Lecture 2: European media systems. European media and communication policies 22 January, 2009 Hannu Nieminen

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1 Lecture 2: European media systems European media and communication policies 22 January, 2009 Hannu Nieminen

2 Background: the book Daniel C. Hallin & Paolo Mancini (2004): Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: C.U.P. D.C.Hallin: University of California, San Diego, USA P.Mancini: University of Perugia, Italy The aims of the book: A framework for comparative analysis (18 countries) Three major models of media systems Explanation of the relationship between the media and politics The dynamics of change

3 Structure 1. Introduction: comparative approcah 2. Dimensions of comparison 3. The three models 4. The future of the models

4 1. Introduction: comparative approach Two levels of comparative research: concept clarification (theory-developing) vs. establishing causal relations (hypothesis-testing) Scope of the study: Western Europe and North America Question of normative theory: historically, too much emphasis on Liberal model (cf. Four Theories of the Press, 1956)

5 2. The main dimensions of comparison Four major dimensions: 1. The development of media markets (esp. mass circulation press), 2. The degree of political parallelism, 3. The development of journalistic professionalism, and 4. The nature of state intervention in the media system.

6 1) The media markets The development of a mass press: Newspaper sales per 1000 adult population, year 2000 (Source: WAN, World Press Trend) 1. Norway 2. Finland 3. Sweden 5. United Kingdom 6. Germany 15. Spain 16. Italy 17. Portugal 18. Greece

7 The ratio of Television to Newspaper Consumption, EU Countries, 2001 Country 1. Greece 2. Portugal 3. Spain 4. Italy 7. United Kingdom 11. Finland 12. Germany 13. Austria 14. Sweden TV/Newspapers

8 2) Political parallelism Earlier: party-press parallelism Today better: political parallelism [I]t refers to media content the extent to which the different media reflect distinct political orientations in their news and current affairs reporting, and sometimes also their entertainment content (p. 28)

9 Forms of political parallelism Different forms of parallelism: Organisational connections Media personnel s activity in political life Journalist s career shaped by his/her political affiliation Partisanship of media adiences Journalistic role orientations and practices Different forms of media pluralism: External pluralism (= high political parallelism) Internal pluralism (= low level of parallelsim)

10 Political parallelism in broadcast governance Differences between the press and broadcasting Four basic models in broadcasting: 1. The government model: controlled directly by the government (political majority) (Greece, Portugsal, Spain) 2. The professional model: controlled by broadcasting professionals (the BBC, Scandinavia, CBC) 3. The parliamentery model: divided among the parties by proportional representation (RAI in 1980s) 4. The civic or corporatist model: divided among socially relevant groups (the Netherland)

11 3) Professionalization Dimensions of journalistic professionalism: Autonomy: big variation between countries Distinct professional norms: variation Public service orientation: social responsibility -theory Instrumentalisation and professionalization Professionalization and political parallelism: High parallelism = hight instrumentalization = low professionalization Low parallelism = low instrumentalization = high professionalization

12 4) The role of the state Different forms of state interention: Public service broadcasting Ownership of media institutions: telecoms infrastructure, news agencies, newspapers Press and film industry subsidies, advertising Privacy laws (libel, defamation, etc. laws) & Hate speech laws Professional secrecy laws (protecting the sources) Laws regulating access to government information Laws regulating media ownership and concentration Laws regulating political communication Broadcast licencing laws, laws regulating broadcast content

13 A broad distinction between: Liberal media system = limited state intervention, market forces prevail (USA) Social democratic or dirigiste model = larger role of the state in ownership, funding, and regulation of media (Nordic countries) Also a distinction between the effectiveness of media regulation: a weak state role deliberately or because of failure ( savage deregulation )

14 3. The three models Mediterranean or Polarized Pluralism Model: France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain Northern European or Democratic Corporatist Model: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland North Atlantic or Liberal Model: Britain, United States, Canada, Ireland

15 Polarized Pluralist (Medit.) Democratic Corporatist (North/Cent) Liberal (North Atlantic) Newpaper industry Low circulation; elite oriented press High circulation; early masscirculation Medium circulation; early commercial masscirculation Political parallelism High parallelism; external pluralism External pluralism; shift to neutral press Neutral commercial press; internal pluralism Weak; instrumentalization Professionalization Strong; institutionalized self-regulation Strong; noninstitutionalized self-regulation Role of the State Strong intervention; press susidies Strong intervention, with press freedom; press subsidies Market-dominated (except PSB in UK, Ireland)

16 Political context: dimensions Political History: Patterns of conflict and consensus Consensus or Majoritarian Government: Power sharing vs. winner takes all Multiparty system vs. two-party system Individual vs. Organized Pluralism: Liberalism vs. (democratic) corporatism Polarized vs. moderate pluralism Role of State: Strong role, dirigisme Active role, welfare state Weak role, liberalism

17 Polarized Pluralism (Medit.) Democratic Corporatist (North-Cent) Liberal (North Atlantic) Political History Late democratization; polarized pluralism Early democratization; moderate pluralism Early democratization; moderate pluralism Consensus or Majoritarian Both Predominantly consensus Predominantly majoritarian Individual vs. Organised Organized pluralism; strong role of parties Organized pluralism; democratic corporatism Individualized representation Role of State Dirigisme, strong role of state and parties in economy Strong welfare state; significant role of state in economy Liberalism; weaker welfare state (esp. USA)

18 4. The future Homogenization? Global professional culture Global technology Secularization Commercialization Differentiation? Cultural and political differences Professional differentation Differences in markets

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