Free radicals - Enemies of health, beauty and youth

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1 Free radicals - Enemies of health, beauty and youth Free radicals (FR) are natural molecules produced in the body following biochemical reactions related to the behaviour of singlet oxygen. The human body produces Free Radicals (FR) with each breath, and these highly reactive and unstable molecules bind to proteins, lipids, DNA, sugars, and destabilise them. These bonds, dangerous for the body, are created over and over again indefinitely on a daily basis, particularly when the body is subjected to stress, pollution, overactivity, is overtaxed physically or mentally, and they are responsible for aging and various disorders. To fight against free radicals, Holistica is introducing Physioxid, a 100% vegetal antioxidant

2 It is important to be aware that vanquishing Free Radicals is essential for maintaining a healthy and wellbalanced life. Degenerative disorders, vascular and dermatological problems and premature aging are some of the best known disorders related to free radicals. The harmfulness of these silent agents is emphasised under the effects of pollution, exposure to radiation, smoking, alcohol, stress, overindulgence in sports and unbalanced diets, and disturb the cells which, as from the age of 30, no longer react in the same tonic way.

3 Physiological impairments related to Aging During aging, the body begins to lose certain functions and abilities. This is a silent process which initially appears to be of no consequence because each organ or organ system has a reserve capacity and a cell defense capability whose vitality depends on the individual resistance and the nutritional dietary intake. Imperceptibly, however, as we age, although organ function continues to be maintained, the different cell functions are gradually weakened and slowed under the attack of these free radicals. In young adults, the cell resistance capacity may be 4 to 10 times what is required to maintain the function of the organ and to maintain life. But with age, this cell resistance capacity diminishes, the free radicals win out over the capacities for defense and the effects of aging then begin to be felt, such as:

4 Physiological impairments related to Aging 1. Reduction of cardiac and respiratory functions 2. Reduction of kidney functions; increased risks of dehydration and change in body masses such as a decrease in muscle mass and an increase in the mass of fat, reduced bone density and risks of fractures 3. Changes in the levels of hormones and their numerous consequences 4. Reduction in the capacities of defense of the immune system, increasing the risks of degenerative disorders 5. Reduction in liver functions and a parallel reduction in the enzymatic capacities themselves that are necessary for the defense mechanisms 6. Deterioration of the skin 7. Reduction or even loss of Vision 8. Reduction of the nutritional status related to the first signs of dementia

5 The importance of the diversity of antioxidants for good physiological protection A significant number of studies show that persons who have an intake rich in several antioxidants of dietary origin (from fruits, vegetables, etc.) have a better reduction of the different health risks than subjects who receive supplementation with one or more synthetic vitamins, isolated from their natural support. Vitamins supplied by natural sources are always combined with other valuable complementary antioxidants such as polyphenols (OPC, Catechins, Anthocyans, etc..). Actually, these very numerous polyphenols participate as cofactors and interact synergistically with vitamins to fight free radicals. According to whether they are lipophilic, hydrophilic or even amphiphilic, they make it possible to act against free radicals in different environments in the body.

6 Principal Antioxidants There are different types of antioxidants including principally those that are involved in 3 enzyme systems produced by our body: SOD (superoxide dismutase), catalase, GPO (glutathione peroxidase) requiring cofactors: vitamins and their precursors, trace elements, polyphenols, etc: Vitamin C, water-soluble, regenerates tocopherol (very useful in preventing cataracts) and has an antioxidant effect in the digestive tract preventing the oxidation of nitrates to nitrites and nitrosamides (carcinogenic agents). Fat-soluble vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol ) is the principal membrane antioxidant Fat-soluble vitamin A, or even better, its carotenoid precursors, are protectors of the cell nuclei and are involved in various systems, notably in the skin and eyes. Polyphenols including flavonoids, anthocyans, OPC, Catechins etc.. They have been the object of increasing investigations in the latest research Numerous trace elements are involved in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and are often recommended in micronutrition and oligotherapy: Zinc, Selenium, Copper, Magnesium participate in many antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase for example.

7 A Hydrophilic ANTI-OXYDANT: ACEROLA VITAMIN C > TWO CAPSULES OF PHYSIOXID COVER THE RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCES OF VITAMIN C > IT CONTRIBUTES TO THE ABSORPTION OF IRON > IT PARTICIPATES IN THE FORMATION OF SUPPORTING TISSUES > IT IS A BROAD-SPECTRUM ANTIOXIDANT IN COMBINATION WITH THE ASSOCIATED COFACTORS IN THE FRUIT > IT IS AN ENZYMATIC CATALYST This potent antioxidant is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions and acts especially in aqueous phases, notably in intercellular nonlipid fluids. Our diet should be the source of natural Vitamin C. However, it is often deficient and this deficiency is increased by life today where the requirements are made greater by stress, pollution, smoking, alcohol, etc. Our actual needs for Vitamin C range between 50 and 150 mg daily depending on the cases. Our body is unable to metabolise more. Certain recommendations for high dosages generally relate to dosages of artificial vitamins which are not comparable to natural vitamins because their bioavailability is lower. Moreover, high dosages of artificial vitamin C (ascorbic acid alone) can have adverse effects and in certain cases cause acidification in the body and intestinal dumping. Finally, a megadose of a very high potency vitamin given by itself will result in the utilisation of the body s reserves of enzymatic cofactor nutrients that can produce certain subdeficiencies of some minerals. This is why it is preferable to take vitamin C with the cofactors with which it is naturally combined in fruits. This form of Vitamin C provides a supply that is much closer to the real daily requirements.

8 Vitamin E in the decline of cognitive functions in elderly people. Review of the study by Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Wilson RS. Department of Preventive medicine, Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke's Medical Center, Chicago Archives of Neurology 2002 July 59(7): Memory fades gradually with age, a well known and not very welcome fact. According to the theory of free radicals and aging, the lesions caused by oxidative stress that has accumulated over decades can show much later by a reduction of the normal efficiency of cognitive functions or even by the onset of certain symptoms of degenerative mental diseases. The cerebrospinal axis is particularly sensitive to oxidative stress because the brain consumes large quantities of oxygen. At the same time, it has a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can be oxidised easily (hence the importance of nutrition). The relation between the consumption of antioxidants and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer s has already been put forward. An association has been suggested between the level of antioxidants absorbed and cognitive efficiency. Environment of the study: The information presented came from a study conducted in 2889 participants in the Chicago Health and Aging Project. The subjects were aged from 65 to 102 years. Using a large range of tests, their cognitive performances were evaluated at the beginning of the study and 3 years later. The results in this very large sample of the population showed that cognitive performances are better when the diet is rich in Vitamin E. Those who consumed the most Vitamin E had 36% fewer cognitive failures than those who consumed less. Along with the information already available, the results of this large epidemiological study confirm the importance of vitamin E in maintaining cognitive functions during aging. 100% of the daily requirements in Vitamin E can be supplied by nutritional supplementation. Natural Vitamin E has in addition a better bioavailability than synthetic E vitamins (through the stereoisomeric structure).

9 The grape polyphenols of the «French Paradox» If researchers are focusing so much on grape polyphenols or wine in relation to the French Paradox, it is because they are so numerous in quantity and variety. There are over 200 phenolic compounds in an extract of red grape, representing a quantity of about 1 g per litre when the extract is in the form of red wine, which is considerable, amounting to about 80 to 120 mg of polyphenols for a glass of wine of 100 ml, depending on the variety of grape. On the other hand, considering that regular alcohol consumption is not recommended for other reasons, the use of dehydrated grape extracts rapidly appeared to be a worthwhile alternative. Stabilised in a lipid phase where they are well preserved because of their amphiphilic tropism (soluble in water to make the extract, then soluble in lipids to stabilise them), grape extracts, a source of Polyphenols together with those from green tea of which there is also a great variety, make it possible to supply in capsule form the synergy of these polyphenols without exposing the liver to the damaging effects of alcohol. 2 capsules of PHYSIOXID supply approximately the quantity of polyphenols in a glass of wine but also 100% of the recommended daily allowances of 3 additional vitamins from fruits and plants

10 The diversity of grape Polyphenols: strength is unity When we observe the literature and the results, it appears very clearly that the importance of polyphenols is not due to the presence of a single compound, in large quantity, even if the latter is very great, but from the combination of a large variety of these complementary antioxidants. We see, with a supplementation of vitamin X for example, how a person who is improved by this supplementation in only one aspect will, on the other hand, continue to have certain other disorders of oxidative metabolism, that is to say, suffer from diseases related to a type of oxidation against which this vitamin alone is powerless to act, and the person will continue to have atherosclerosis, macular degeneration, etc., because these events depend on antioxidant defenses that necessitate other vitamins and other antioxidants. Therefore, just because a phenolic compound reveals very interesting properties in vitro, or even in animals, does not mean that we should endorse supplementation of a large quantity of this single molecule by itself. The total (holistic) approach to the complementary role of the different antioxidants and other nutrients as offered by the foods that they come from is indispensable because it is now validated scientifically. Therein lies the value of natural sources over synthetic molecules and which explains why Holistica always uses total extracts that concentrate all the nutrients from a plant or a fruit which has shown its value.

11 PHYSIOXID: Polyphenols combined with other nutrients that are factors for longevity Therefore, we can now be better protected through an array of polyphenolic compounds, the phenolic pool, provided by a balanced diet and now available by nutritional supplementation. Grapes, of course, supply a large quantity of these compounds, among the most protective of the 6 or 7,000 molecules that have now been identified. The importance of this distribution has been demonstrated by the benefits associated with diets such as that of Crete or of the Mediterranean, which constitute very balanced models. These are the countries where people live longest and have the fewest diseases, by including in their diet, among other foods, sources of polyphenols of the greatest possible variety. Other regions of the world where green tea is the major source of a great variety of polyphenols (some of which are similar to those of grapes while others are different) also have similar life expectancies and protection against health risks. PHYSIOXID combines these two major sources of polyphenols (grape and green tea), but also supplies other vegetable extracts rich in other essential protective nutrients linked to the food habits of these populations: natural Carotene as a source of various Carotenoids, vitamins, essential fatty acids, AGL, etc., which of course participate together in this total protection.

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