Body Composition & Longevity. Ohan Karatoprak, MD, AAFP Clinical Assistant Professor, UMDNJ

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1 Body Composition & Longevity Ohan Karatoprak, MD, AAFP Clinical Assistant Professor, UMDNJ

2 LONGEVITY Genetic 25% Environmental Lifestyle Stress 75%

3 BMI >30 OBESE OVERWEIGHT NORMAL WEIGHT 18< UNDER WEIGHT

4 Calculation of BMI Formula: weight (kg) / [height (m)] 2 Example: Weight = 68 kg, Height = 1.65 m Calculation: 68 (1.65) 2 = 24.98

5 Height 175cm Weight 120kg

6 Women Waist Circumference 80cm < 18-25% Body fat cm % >88 cm >30%

7 Men waist circumference 94 cm < 10-17% Fat cm 17-25% Fat > 102 cm >25%

8 Body Composition Normal Body Fat On The Way To Obesity Obese Female 18-25% 25-30% >30% Male 10-17% 17-25% >25% Normal Waist Circumference On The Way To Obesity Obese Female <80 cm cm >88 cm Male <94 cm cm > 102 cm BMI 25 OVERWEIGHT BMI NORMAL WEIGH BMI 18.5 UNDERWEIGHT

9

10 Male Body-Profile Types Body Profile Type D Overweight (BMI > 25) WC <94 cm (37 in) Normal Body Fat (10-17%) Normal to Over Muscle Body Profile Type E Overweight (BMI > 25) WC cm (37-40 in) One the way to Obesity Body Fat (17-25%) Normal to Over Muscle Body Profile Type F Overweight (BMI > 25) WC > 102 cm (40 in) Obese Excessive body Fat (> 25%) Normal to Over Muscle

11 FAT Visceral Fat Subcutaneous Fat

12 Chronic Diseases Associated with Obesity Heart disease High blood pressure Type 2 Diabetes Stroke Gallbladder disease Sleep apnea Some cancers (uterus, breast, prostate, colon) NASH

13 Functions of Fat Cells

14 Metabolic Syndrome METABOLIC SYNDROME FOR WOMEN METABOLIC SYNDROME FOR MEN Waist circumference greater than 88cm or 35 inches -Triglyceride level greater than 150mg/dL -HDL cholesterol less than 50 mg/dl -Blood Pressure greater than 130/85mm Hg -Fasting blood sugar more than 100 -Waist circumference greater than 102cm or 40 inches -triglyceride level greater than 150mg/dL -HDL Cholesterol less than 40 mg/dl -Blood pressure greater than 130/85mm Hg -Fasting blood sugar more than 100

15 OBESITY Not everyone is obese the same way Not everyone is obese for the same reasons

16 Types of Obesity EXCESS WEIGHT BMI More Than 25 NORMAL BODY WEIGHT BMI Less Than 25 Obese Without Metabolic Abnormalities 20% Obese With Metabolic Abnormalities At Risk Obese 80% Normal Weight With Metabolic Abnormalities At Risk Normal Weight 15% Normal Weight With Normal Body Composition 85%

17 Causes of Obesity GENETIC BEHAVIORAL OBESITY METABOLIC HORMONAL

18 Menopause, Andropause and Hormone Change

19 Anti-Obesity & Longevity Effects of Exercise Decreases insulin and glucose Increases Adiponectin level Decreases inflammation Improves cardiovascular function Improves blood pressure Increases Growth Hormone Increases Testosterone Increases muscle mass Increases metabolism Improves brain chemistry

20 Negative Hormonal Effects of Excessive Exercise Decreases GH Decreases Testosterone Increases Free Radicals Increases Cortisol Increases NPY Increases appetite

21 STEP 1 Body Fat Type Analysis Obese WC>35F WC>40M Female over 30% Body Fat Male over 25% Body Fat On The Way To Obesity WC 32-35F WC 37-40M Female 25-30% Body Fat Male 17-25% Body Fat Normal WC<32F WC<37M Female 18-25% Body Fat Male less than 17% Body Fat

22 STEP 2 Metabolic Type Analysis With Metabolic Syndrome OR Without Metabolic Syndrome

23 STEP 3 Behavioral Type Analysis Under-Eater and Under-Exerciser Under-Eater and Over-Exerciser Over-Eater and Under-Exerciser Over-Eater and Over-Exerciser

24 Food Pyramid For Anti-Obesity & Longevity

25 Diet Macronutrient Composition 40-45% Carbohydrate 30-35% Protein 20-25% Fat

26 MDFatLoss.com

27 High (>55%) Carbohydrate Diet Effects Increases the accumulation of fat in our fat cells Increases inflammatory substances called, cytokines Weakens the immune system, which increases infection risk Increases the chance of early onset of cataract Decreases the level of adiponectin, an anti-aging hormone

28 Moderate (40-45%) Carbohydrate Diet Effects Increases good cholesterol HDL. Decreases bad cholesterol LDL Decreases triglycerides. Better blood sugar control. Less chance of developing type 2 diabetes. Reduced inflammation in the body. Promotes weight loss.

29 Moderate (30-35%) Protein Diet Effects Better appetite control. Increases HDL Cholesterol (good cholesterol) levels. Decreases LDL Cholesterol (bad cholesterol) levels. Decreases Triglycerides levels. Decreases C-Reactive protein. Protects bone mass. Reduces insulin resistance. Increases thermogenesis Increases the rate of weight loss. Increases brain leptin sensitivity. Increases heart healthy vitamins, such as vitamin B-12, folic acid and vitamin B-6.

30 Moderate (20-25%) Fat Diet Effects The Good Fats (Olive Oil & Omega 3 /PUFA s) Decreases blood pressure. Protects the intracellular antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase. Protects the vessels from plaque formation. Reduces inflammation by decreasing the free radicals.

31 High (>35%)Fat Diet Effects The Bad Fats (Too Much Saturated Fats) Increases fatty acid synthesis in the liver. Decreases Adiponectin (longevity hormone) level. Increases Endocannaboid activity, which increases appetite and decreases body calorie burning capacity. Increases the activity of the genes that produce and store fat.

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