such as zero as of now) A4 (future value, such as amount to be saved in certain periods) Function Calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate. Example: PMT-Loan worksheet You can also use PMT to determine payments to annuities other than loans. Example: PMT-Annuity worksheet Note: For all the arguments, cash you pay out, such as deposits to savings, is represented by negative numbers; cash you receive, such as dividend checks, is represented by positive numbers. CUMIPMT(rate,nper,pv,start_period,end_period,type) Returns the cumulative interest paid on a loan =CUMIPMT(A2/12,A3*12,A4,13,24,0) between start period and end period. A2 (annual interest rate) A3 (years of the loan) Example: CUMIPMT worksheet A4 (present value) Note: You must enter either pmt type 0 or (start period, such as 13 th payment) 24 (end period, such as 24 th payment) 0 (payment at the end of the period) Page 8 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

9 FV(rate,nper,pmt,pv,type) =FV(A2/12, A3, A4, A5, A6) A2 (annual interest rate) A3 (number of payments) A4 (amount of monthly payment - negative) A5 (present value if omitted, assumed to be zero) A6 (payment due type such as beginning or at the end of the period) NPER(rate, pmt, pv, fv, type) =NPER(A2/12, A3, A4, A5, 1) A2 (annual interest rate) A3 (payment made each period - negative) A4 (present value or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth right now) A5 (future value or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made) 1 (payment is due at the beginning of the period) PV(rate,nper,pmt,fv,type) =PV(A3/12, 12*A4, A2,, 0) A3 (annual interest rate) A4 (years money will be paid out multiplied by 12 to get total number of monthly payment periods) A2 (constant payment made each period and cannot change over the life of the annuity/investment) blank (fv is omitted, it is assumed to be 0 such as the future value of a loan is 0). 0 (payment is due at the end of the period) Returns the future value of an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate. Example: FV worksheet Returns the number of periods for an investment based on periodic, constant payments and a constant interest rate. Example: NPER worksheet Returns the present value of an investment. The present value is the total amount that a series of future payments is worth now. For example, when you borrow money, the loan amount is the present value to the lender. Example: PV worksheet Goal Seek Goal Seek function lets you set a formula cell to achieve a desired result by changing the value of one of the variables in the equation. Goal Seek works only with one variable input value. Steps: Set up the formula as usual by using separate cells for each variable. On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click What-If Analysis, and then click Goal Seek. In the Set cell box, enter the reference for the cell that contains the formula that you want to resolve. In the To value box, type the formula result that you want. In the By changing cell box, enter the reference for the cell that contains the value that you want to adjust. Click OK. Note: The cell that Goal Seek changes must be referenced by the formula in the cell that you specified in the Set cell box. See example in GoalSeek worksheet under Financial Functions.xlsx. Page 9 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

11 4. In the Merge Scenarios dialog box, click the arrow next to Book and select a workbook that contains scenarios that you want to merge in your results. 5. In the Sheet box, click the name of the worksheet that contains scenarios that you want to merge. 6. Click OK to merge the scenarios from the selected worksheet into the current worksheet. 7. The Merge Scenarios dialog box closes, and the scenarios that you merged now appear in the Scenario Manager dialog box. 8. Repeat the preceding four steps as needed until you have merged all the scenarios that you want. 9. When you are finished, the scenarios that you merged are all part of the current worksheet. You can close the Scenario Manager Dialog box, or leave it open to continue your analysis. To create a Scenario Summary Report: 1. On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click What-If Analysis, and then click Scenario Manager. 2. Click Summary. 3. Click Scenario summary or Scenario PivotTable report. 4. In the Result cells box, enter the references for the cells that refer to cells whose values are changed by the scenarios. Separate multiple references with commas. Note: Scenario reports do not automatically recalculate. If you change the values of a scenario, those changes will not show up in an existing summary report, but will show up if you create a new summary report. You don't need result cells to generate a scenario summary report, but you do need them for a scenario PivotTable report. Page 11 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

12 Date and Time Functions: For examples, open Date & Time Functions.xlsx workbook. Syntax =NOW() =TODAY() =DAYS360(A4,B4) A4 (start date) B4 (end date) =WORKDAY(A4,B4,C4:E4) A4 (start date) B4 (days to complete work) C4:E4 (range of cells for holidays if any) =NETWORKDAYS(A4,B4,C4:E4) A4 (start date) B4 (end date) C4:E4 (range of cells for holidays if any) Function Returns the serial number of the current date and time Returns the serial number of today's date Calculates the number of dates between two dates based on a 360-day year (Twelve 30-days month) When to use: Use this function to help compute payments if your accounting system is based on twelve 30-day months. Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays (Working days excludes weekends and any dates identified as holidays) When to use: Use WORKDAY to exclude weekends or holidays when you calculate invoice due dates, expected delivery times, or the number of days of work performed. Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates (Working days excludes weekends and any dates identified as holidays) When to use: Use NETWORKDAYS to calculate employee benefits that accrue based on the number of days worked during a specific term. Calculating Dates & Times: You may compute future and past dates or count days by simply adding or subtracting numbers from current date. For example, see ComputeDates worksheet in Date & Time Functions.xlsx. Examples in Adding Days workbook further illustrates how to incorporate IF function to avoid Excel s default Date setting, 1/1/1900, if formulas get copied into other cells which are set to be calculated on empty cells. You may also compute elapsed time in minutes and seconds between two different time periods. In Date & Time Functions.xlsx workbook, Calculate Elapsed Time worksheet explains the formatting and a simple formula on how to calculate elapsed time. Formatting the column where you want to see the calculation by using "Custom" Category is utmost important in correctly showing the elapsed time in minutes and seconds only. Page 12 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

14 Custom Display on numbers: You can format factions or numbers that contain decimal points by including digit placeholders, decimal points, and thousand separators. 0 (zero) This digit placeholder displays insignificant zeros if a number has fewer digits than there are zeros in the format. For example, if you type 8.9, and you want it to be displayed as 8.90, use the format #.00. # This digit placeholder follows the same rules as the 0 (zero). However, Excel does not display extra zeros when the number that you type has fewer digits on either side of the decimal than there are # symbols in the format. For example, if the custom format is #.##, and you type 8.9 in the cell, the number 8.9 is displayed.? This digit placeholder follows the same rules as the 0 (zero). However, Excel adds a space for insignificant zeros on either side of the decimal point so that decimal points are aligned in the column. For example, the custom format 0.0? aligns the decimal points for the numbers 8.9 and in a column.. (period) This digit placeholder displays the decimal point in a number. If a number has more digits to the right of the decimal point than there are placeholders in the format, the number rounds to as many decimal places as there are placeholders (such as was displayed as with the code ####.#). If there are more digits to the left of the decimal point than there are placeholders, the extra digits are displayed (such as to display as with the code #.000). If the format contains only number signs (#) to the left of the decimal point, numbers less than 1 begin with a decimal point (such as to display.56 as.560 with the code #.000). To display As Use this code ####.# # # #.0# (with aligned decimals)???.??? /4 5 3/10 (with aligned fractions) #???/??? Or you can use Fraction category under custom format Page 14 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

15 Display a thousands separator: To display a comma as a thousands separator or to scale a number by a multiple of 1,000, include the following separator in the number format., (comma) Displays the thousands separator in a number. Excel separates thousands by commas if the format contains a comma that is enclosed by number signs (#) or by zeros. A comma that follows a digit placeholder scales the number by 1,000. For example, if the format is #.0,, and you type 12,200,000 in the cell, the number is displayed. To display As Use this code ,000 #,### #, ,, See examples in Math Functions.xlsx workbook under Custom worksheet. Page 15 of 15 MS Excel Advanced Formulas 9/7/2010:mms

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