3 110 A view from Tokat Tokat is a special and precious ciy where the Mawlawi semah (religious dance) first lightened, where the Ottoman architecture built excellent samples, where the nature thrilled in diversity. What make it valuable are its specific geography, deep-rooted history and its people who created them. Tokat, not withholding the fertility of the plateaus formed in millions of years, lush forests rooted to the land, the mature rivers, has hosted civilizations, and has enhanced by integrating the different cultures. It was one of the most important cities in Anatolia during the 12th and the 13th centuries. Especially being located in an area where caravan routes pass through, Tokat developed in a short time, the buildings constructed thanks to this economic development and reached today, have carried characteristics and grandeur of the Seljuk and Ottoman architecture. Tokat is located in the inner part of Central Black Sea. Its neighbours are, Ordu and Samsun in the north, Sivas and Yozgat in the south, Sivas and Ordu in the east, Amasya in the west. Tokat is also neighboring Central Anatolia. It is known that the city has a history going back to 5500 BC. The region which was under the sovereignty of the Hittites around 2000 BC came under the rule of the Phrygians, the Persians, the Macedonia Kingdom and Cappadocia Kingdom. The region which came under the control of Pontus at the beginning of the 4th century BC, and Roma in the 1st century BC is joined to the Byzantines in 395. The region added to the Danishmend lands after the Battle of Malazgirt (also known as Manzikert), was joined to the Seljuks in The city went under the control of lhanl State after the 1243 war of Köseda, Eretna State after 1335, Kad Burhaneddin in 1388, has been merged to the Ottoman territory in The region, coming out Ottoman rule for a period after the war of Ankara, has re-entered the Ottoman rule in The legendary names of the world history, Romanos Dioge-
4 nes and Vlad III, Prince of Wallachia (Romania) aka Count Dracula, in Turkish known as 'Kaz kl Voyvoda' (meaning Impaler Prince ), have left traces in Tokat. So, what is the origin of the name Tokat? Tokat like many cities of Anatolia carrying the traces of different civilizations, there are different stories about the etymology of Tokat. Some sources tell that the city got its name from Togayit Turks who once lived there, on the other hand it is suggested that it derives from Tok-hat which in Turkish means the city with walls. In the two copies of Tarih-i Al-i Daniflmend (history of the Daniflmend State) written in Turkish, using colloquial language, in the 13th century, the name of the city stated as Tohiya, Toqia, Dokia, and in the third copy, the name stated as Tokat. The city's name has taken place in Arabic as Dokat, in Ottoman Turkish as Tok-at. If you have chosen to explore the city in spring or early summer, Tozanl Creek welcomes you with its coolness and silence. When you look up Lake Kaz at Tokat Castle, on the steep rocks, it calls you with its utmost grandeur. Gök Madrasah, Taflhan (Inn) and Sulusokak (Street), are the most special visits to Seljuk heritage in terms of architecture. Gök Madrasah with its museum section will take you back to the history of Tokat through 6000 years. With regards to meet the nature closely, Lake Kaz hosting many bird species, Niksar Plain, Almus Dam Lake offering water sports opportunities and Refladiye Thermal Springs are first to remember. Tokat offers many flavors which you should certainly taste before leaving. You have special reasons to visit Tokat for history, culture, nature, sports and flavor. So, here are some of these reasons along with our selection of Tokat in 40 steps: A view from Tokat 111
7 114 Nureddin bn Sentimur Tomb 1- NUREDD N BN SENT MUR TÜRBES (TOMB) Tomb has been built by Nureddin bn Sentimur in The building of ashlar stone with a square plan is covered by brick eight pointed star cone. The east window facing the street is ornamented with palmette motifs and compositions consisting of Rumi. At the east window on the inscription below, the verses of Firdevsi, the Sümbül Baba Convent great master of Persian language, are read, which can be translated as follows: Let your mission be worship of God Meditate so that you do not live in vain Do not hurt anybody for fear of God It is the straightforward course which you must take 2- SÜMBÜL BABA ZAV YES & TÜRBES (CONVENT & TOMB) It is the most beautiful convent of the city that hosts an unseen number of convents from 13-15th centuries. From the inscription it is understood that the building has been built by Hac Abdullaho lu Sümbül in The building consists of a domed space
8 with iwan opening to it, entrance hall and side rooms and a tomb. The most striking element of the lodge is the portal completely made of white marble. There are two niches on either side of the arc shaped opening of the portal with nine layers of muqarnas semidome. 3-GÖK MEDRESE (MADRASAH) / TOKAT MUSEUM Gök Madrasah one of the important buildings of the Anatolian Seljuks, is accepted to have been built in the third quarter of the 13th century, considering the period when Muniddin Süleymen Pervane was most effective. Vizier Pervane, managing the state affairs between the Mongols and Seljuk Sultans, has protected the scholars and sheikhs, is even described as "a person who has improved good relations with Mevlana Celaleddin-i Rumi". In the oldest two sources on Mawlawi, it s stated that Mevlana sent his caliph named Fahreddini Iraki to Tokat with the request of Muineddin Süleyman Pervane, that a convent has been built for him and that the Mawlawi sect has reached this city Gök Madrasah while Mevlana was still alive. Out of the deed of trust records it is assumed that Gök Madrasah has been used as fiifahane (meaning hospital ) until the 18th century. With the efforts of Halis Cinlio lu, retired teacher, the historical artifacts were gathered and Tokat Museum was established in 1926 at Gök Madrasah on Gazi Osman Pafla Boulevard. Tokat museum has a coin collection Trefoil Judge, Iron Age Statuette, Roman Period Bust, Roman Period Mould Printing 115
9 Statuette of Apollon, Roman Period
10 rich in quantity and diversity. The foundlings belonging to different civilizations of Anatolia and the finds of Ulutepe excavation can also be seen at the museum. 4- TAfi HAN (INN) Another name of Tafl Han (Inn) located on the corner of the street next to Gök Madrasah, is "Voyvoda Inn". It is considered to have been built between the years The building, one of the most important Ottoman monuments, has been severely damaged in the earthquake in 1939 and has been repaired. On the ground floor of the inn which has a small mosque there are 37 shops inside and 25 shops outside. These shops, for whatever purpose they are used, their arches and stone structure make you feel that you are in a historical building. On the upper floor there are 46 rooms/sections. It is the largest city inn among the similars of 17th century. This size gives an idea about the volume of the trade in the city. Tafl Han (Inn) 5- TOKAT KALES (CASTLE) Considering its location, the layout features, construction techniques and historical events its name mentioned in, it is decided that the construction date in the 5th or 6th century BC. Names used for the castle Evdoksia, Endoksia, and Dokia is attended to these evidences and conclusions. The cliffs where the walls are rising on, is in fact a natural fortress. Its towers, dungeons and part of its walls have been able to reach today. There are many places inside. The castle which has been restored and renovated during Ottoman and Seljukian periods with defense purposes, for a period has been famous with being a prison and a shelter for some rebels and administrators. The Ottomans, who were the last sovereigns of the castle, called it Çardak- Bedevi meaning shelter for the nomads, perhaps to emphasize this feature. Tokat Castle 117
11 Tokat Castle (The Silhouette of Count Dracula ) 118 Meydan Mosque 6- LEGEND OF COUNT DRACULA The legendary hero of the horror, alias 'Kaz kl Voyvoda' (meaning Impaler Prince )! Vlad II, that is to say Dracula, who was the prince of Wallachia (Romania) Kingdom, was defeated by the Ottoman and after being held under surveillance together with his brother, first in Kütahya E rigöz Castle then in Tokat Castle, has been sent to Edirne for fiehzade Mehmet s (Mehmet the Conqueror) auspices and has been educated for awhile. Who could guess that, away from Ottoman manners, he would become a vampire? In the early evening if you horizontally look at the bastion on the west of the Tokat castle from Hükümet Meydan (Square) you ll see Dracula wearing his crown. 7- MEYDAN CAM (MOSQUE) Its real name is Hatuniye Mosque. The mosque, which Bayezid had it built for his mother Gülbahar Hatun dates back to The building destroyed in the earthquakes in 1931 and in 1943, has been repaired with the help of the local people and re-opened in The mosque is a part of the complex consisting of a madrasah and imaret.
12 8- AL PAfiA CAM (MOSQUE) Ali Pafla Mosque is one of Tokat's most important Ottoman buildings. It is accepted that Kemer Ali Pafla, son in law of Bayezid Pafla had it built in The building damaged in the earthquakes in 1939 and in 1943, has been repaired in It has the characteristics of the 16th century Ottoman architecture. The square main room, the single dome and the single minaret of the mosque built of ashlar stone, are considered to be the signs of its simplicity. The narthex with seven domes is placed on eight pillars. The main room is surrounded by women s mahfil (elevated loge) from three directions except the apse direction. Meticulously engraved marble portal is the most significant part of the architectural decoration of the mosque. The minaret seen as a plain mass from the south side of the mosque is built of ashlar stone. Before entering the gate must be examined, as the people of Tokat say Ali Pafla's structure, the gate of the Meydan Mosque". Next to the building, there is the ruin of a structure again involved with the name Gülbahar Hatun. Ali Pafla Mosque 9- SULUSOKAK (800 YEARS IN 800 STEPS) The inns on this street were built in the Seljuk and Ottoman periods. However, it is known that the inn tradition in this region goes further back than this. Imagine such a street that there is no other like in Anatolia and where by 800 steps the architectural adventure of 800 years of the Turks in Anatolia should be able to be observed. One can see the monuments from every period starting with the Danishmend Period to the 20th century only on Sulusokak just in 800 steps. Ali Tusi Tomb, Sulu Han (Inn), Bedesten (Bazaar) are a few of these monuments. Sulusokak (Street) 119
13 120 Ali Tusi Tomb 10- AL TUS TÜRBES (TOMB) According to its inscription, Ali Tusi Tomb was built in 1233 upon orders by the Seljuk statesman Ebul Kas m bin Ali Tusi. The roof of the square building was a dome on a octagonal frame inside and a pyramidal roof outside. When the pyramidal roof has collapsed the tiled roof of today has been built. On the upper part of the windows where purple, turquoise, azure-colored geometric decorations are seen, there are two verses of the Koran written in Kufic style by blue mosaic tiles on a yellow background. Sulu Han (Inn) 11- SULU HAN (INN) One of the monuments appears in integrity in Sulusokak is Sulu Han. As it has no inscription giving the exact date of the construction and has lost its original characteristics, it is not possible to determine its construction date. The monument built of wood and masonry has been built with the purpose of providing accommodation for the merchants bringing goods from the bedesten or getting goods from the bedesten. The two-storey building has a rectangular plan in north-south direction and the outer walls are blind. The only significant element of
14 the inn is its portal protruding out. The inn which has served as a prison until 1930 has been repaired in 1957 and became a dormitory. It has been used until recently (2005) as Municipality soup kitchen. 12- YA IBASAN MEDRESES (MADRASAH) Ya basan Madrasah or with its known name Çukur Madrasah, according to its inscription exhibited at the museum, has been built upon orders by Ya basan Nizameddin. However, the fact that Ya basan Nizameddin has died in 1164, shows that the inscription was faulty and the madrasah was built in It is an almost square building with a closed courtyard and three iwans. The building is entered through the door on the north. In the building of rubble stone, bricks have been used only in squinch arches and around the dome opening. 13- TAKYEC LER CAM (MOSQUE) The construction date of Takyeciler Mosque is unknown. Its plan is exact equivalent of the plan of Eski Camii (Mosque) in Edirne, except the narthex. It is Ya basan Madrasah known that the mosque in Edirne has been built by Çelebi Mehmet. Therefore, it should be accepted that the mosque has been built in the first quarter of the 15th century. The main room built of rubble and ashlar stone, has a square plan and covered by multisupported nine domes. Before the reparations the domes were covered by tiled roof. In its interior the octagonal ashlar stone feet and capitals are ornamented. The remains prove that the Baroque ornaments made during the 1871 repair and that couldn t survive, were blue. Relatively short minaret is of ashlar stone. Takyeciler Mosque 121
15 122 Ali Pafla Hammam 14- AL PAfiA HAMAMI (HAMMAM) It s accepted that Ali Pafla Hammam, a unit of the Ali Pafla Building Complex, has been built during the same period with Ali Pafla Mosque, in Ali Pafla Hammam which is clearly a classical Ottoman structure from outside is one of the important structures of the Ottoman Era. It has been built as double bath entirely of ashlar stone. It is of the four iwans and a corner room plan type. It has many features which can be considered as "the first" for the 16th century Ottoman Latifo lu Mansion hammams, such as the lead coverage of the superstructure where bricks are used, for insulation purposes, the design of the changing rooms with mirrored arches, hiding of the entrance of women's section by a small room, division of the cool room in itself providing two separate rooms for the toilette and the shave room within the cool room, lightening on the façade in the men's section, in women s section providing the changing room and the private room within the iwan and building fountain at the façade. 15- LAT FO LU KONA I (MANSION) Latifo lu Mansion presumed to belong to the 19th century, is a good example of traditional Tokat houses. It is a twostorey building with the rooms around an open hall and with a plan in "L" shape. There is a large pool in its stone-paved courtyard. It also has a Turkish bath on the ground floor. The window system is more likely the 17th century and the 18th century examples.
16 Wooden mansion is embellished by hand-carved and plaster material. Main Room in particular, shows the region's most beautiful wood work. In the shoe section of the room located in the upper south end, a mosque, a sailboat and sea are pictured side by side with a city landscape. On the skylights of the main room, "Mühr-ü Süleyman" (Süleyman s Seal) is ornamented. Mevlevihane (Lodge of Mevlevi Dervishes) 16- MEVLEV HANE (LODGE OF MEVLEV DERVISHES) As it is stated in Menak b-ül Arifin, the oldest written source of the Mawlawi sect, Mawlawi sect for the first time started to spread in Tokat from the convent that Pervane had built in the 13th century when Mevlana sent his caliph named Fahreddini Iraki to Tokat with the request of Muineddin Süleyman Pervane. Probably this convent has been collapsed when Uzun Hasan burned Tokat in the 15th century and was rebuilt on the area at the entrance of Bey Street by Janissary Master Sülün Mustafa Pafla in 1638 during the period of Sultan Ahmed III. This building could not entirely carry its existence until today. The Mevlana Turkish bath next door, which is owned privately today, the stone gate at the entrance and the Turkish bath inside and the room next to it are from that period. Today with the recent restorations, it reflects the architectural characteristics of the 19th century Tokat architecture. Mevlevihane (Lodge of Mevlevi Dervishes) 123
17 124 Clock Tower 17- CLOCK TOWER The typical characteristic of the clock tower next to the mosque is that it was designed to be seen from almost every side of the old city. On the epigraph that was mostly erased, only the date of construction of the tower 1902 can be read. The 33m tower was built to celebrate the 25th Anniversary of Abdülhamid II s Sebastopolis, Column Heading reign. In 1917 the clock mechanism was westernized. The tower with a square base and octagon body was made of cut stone. The clock continues to remind the city of the time every half hour at two -minute intervals. 18- SEBASTOPOL S Sebastopolis located in Sulusaray district, means "Great, magnificent city". It is also suggested that Heracleaopolis mentioned on the epigraph of the bridge built on Çekerek Creek was the city's name. Cuinet V., in his survey notes he studied between , has mentioned that Pontus King Mithridates VI Eupator has founded the city again as Nicopolis and Sebastopolis right after his defeat against Pompeius. It is told, that it has been called Sulusaray (meaning palace with water ) because of the hot water springing
18 out of the ruins of the city which was burned down during the invasion of Anatolia by Timur. Some of the artifacts unearthed during the excavations in 1987 are exhibited at the Tokat Museum. And some of them in the district center, in the Open Air Museum across the municipality building. 19- OPEN AIR MUSEUM Architectural pieces and the mosaics found during the sampling and conservation excavations directed by Tokat Museum in Sulusaray (Sebastopolis) are on display in the building and its garden located across the Municipality building. There are approximately 60 artifacts here. 20- SULUSARAY THERMAL SPRING The spring which is also called "Çermikönü Thermal Spring" is the region's most important thermal spring. The source springing out among the historical Sebastopolis ruins is on a height of 750 m above sea level. The cold and warm salty spring water is rich in sodium chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate. The water, having an average temperature of 32 to 44.3 C is springing out a fault line. The thermal spring has Mahperi Hatun Caravansary been effective in the Roman and Byzantine periods, as well as in the Ottoman and Seljuk periods. The thermal spring, where there are two hotels today, serves throughout the whole year with its private baths, pools, restaurants and casinos. 21- MAHPER HATUN KERVANSARAYI (CARAVANSARY) The caravansary, located in Pazar is one the most beautiful examples of Seljuk caravansaries. Mahperi Hatun, the wife of Alaeddin Keykubat, had it built during the period of his son, G yaseddin Keyhüsrev. The building constructed completely of ashlar stone is encircled by 16 reinforcement towers in around. Its portal is magnificent and remarkable with its ornaments. There are porches at both sides of the courtyard. The partly broken inscription on the main portal reads as follows: Mahperi Hatun, queen of the wives to kings, had this monument built in with the undertaking of Keyhüsrev Bin-i Keykubat Mükerrem, the Great Sultan, the Almighty Ruler, the shadow of God on earth, and the Saviour of religion and the world. 125
19 126 Ball ca Cave Ball ca Cave 22- BALLICA MA ARASI (CAVE) The Ball ca Cave is one of the world s biggest and most fascinating caves. 680 meters long and 95 meters high, the cave has eight halls that have recently been opened for visit. The cave is estimated to be approximately 3.4 million years old. In addition to all the characteristics one would normally expect in caves, it is famous internationally with its Onion Formed Stalactites (So- an Stalactites). Ball ca Cave is formed of crystallized limestone. The cave has an average temperature of 18 o C and humidity of 54 % and its abundant oxygen facilitates breathing. The small pools in the Great Stalactites Hall, the widest hall of the cave, are full of cave pearls. The relative humidity in the hall is high and there is four times more oxygen compared to the open air. Its giant stalactites and stalagmites are striking. The walking path going northwards and southwards from this magnificent hall reaches the Muddy Hall, forming of blocks, stalactites, stalagmites and small pools, the Fossil Hall, located at the uppermost point of the cave and one of the oldest halls of the cave, and the Bats Hall, living space of pipistrellus. From here one passes to the Debris Hall called the Magnificent Gallery which is in northsouth direction. The hall gets its name from the large blocks on its bottom. After the Debris Hall and the Cellar of Blocks one reaches the Columns Hall via a bridge. The cave s largest column, which is 18 meters height and 8 meters in diameter, is located in this hall.
20 23- LAKE KAZ Lake Kaz with its altitude of 535 m and located within the borders of Pazar districts one of the most important natural sites to be seen. The Lake, is a very good example of wetland ecosystems. Lakeside, has in recent years rapidly gained importance as promenade as well. Here, you can often see birdwatchers, because the lake hosts for about 108 species of birds. As a component of Kelkit Valley, this area is an important nesting area for a variety of bird species, especially for the small vultures (Neophron percnopterus). Besides the area is also important with regards to amphibian and butterfly species. 24- Z LE ULU CAM (MOSQUE) The epigraph on the north side of Zile Ulu Mosque shows that the first building was built by Mehmed Zalüli Bin Ebu Ali in 1267 during G yaseddin Keyhüsrev III period. The mosque went through renovations in 1591, has been named for a period after Nasuh Pafla who had the renovation done. In 1904, when it demolishes extensively, it has been rebuilt Neoclassic style with the efforts of Lake Kaz Süleyman Naci, Zile Governor, and the local people between the years The main part of the cut stone building is quadrangle. The dome that is carried by an octagon drum that has sixteen windows is lead-covered. There is the public room with four marble pillars, three lead-covered domes at north of the building. The flattened vault of the door covered with a wood porch is made of keyed stone technique. There is a prayer epigraph on the quadrangle marble plate over the door vault. We can say that the crown door of the mosque is the most important of the monumental examples in Zile. Zile Ulu Mosque 127
21 128 Zile Castle 25- Z LE KALES (CASTLE) The castle is located on Zile tumulus. The clock tower at the entrance of Zile Castle was once the watchtower or the guard tower. Later on it has been called "çan kulesi" (bell tower) and in 1875 Ziya Pafla has converted this tower to a clock tower. The epigraphs next to the short pillar believed to be dedicated to Caesar, are about various structures and events belonging to Roman period. Elbaflo lu Mosque The Roman Emperor Julius Caesar battles with Pharneke II, King of Basforos, a very bloody war, in Zile Alt a aç region. In the war both armies have great losses. However, the Roman emperor Caesar wins the war. And he informs his glory to Rome with his world famous saying Veni-Vidi-Vici (I came-i saw-i won). A stone inscription, upon orders by Caesar, with the world famous saying of himself was placed after. 26- ELBAfiO LU CAM (MOSQUE) Elbaflo lu Mosque is at the east entrance of Zile along the Çayp nar Creek. Elbaflo lu Seyit Ahmet (local of Zile) had it built in The monument built of rubble stone and ashlar stone has a square plan and tiled roof. One should pass through the concrete part, built in later periods, so as to see the Baroque- style marble portal of the building and its tongue and groove ornamented ceiling.
22 The arch of the door supported at each side by a thin pillar with a base and a capital, is interlaced with red, grey and white marble. Turhal Castle 27- MAfiAT HÖYÜK (MOUND) Maflat Höyük, Tapigga in Hittite language, near Yal nyaz Village in Zile, is one of the best preserved settlements reflecting the culture of that age. The excavations tell that there was an executive allied to the king in the capital city Hattusa. Therefore, we can say that Tapigga was an important center among the federations allied to the Great Hittite Empire. In Maflat mound, cuneiform tablets were found in the palace of which today it cannot be determined by whom and exactly for what purpose it was built, believed to belong to a bey, and in the vicinity of the palace various ceramic objects belonging to the Bronze and Iron ages were found. In the palace thought to have belonged to an executive, cuneiform tablets are found. Various ceramic objects are also found around the palace. 28- TURHAL KALES (CASTLE) Turhal Castle and the surroundings of the castle are the historic center of the district. A few remained from the castle dating back to the Roman Period, except the two bastion ruins and underground passages. The following monuments can be mentioned as worth to see in Turhal: Mehmed Dede Tomb dating back to the Ilkhanids period has been built in The tomb which has been built on behalf of Ahi Yusuf known as the master of the packsaddle artisans, dates back to Tekkeflin Hamam (Hammam) located nearby the entrance of the Çivril Village at a distance of 7 km from the district, town was named after the Tekkeflin Dervish Convent next to the Hammam. However, there is no information about the hammam. 129
23 130 Almus Dam Lake 29- ALMUS DAM LAKE Almus Dam Lake which is a important trout breeding area nowadays, has been built as composite earth fill dam at the point where Yeflil rmak makes a slight curve towards the Omala Plain strait. The area surrounding the dam is a woodland. There are numerous coastal bays. The lake is an ideal track for water sports. 30- S LAHTAR ÖMER PAfiA CAM (MOSQUE) The mosque located in Akça (Fidi) town in Erbaa District, dates back to the 17th century. Silahtar Ömer Pafla Mosque On the two copper candlesticks it is written that Ömer Pafla has donated the candlesticks in 1688 to the mosque. It is valuable as a mosque, which is mostly wooden, that preserved its original features. It is built of one row of ashlar stone and three rows of brick. It s possible to observe both Seljukian and the 18th Ottoman styles in the ornaments on the wooden ceiling, wooden supports, the minbar and the apse in the mosque, that contains the most beautiful examples of Turkish art of ornamentation.
24 31- LEYLEKL / YILANLI KÖPRÜ (BRIDGE) Nearly all of the bridges built on Çanakç Brook in Niksar, date back to the Roman and Byzantine eras. Although Leylekli Bridge does not have an inscription, it appears to have been built in the Roman period, and repaired in the Turkish period. It is the largest and most famous one among the semi-rounded arched, oneeyed ashlar stone bridges. The stork (meaning leylek ) figure holding a snake (meaning y - lan ) in its beak, on the stone above the arch, names the bridge. Two other important bridges over the river are Çilhane Bridge and Seymenli Bridge. Going towards Ünye Street we ll see a very old monument. Leylekli Bridge 32- N KSAR KALES (CASTLE) Niksar s history is also valid for the castle. The first construction date of the castle goes back to the Roman Period. The ramparts identifying the acropolis, when first built, as the typical Roman defence plan, consist of three lines, interior, exterior and middle ramparts. The most famous one of the bastions is the one called Kulakl by the local people. An important feature of this bastion is the sarcophagus lid dating back to the Byzantine period used as a plying material. It is known that there used to be a church, cisterns, stores and numerous rooms. Today the madrasah, the mosque and Ya basan Tomb have been built in the castle during Niksar Castle 131
25 132 Ya basan Madrasah Danishmend period upon orders by Nizamettin Ya basan. 33- YA IBASAN MEDRESES (MADRASAH) According to records, there was a complex consisting of a mosque, a hammam, a hospital, a madrasah and a tomb in the castle. Ya basan Madrasah is a unit of this building complex. The monument known as the first madrasah in Anatolia has recently been repaired. The building served as a medical school until the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, has been visited by A. Gabriel in His study notes are as follows: "The narrow barrel-vaulted section in the south is the entrance. There are two iwans, one in the south and one in the north, opening to the courtyard. At the both sides of the iwan on the north, there are two identical cells and next to those cells there are two rooms projecting outwards as they are built inside the bastions. Theology, medicine, philosophy, astronomy, linguistics, mathematics, were educated at the Madrasah. 34- N KSAR ULU CAM (MOSQUE) Niksar Ulu Mosque located on the southeastern slopes of the Niksar Castle, near the creek, was built by Çenepnizade Hasan Bey. It is one of the oldest Anatolian mosques and has reached today in good condition. Evliya Çelebi called the structure Melik Gazi Mosque: Mosque is reached via five o six steps down. It is a old mosque built longitudinal and named with the name of castle's conqueror. At the corners and on the outer surfaces of the buttresses suurounding the mosque built of rubble stone, big blocks are used as plying materials. Windows, piers and arches were also built of ashlar stone. The portal of the north façade, with its ornaments, is the most striking element of the building. The portal is surrounded by three bordures decorated with geometric motifs such as six-pointed star, arrow head,
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234 Abstract RENOVATION AND RESTORATION OF OLD BUILDINGS IN SRI LANKA Eng. Nandana Abeysuriya B.Sc. Eng (Hons), M.Eng.,C.Eng.,FIE(SL), Int PE(SL) 1A, Ananda Road, Melder Place, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka. Tel/Fax:
List of interventions for the improvement of the area as a pole of alternative tourism Contents 1. Maros Tower (Dapne)... 3 2. OLD LAGADI... 5 3. SPRINGS OF THERMA... 6 4. TERPNI: ARCHEOLOGICAL AREA...
Chapter 15- The Muslim Empires Ottoman Empire Turks- groups from central Asia, spread west 9 th -11 th centuries Seljuk Turks took over Abbasid caliphate, enemies of Byzantines Ottoman Turks- Osman rewarded
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Unit 4 Lesson 8 The Qin and Han Dynasties Directions Read the False statements below. Replace each underlined word with one from the word bank that makes each sentence True. Word Bank Ying Zheng army copper
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The Oman Proton Therapy and Imaging Center Project Overview The new cancer treatment facility is comprised of two separate buildings at the entrance of the German University of Technology in Muscat, Oman.
Early Christian, Byzantine and Medieval Architecture Page 1 of 7 Early Christian Basilica The design of early Christian churches developed out of two Roman prototypes: the Roman private house and the basilica.
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Set 1 The people Write it down By the water Who will make it? You and I What will they do? He called me. We had their dog. What did they say? When would you go? No way A number of people One or two How
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make a model Roman Villa Make a model Roman villa with under-floor heating! Supported by 4 hours This activity is great for an extended holiday project for children or the whole family. You can each take
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Name Date Webquest: The Dog of Pompeii by Louis Untermeyer http://www.history.com/topics/ancient history/pompeii Watch the 2 minute video. Pay special attention to where Pompeii is and where Vesuvius is
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8 DAYS 7 NIGHTS (01 NOV 2016 04 MAR 2017) Optional Tour is Pre Paid Before Departure. This express tour visits Istanbul, Ankara and Cappadocia. Giving you an express overview of Turkey. FREE PACK AGE INCLUDES
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Tom and Lizzie s Georgian House Trail Hi, I m Tom and we are going to help you find out how a Georgian house was built and decorated. If you work out the mystery words at the end you will win a sticker!
Name: Date: Native People in Early Virginia When the Jamestown settlers arrived in Virginia in 1607, there were already thousands of Native Americans, or First Americans, living on the land they called
EMIRATES PALACE FACTS & FIGURES 1) When did Emirates Palace open? Emirates Palace opened its gates in February 2005. 2) When did construction of the Palace begin? December 2001 3) Who owns Emirates Palace?