Social Citizenship Rights and Gender/Family Policies. Walter Korpi Swedish Institute for Social Research

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1 Social Citizenship Rights and Gender/Family Policies Walter Korpi Swedish Institute for Social Research

2 The Logic of Industrialism Industrialism and Industrial Man. A Study of Labor Problems in Economic Development (1960, 1965) Kerr et al. Industrialization has a commanding logic of its own. Industrial society requires a skilled labor force and large investments in education and welfare. Partisan politics and ideologies have little relevance Convergence towards a single shared model. Social expenditures key indicator of welfare state expansion.

3 Research Application Walter Korpi (1979): Sweden s Social Policy in a Comparative Perspective: Policy strategies, their backgrounds and consequences (Distributive conflict relevant; institutional structures reflect conflict strategies; expenditures must be complemented with institutions; citizenship rights and duties in key focus)

4 Civil, political and social citizenship Citizenship and social class (Marshall 1950) Industrialization created a class of industrial workers, threatening established social order by organizing itself into unions and political parties. Worker Question (Arbeiterfrage) (1870s 1880s) Liberalism, Christian Democracy diverging views

5 Most comparable cases 18 countries with uninterrupted political democracy after 1945, (1+ mil. Inhab.) Facilitates causal interpretations [Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States] 1930, 1933, 1947, 1950, 1955, 1960, 1965, 1970, 1975, etc

6 Historical Emergence of Social Insurance Institutional Models Targeted State Corporatist Basic Security Encompassing

7 How do rules affect standard cases? Average production worker wage levels Single: 30 years, worked totally for ten years of which five years in present firm; not unemployed past two years. Family: only one earner, two children (2; 7). Retired: contributions during 35 years

8 Coding scheme Unemployment, Sickness and Accident Programs 1. No. of insured 2. No. in a) labour force b) employees 3. Coverage a) labour force b) employees 4. Waiting days 5. Benefit duration 6. Conditions a) reference period b) contribution period c) income ceiling d) means test e) other conditions 7. Financing a) insured person b) state c) employer d) other 8. Replacement Single (per week after w.d.) a) standard worker first week b) standard worker first 26 weeks average c) minimum benefit first 26 weeks average d) full benefit first 26 weeks average e) maximum benefit first 26 weeks average 9. Replacement Couple with two children (week after w.d.) a) standard worker first week b) standard worker first 26 weeks average c) minimum benefit first 26 weeks average d) full benefit first 26 weeks average e) maximum benefit first 26 weeks average 10. APWW/week (gross; net) 11. Replacement Rates Single a) standard worker first week b) standard worker first 26 weeks average c) minimum benefit first 26 weeks average d) full benefit first 26 weeks average e) maximum benefit first 26 weeks average 12. Replacement Rates Couple with two children a) standard worker first week b) standard worker first 26 weeks average c) minimum benefit first 26 weeks average d) full benefit first 26 weeks average e) maximum benefit first 26 weeks average

9 Coding scheme Old Age Pensions 1. No. of insured 2. Population Coverage 4. No. of old age pensioners 5. No. of a) persons above 65 years of age b) persons above normal pension age 6. Proportion pensioners in a) population above 65 years of age b) population above normal pension age 7. Conditions a) reference period b) contribution period c) income ceiling d) means test e) residence test f) other conditions 8. Financing a) insured person b) state c) employer d) other 9. Replacement Single (per year) a) minimum benefit b) standard worker c) full benefit d) maximum benefit 10. Replacement Couple (per year) a) minimum benefit b) standard worker c) full benefit d) maximum benefit 12. APWW/year (gross; net) 13. Replacement Rate Single a) minimum benefit b) standard worker c) full benefit d) maximum benefit 14. Replacement Rate Couple a) minimum benefit b) standard worker c) full benefit d) maximum benefit

10 Ethical Guidelines for Large Historical Comparative Datasets (ISA 1985). Databases should not be regarded as being in the public domain until the researchers who have assembled them have specified the sources of their data and the methods by which they were constructed. Information about sources and methods should be made available within a reasonable time. Interim data sets should be made available for inspection of their accuracy by other scholars.

11 Gender Equality: Economy and Agency Resources enabling citizens to affect their levels of living (Sten Johansson 1968) Capabilities (Amartya Sen) How is social care work to be promoted a) unpaid work at home? b) paid work via markets? c) paid work via public sector?

12 Gender equality: Parental leave and child care Market oriented: Widening women s access; tax deductions for private services Traditional family: Facilitate social care at home (part time child care 3+ years, long parental leave with low benefits) Earner carer: separate taxation; full day child care up to 3 years; earnings related shorter parental leave

13 Dimensions and Types of Gender Policies

14 Labor Force Participation Rates of Women (25-64 years) by Education (%) Earner - Carer Denmark Finland Norway Sweden Market Oriented Canada United Kingdom USA Australia New Zealand Ireland Switzerland Japan Traditional Family Austria Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands less than Secondary Secondary

15 Labor Force Participation Rates of Women (25-64 years) by Education (%) Earner - Carer Denmark Finland Norway Sweden Market Oriented Canada United Kingdom USA Australia New Zealand Ireland Switzerland Japan Traditional Family Austria Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands less than Secondary Secondary

16 Gender Employment Gaps among Parents with Minor Children (Motherhood Penalty) Earner - Carer Denmark Finland Sweden Market Oriented Canada United Kingdom USA Australia New Zealand Ireland Switzerland Traditional Family Austria Belgium France Germany Italy Netherlands

17 Ph D DISSERSATIONS Sven E. Olson (1990), Social Policy and Welfare State in Sweden. Joakim Palme (1990), Pension Rights in Welfare Capitalism: The Development of Old Age Pensions in 18 OECD Countries. Olli Kangas (1991), The Politics of Social Rights. Studies on the Dimensions of Sickness Insurance in OECD Countries. Irene Wennemo (1994), Sharing the Cost of Children. Studies on the Development of Family Support in the OECD Countries. Eero Carroll (1999), Emergence and Structure of Social Insurance Institutions. Comparative Studies on Social Policy and Unemployment Insurance. Ola Sjöberg (2000), Duties in the Welfare State. Working and Paying for Social Rights. Ingalill Montanari (2000), Social Citizenship and Work in Welfare States. Comparative Studies on Convergence and Gender. Tommy Ferrarini (2003), Parental Leave Institutions in 18 Welfare States. Kenneth Nelson (2003), Fighting Poverty. Comparative Studies on Social Insurance, Meanstested Benefits and Income Redistribution.

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