Dietary Fiber and Alcohol. Nana Gletsu Miller, PhD Spring 2014

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1 Dietary Fiber and Alcohol Nana Gletsu Miller, PhD Spring 2014

2 Dietary Fiber It is the complex carbohydrate in plants that can not be broken down by human digestive enzymes Sources Grains Fruits and Vegetables No matter whether the fiber foods are mashed, chopped, cooked or raw the fiber will still not be digested and absorbed in the intestines

3 Types of Fiber Added Functional Fiber Specific types of nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial effects on health Added by the food industry to processed foods Examples psyllium and pectin Dietary Fiber Naturally occurring, intact forms of nondigestible carbohydrates in plants and woody cell walls Found in fruits, vegetables, and dried beans Total Fiber is the sum of functional and dietary fiber

4 Functional Fiber eg. Psyllium and Pectin added by the food industry to foods

5 Dietary Fiber Naturally occurring Found in fruits, vegetables and beans

6 Advantages of Fiber Very few calories helps in weight control Prevents constipation by holding water in the intestines Lowers risk of colon cancer - can bind cancer-causing materials and shorten transit time Lowers risk of diabetes - slows glucose absorption Can lower blood cholesterol binds cholesterol in the intestine and excretes it Prevents diverticulosis (bulging out of the intestinal walls in places) - helps in intestinal muscle tone

7 Recommended intake of Dietary Fiber For adults DRI (AI-Adequate Intake) Women g/day Men 30-38g/day Whole wheat bread/high fiber cereal, dried beans and 5 servings of vegetables and fruits For children/adolescents AI recommendation varies by age group 1-3 years - 19g/day years - 25 g/day 9-13 years years Women - 26 g/day Men - 31g/day Women - 26g/day Men - 38g/day

8 Types of dietary fiber Soluble vs. Insoluble Soluble Fiber Combines with water, forms gels Found in oats, barley, fruit pulp, and psyllium seeds Slows glucose absorption and lowers peak blood glucose levels Reduces fat and cholesterol absorption Insoluble Fiber Comes from and in cell walls of plants Found in wheat and other bran and legumes Traps water, eliminates waste from intestines, helps prevent constipation

9 Types of Dietary Fiber

10

11 Health benefits of Dietary Fiber

12 Disadvantages of too much dietary fiber Newcomers to high fiber diets may experience: Diarrhea, bloating, gas Bacteria in large intestine consume fiber and produce gas For small children, fiber fills their stomachs thus they will eat less calories and nutrients May cause deficiency of iron, zinc & calcium May cause dehydration Lightning Quiz

13 ALCOHOL

14 Question How long have humans consumed alcohol? 100 years 1,000 years > 10,000 years Alcoholic beverages have been consumed by humans since prehistoric times for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons Which disease can be prevented by drinking wine? Obesity Heart Disease Liver Cirrhosis

15 Alcohol Carbohydrates of fruits and grains Yeast fermentation Ethanol (alcohol) Supplies energy (1 gram give 7 kcal) But may not be used like calories from fat or carbohydrate Alcohol is both a food and a drug

16 Positive effects of Alcohol Enhances High Density Lipoprotein (HDL, the good cholesterol) HDL eliminates cholesterol from the body Lowers the risk of heart disease All types of alcoholic beverages might help some, but wine seems to have the most positive effects Many alcoholic beverages contain phytochemicals Red and purple wines made from grapes and their skins They lower blood inflammation which may lower the risk of heart attacks

17 Positive effects of Alcohol As a beverage, it is part of the traditional food supply Moderate level 1 standard size drink/day for women 2 standard size drinks/day for men

18 One Drink

19 Alcohol and Heart Attacks Do we have to consume alcohol to lower heart attacks? No, there are more disadvantages than advantages The better way to eat is a diet High in fiber Low in fat Low in cholesterol Low in sodium And exercise regularly

20 Possible Disadvantages of Alcohol High intake increases the risk of High blood pressure Liver cirrhosis Throat and stomach cancer Breast and bladder cancer Dementia Central nervous disorders Vitamin and mineral deficiency diseases Death from homicide, drowning, fire, traffic accidents, and suicides Death from alcohol poisoning (rapid intake) Rapes and assaults

21 The Negative Heavy drinking 5 or more drinks/day

22 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome If taken during pregnancy, alcohol can be harmful to the fetus and may cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) FASD can cause long-term growth and mental retardation with unusual facial characteristics The severity of the condition depends on: Quantity Timing during pregnancy Maternal health Although a small amount is not hazardous, it is better to refrain from drinking in pregnancy

23 Drinking During Pregnancy Fetal alcohol syndrome causes long-term mental and growth retardation There is no safe level of alcohol intake during pregnancy

24 Alcohol intake and diet quality Alcoholic beverages are empty calorie foods: This means they provide few other nutrients for the number of calories they contain Their consumption is associated with lower vitamin and mineral intake: Diets of heavy drinkers may provide too little thiamin, vitamins A and C, calcium and iron

25 Alcohol intake and diet quality A thiamin deficiency can be associated with the development of delirium tremens (DTs): Thiamin deficiency impairs glucose utilization by brain People with DTs experience convulsions, hallucinations and severe confusion Treatment: thiamin injections

26 How the body handles alcohol

27 Increased Effects of Alcohol Blood alcohol levels increase faster in women than in men Over 150 medications interact harmfully with alcohol (sleeping pills, pain killers) Combining alcohol and pain relievers may cause stomach ulcers or liver damage

28 Is it possible to drink safely? Handling of alcohol by the body It is absorbed within minutes, and goes quickly to brain, liver and other tissues It remains in blood and tissues until broken down for energy/stored - this takes hours Because of this lag time - blood level builds up, showing the intoxicating effects Women & smaller body size - more chances of intoxication

29 Is it possible to drink safely? 0.03 % level = mild intoxication, loss of some control over muscle movements 0.06% = high traffic accidents 0.08% is the legal limit for intoxication according to most states' highway safety ordinances 0.13% = speech slurred, double vision, reflexes dulled Higher doses = drowsiness and unconsciousness 0.60% = may cause death Many problems can be prevented by drinking responsibly Don t drink on an empty stomach Limit number of drinks Never drive a car or boat, or operate heavy equipment

30 Key Terms Alcoholism Illness characterized by dependence on alcohol and a level of alcohol intake that interferes with health, family, social relationships, and job performance

31 Causes & types of alcoholism Alcoholism A disease that runs in families Can also be related to environmental influences Type 1 alcoholism Develops after age 25 Characterized by psychological dependence on alcohol Due strongly to environmental factors Type 2 alcoholism Develops before age 25 Is more severe than type 1 Physical dependence on alcohol Related to history of alcoholism in family Lightning Quiz

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