Air Transport and Aerospace Education - Synergies and Differences Antonín KAZDA, Air Transport Department, University of Žilina

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1 WORKSHOP ON EDUCATION AND TRAINING NEEDS FOR AVIATION ENGINEERS AND RESEARCHERS IN EUROPE; SEPTEMBER 23, 2015; Brussels Air Transport and Aerospace Education - Synergies and Differences Antonín KAZDA, Air Transport Department, University of Žilina Motto: It is possible to fly without motors, but not without knowledge and skill Wilbur Wright letter to Octave Chanute (13 May 1900) Introduction The first flight piloted by Orville Wright over a hundred years ago on December 17, 1903 was not only a dream come true for Orville and his brother, but it was the birth of the aviation industry. This new industry found its place first in the military sector during World War I and World War II, and then in the civil sector as the commercial aviation industry. Because some of the main features of aviation include that it is a fast mode of transportation and that it is a glamorous career, it became one of the fastest growing industries and on the whole it continues to grow every year [4]. In the beginning of the 20 th century there was a high demand for inventors of new aircraft and specialists to build it and repair it. As a result, new study programs at universities were developed where students learned the principles of aircraft construction. Later, as the commercial aviation industry expanded and businesses got involved, a new demand was placed on professionals who understood the industry and also knew how to make money. Additionally, as the industry grew, new challenges arose and air transport became even more complex. New and modern airports needed to be built to keep up with the increased demand, airlines expanded to serve more routes and everything had to be well managed. This increase in complexity of the industry created new jobs requiring specialists. To keep up with this demand, universities started to offer new study programs to fit the needs of changing industry. This paper focuses on, airports, air traffic providers and the education of airline personnel (air transport industry), rather than on the individuals involved in manufacturing and construction (aerospace industry). These two segments of the aviation industry are dependent on each other but have different requirements in terms of education and training. Here, we investigate the size of these two markets and how they differ [4]. Education in aviation is essential, as educated aviation staff and personnel must meet the high standards of aviation. Additionally, at the forefront of the field, they have the freedom and responsibility to improve upon and invent new technologies and procedures. History of aerospace studies 1

2 Aerospace education and flight training began just after the first powered flight of the Wright brothers, at first primarily in United States, France, England and Germany and later expanded to other countries. These initial studies and training lead to further development and to the long-term success of the aviation industry, becoming important for both civil and military purposes. Determining which university was the first to offer aviation education is very difficult, as some institutions offered single lectures early on. For example, one of the earliest records of aviation lectures was the lecture titled Aerial Navigation, given in 1890 at Cornell University (USA) by Professor Octave Chanute. The first program awarding degrees in Aeronautical engineering was established in 1909 at Ecole Supérieure d Aéronautique et de Constructions Mécaniques (Higher school of Aeronautics and Mechanics, Paris France), which was later renamed the National Higher School of Aeronautics and Space (SUPAERO). However, the first formal course in aerodynamics was taught at the University of Paris in 1910, and Imperial College in London claims its first aerodynamics course was first taught even earlier in Professor Victor Felber taught the first Aeronautical engineering course at the Czech Technical University beginning May 10, In 1912, the German institute for experimental aviation was founded in Berlin. In 1914, the first aeronautic programme in the USA was founded at the University of Michigan. Almost every modern country has established military flight schools since. For example, the Royal Naval Air Service, Training Establishment in Cranwell (England) and the Military Aviation School in Portugal were both established in However, the very first military flight school was established in 1909 in the USA. The Aeronautical Division of U.S. Signal corps started its operation on Signal Corps No. 1 that was founded by the Wright brothers, where they gave 3 hours of training to 2 members of the Division before flying the aircraft solo for the first time [3], [4], [5]. Origins of air transport studies Air transport education hides largely in shadow of aerospace education, and only little information about its beginnings is known. Nevertheless, air transport studies are an important aspect of aviation education. At the end of the World War II, air transportation became popular and widely available, mainly due to the surplus aircraft that were left over from the war. As many new airlines were established, the demand for innovation the industry started to growth rapidly during this time. The industry needed new professionals to manage airports, airlines and other related business. During this time, leading aviation universities introduced the first air transport studies, where students were taught aviation management and how to run businesses rather than aerospace engineering (back then called aeronautical engineering). The first degrees in air transport were first offered shortly after World War II at universities with a long history of pilot training and aerospace studies. The first programs offering aviation degrees were established in the birthplace of aviation United States [4]. 2

3 The history of which university was first to offer air transport degrees is difficult to determine, as every university is proud to claim to pioneer the aviation industry and have been the first to train pilots. Even though these early historical facts have not been clearly documented, they are nonetheless very important in order to maximize the future of air transport studies. The first air transportation students graduated from Purdue University (USA) in 1947, and this institution is considered among the first universities to offer such a degree. Air transportation was a new field of study available for students who did not want to study subjects such as mathematics, engineering and design but wanted to stay within the aviation industry. This branch had 3 options of specifications: aviation operations, flight operations and aviation administrations. During the first 10 years of its existence, there were a similar number of students enrolled in air transportation as there were in aerospace studies. However, the new air transportation program was prepared on the basis of predictions, and it turned out that those were faulty. Unfortunately, as this program did not properly prepare its students for the real aviation industry and its true needs, the air transportation department ceased to exist [5]. Other universities opened similar programs in the 1950s. The best known among these are Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and The Ohio state university in the US [7]. European universities started to offer air transport education during this period, as well. Segments of Aviation Aviation is can be divided into two main industrial segments: Air transport industry and Aerospace industry. Air transport industry is comprised mainly of Airports, Airlines and Air traffic management, whereas the aerospace industry consists of aircraft manufacturers and maintenance. Maintenance is considered part of the aerospace segment since it is technical; however, it is usually included as part of airlines or airports in economic statistics. Structure and Comparison of Aviation Industry The size of the industries is commonly portrayed by the number of jobs and by comparing Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the given industry with the GDP of the given geographical location. This work focuses on the size of the industry in Europe. While this approach is very informative, some limitations that come with using this approach include determining which jobs, activities and companies should be included and which should be excluded. Because of these limitations, all studies divide the industry into four segments of economic impact [4]: Direct Impact is the part of the industry that directly contributes to the employment, income and GDP with operations at the airport and within airlines, including companies onsite at the airport and airport-related businesses located near the airport. Companies with direct economic impact include airport operators, check-in, baggage handling, on-site retail, 3

4 cargo and catering facilities, airlines, airport air traffic control, general aviation, ground handlers, airport security, immigration and customs, aircraft maintenance, etc. [1]. Indirect Impact includes downstream activities that are necessary for direct impact activities. Examples include food suppliers for catering companies, aviation fuel suppliers, oil refining activities for jet fuel, construction companies, travel agents booking flights, etc. [1]. Induced Impact is when direct or indirect employees spend their personal money in the national economy, for example on groceries, restaurants, shopping, etc. [1]. Catalytic Impact is the most extensive economy that can be considered. Tourism without air transport cannot exist effectively; therefore, everything connected to it can have economic impact on the aviation industry. Other activities of air transport that have catalytic economic impact include just-in-time global manufacturing production and the delivery of fresh agriculture products [1]. Different studies show slightly different numbers, and this is due to different approaches that are taken to describe what is included in the category of direct economic impact. The most problematic decision is with on-airport retail shops. Some studies include these shops in the direct impact category (specifically into airport category), whereas others assign them to the indirect category. Even though shops may fall into one or both of these categories, here we focus only on jobs with specific Air transport training. Companies with direct economy impact can be divided into airports, aerospace, air traffic management, airlines and other on-airport companies (see the Table 1). The Table 1 shows also the percentage of personnel that comprises each sector [2]. Table 1 Number of employees in sectors of aviation (2012) Airports Other on Airports Airlines Aerospace ATM Employment Percentage % Source: AIR TRANSPORT ACTION GROUP. Aviation benefits beyond borders. ATAG, 2014 [2] If we exclude Other on Airports employees there were in total employees in Air Transport and employees in Aerospace in 2012 in Europe. Airport, airlines, aerospace and air traffic management is comprised of all the individuals that work in the business. Airport includes all personnel that work for airport operators. Airlines employ flight and cabin crews, executives, ground services, check-in staff, training staff and maintenance staff. Aerospace personnel include engineers and designers of civil 4

5 aircraft, engines and components. Air navigation service providers employ air traffic controllers and their executives. Other on-airport businesses and government agencies have yet to be identified. These include retail and car rental businesses and government agencies such as freight forwarders, some catering and customs and immigration. Personnel of such companies do not require aviation training as they are professionals in logistic and other specializations. Therefore, these and other on-airport jobs are not included in further calculations. GDP in aviation direct economy In order to further investigate the contribution of each aviation sector, a breakdown of the GDP contribution of each sector was made. Gross domestic product is defined by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as "an aggregate measure of production equal to the sum of the gross values added of all resident, institutional units engaged in production (plus any taxes, and minus any subsidies, on products not included in the value of their outputs)." [6]. Table 2 GDP and employment in each aviation sector in Europe Airport Other onairport Airlines Aerospace Total GDP US $billion % of Total GDP Employment % of Total Empl GDP US $billion % of Total GDP Employment % of Total Empl GDP US $billion NA Employment % of Total Empl GDP US $billion NA Employment Employment % of Total Empl % of Total Empl Source: AIR TRANSPORT ACTION GROUP. Aviation benefits beyond borders. ATAG, 2014 [2] 5

6 The total GDP of the world aviation sector with direct economic impact is enormous $ 606 billion. The biggest contributors were North America with $222 billion and Europe with $210 billion in The latest study from 2012 does not include the breakdown of GDP for each sector. As such, we use data from the 2004 Air Transport Action Group study, shown below in Table 2. There is no breakdown of the data for each sector available for the years 2010 and 2012; the only data available for these years is the total GDP of direct economy impact economies. The airline sector was the biggest in terms of employment and GDP in 2004 and The aerospace sector contributed almost one third of the total GDP in 2006 with almost the same number of employees as the other on-airport sector, which only contributed around 13% GDP. The GDP increased significantly in 2010 and This significant change is likely due to a new approach of what was included in the industry with direct economy impact; however, no detailed information is available. The airlines made the greatest contribution to the economy, and if airports are also included, it is clear that the air transport sector is much bigger than the aerospace industry. Conclusion During the early days of aviation it was the aerospace industry which primarily contributed to the employment and GDP growth in the developed countries within the aviation sector. However, after the WWII the situation changed gradually. Today it is the air transport industry which took over and has the leading role. For example in an airline company it is not an aircraft which is decisive for the success or failure of the company (as all companies have the same planes) but the way how an airline is managed and operated. It is doubtful if the High-Level Target Concepts defined in ACARE SRA2 could be reached by improvements in technologies. For example jet engines are at the top of the technology cycle and in energy efficiency, and environmental impact technology allows only small improvements. On the other hand we can cut down fuel consumption, flight times and emissions in tens of percent by operational and flight procedures. From a global perspective aviation in Europe is losing its position. Support of air transport education and research might be the right way how we can change this situation in the long run. We should ask whether the existing support is adequate. References 1 ACI EUROPE. Economic Impact of European Airports. InterVISTAS Consulting Ltd [ ]; Retrieved from: 6

7 %20Impact%20of%20European%20Airports%20- %20January% pdf 2 AIR TRANSPORT ACTION GROUP. Aviation benefits beyond borders. ATAG, 2014 [ ]. Retrieved from: AviationBenefits2014_FUL L_HighRes.pdf 3 BARATA, J. M. M. a F. M. S. P. NEVES. The History of Aviation Education and Training. Covilhã: Universidade Beira Interior 4 GLINZ, J.: Globalized air transport education market, Master Thesis ; Zilina KNOLL, H. B. The story of Purdue engineering. Purdue: Purdue university, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Glossary of statictical terms [online] [cit ]. Retrieved from: 7 The Ohio state university. Center for Aviation studies [online] [retrieved ] ; 7

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