# Workforce scheduling with logical constraints: theory and applications in call centers

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1 Workforce scheduling with logical constraints: theory and applications in call centers Gábor Danó This thesis was supervised by Sandjai Bhulai and Ger Koole Department of Mathematics Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam July 2004

2 Contents Introduction 3 1 Models from the literature Definitions of terms and sets Model of Dantzig Model of Bechtold and Jacobs Model of Aykin Comparison of the models Model of Thompson Scheduling model with logical constraints Decision, indicator variables Logical constraints The IP formulation of the logical relationships The model with logical constraints Terms, variables and sets The constraint set of the model The objective function Call centers Introduction Call centers in general Call center characteristics Mathematics and call centers Queueing models in call centers The modeling area Queueing models Little s Law PASTA property The M/M/s queue The M/M/s/N queue Workforce scheduling in call centers

3 Contents 2 4 An application in call centers The scheduling environment Input parameters The implementation of the model The objective function in the model Logical constraints in the model Experimental results with the test problem Concluding remarks and future prospects 55 Bibliography 57

4 Introduction Nowadays, enterprises and organizations are faced with increasing demand requirements. On the one hand, it means that they have to provide high quality of service for their customers. On the other hand, they would like to satisfy their employees demand as much as possible. Thus, companies such as airlines, hospitals, police and ambulance departments, telephone companies and banks face a very delicate problem with workforce scheduling. Generally, workforce, labor or personnel scheduling or rostering is the process of designing work timetables for employees to satisfy the demand requirements for its services. Different kind of mathematical approaches have developed in order to help the companies to solve this problem. According to [6] the development of these mathematical models and algorithms involves the following levels: 1. a demand modeling study that collects and uses historical data to forecast demand for services and converts these to the staffing levels needed to satisfy service standards, 2. consideration of the solution techniques required for a personnel scheduling tool that satisfies the constraints arising from workplace regulations while best meeting a range of objectives including coverage of staff demand, minimum cost and maximum employee satisfaction, 3. specification of a reporting tool that displays solutions and provides performance reports. In this master thesis we focus on problems in the second level, i.e., the shift scheduling and the staff assignment problem. The general shift scheduling problem involves determining the number of employees to be assigned to each shift to satisfy the demand requirements. In the staff assignment problem we have the number of required employees for each shift and we have to assign employees for shifts. It is very important, but meanwhile very difficult to find an optimal solution that minimizes the cost and satisfies employee preferences of these complex and highly constrained problems. The main interest of this thesis is to introduce and apply a mathematical programming model, which can solve both the shift scheduling and the staff assignment problem. In this model we use logical constraints to model different conditions and requirements by

5 Introduction 4 the government or by the company. In Chapter 1 we give an introduction of the shift scheduling and the staff assignment problems. We discuss different mathematical programming models from the literature, compare them and introduce some basic definitions and terms, which we use afterwards in the thesis. In Chapter 2 we build up our labor scheduling model. In the beginning of this chapter we introduce the way we can use decision variables in a linear programming (LP) or integer programming (IP) environment to represent connections between certain states of variables. Later in this chapter we give an introduction of mathematical logic and we describe how we can model logical relationships in an LP or IP model. Using these modeling techniques we build up a labor scheduling model, in which we represent shifts implicitly, i.e., we use logical constraints to express them. This model is also described in this chapter. In Chapter 3 we give an overview of call centers, in which labor scheduling plays a very important role. Moreover, in this chapter we give a basic introduction on queueing theory and queueing models, which provide the mathematical background to model and analyze these centers. We focus on mathematical methods, which we can use to convert historical data to estimate the number of required agents. In Chapter 4 we solve a workforce scheduling problem with our model. Afterwards in this chapter we describe our modeling and implementation method. In the end of the chapter we analyze the experimental results of the test problems. In Chapter 5 we make some concluding remarks about our modeling method, computational results and we will mention some future prospects. I would like to thank my supervisors Sandjai Bhulai and Ger Koole for their attention and support during this semester, which enriched my knowledge and experience in mathematics.

6 Chapter 1 Models from the literature In this chapter we would like to introduce the labor scheduling problem. As we already mentioned, it has different steps and for each step there are different mathematical programming models to solve it. In the beginning of this chapter we will deal with three different mathematical programming formulations of the shift scheduling problem. We will describe and analyze these models and we will make a comparison between them. After, we will introduce one mathematical programming model for assigning employees to shifts. All of these models are from the literature. For dealing with these models it is essential to introduce the following basic definitions and terms, which we will use afterwards in this thesis. 1.1 Definitions of terms and sets Definition A period is a basic interval for which the planning occurs, typically 15 min., 30 min. or 60 min. Definition A shift is a work schedule for an employee for a specific day, that satisfies different restrictions defined by management policy, contractual obligations or governmental regulations. Definition Work span is the contiguous set of planning periods in which either work or rest must take place for a given shift. Definition A tour is a work schedule for an employee for a week, comprised of separate shifts, that satisfies applicable restrictions defined by management policy, contractual obligations or governmental regulations. Definition A service level is a predefined property of the service for measuring its quality.

7 1.2. Model of Dantzig 6 Definition A break window is a set of contiguous periods in which the break occurs. Definition The extraordinary overlap is the existence of the following condition: the initial and final periods in the break window for any one shift type are earlier and later respectively, than the corresponding initial and final periods in the break window for at least one other shift type. 1.2 Model of Dantzig The shift scheduling problem was introduced first by Edie [5] in Since his paper this problem and a number of related ones have attracted considerable attention in the literature. The first integer programming formulation for the shift scheduling problem presented by Dantzig [4] is the following set-covering type model (DLSM): min z = t T c t x t, (1.1) subject to a tp x t r p for p P, (1.2) t T x t N for t T, (1.3) where the sets and variables are the following: P T the set of indices associated with planning periods, the set of indices associated with allowable shifts (tours), a tp { 1, if period p is a working period for shift (tour) t, 0, otherwise, c t the cost of having an employee work shift (tour) t, r p the desired staffing level in period p, x t the number of employees working shift (tour) t. In this DLSM model the objective (1.1) is to minimize the cost of the scheduled shifts (tours), subject to restrictions (1.2) and (1.3). Constraint set (1.2) ensures that sufficient employees are present in all periods. If we give different shift types, lengths, shift start times, number and length of relief (rest), lunch breaks and break windows, the set-covering formulation requires that all possible combinations of these features are included as different shifts in T. When relief and lunch breaks and break windows are included, the number of shifts in T increases rapidly. Consequently, standard integer programming tools fail to be useful to solve these extended models because of the extremely high number of shifts in T.

8 1.3. Model of Bechtold and Jacobs Model of Bechtold and Jacobs Bechtold and Jacobs [3] in 1990 applied implicitly matched breaks with explicitly modeled shifts. They began to develop this model with the following initial assumptions: (1) The organization operates less than 24 hours. (2) All planning periods are of equal length. (3) Every employee will receive exactly one break. (4) The duration of the breaks is identical for all shifts that are modeled. (5) The duration of breaks contains one or more planning periods. (6) Each shift type is defined by the assignment of a single break window to an associated work span. (7) The break window for each shift consists of any selected nonzero subset of periods subject to the restriction that all periods contained within the break interval must be a subset of the work span associated with the shift. (8) Extraordinary overlap does not exist. (9) No understaffing is allowed. With these assumptions, their (BJSSM) model is the following: subject to min t T c t x t, (1.4) Xp Ω p r p for p P, (1.5) Fk G k 0 for all but the last period k N, (1.6) Rk S k 0 for all but the first period k M, (1.7) X B = 0, (1.8) x t X, x t N, (1.9) b p B, b p N, (1.10) where the sets and the variables of the model are the following:

9 1.3. Model of Bechtold and Jacobs 8 A the sum of all elements contained in any set A, P the set of indices associated with planning periods, T the set of indices associated with allowable shifts, X { x t t T }, N the set of final (latest) periods (ascending order) in the break windows associated with all shifts, M the set of initial (earliest) periods (ascending order) in the break windows associated with all shifts, Ω p the set of break variables for which period p is a break period, c t the cost of having an employee work shift t, r p the labor requirement in period p, x t the number of employees working shift t, b p the total number of breaks initiated at the start of period p by the complete set of employees from all shifts, l the earliest period in P in which the break for any shift may begin, u the latest period in P in which the break for any shift may begin, W t the work span associated with shift t, X p { x t p W t }, i.e., the total number of employees working in period p, V t the set of periods associated with the break window for shift t, U t { b p p V t }, F k { b p k N and p = l, l + 1,..., k }, G k { x t U t F k }, i.e., the set of x t where t belongs to those shifts for which break windows are in the interval ( l, l + 1,..., k ) with k N, R k {b p k M and p = k, k + 1,..., u }, S k { x t U t R k }, i.e., the set of x t where t belongs to those shifts for which break windows are in the interval ( k, k + 1,..., u ) with k N, P b { l, l + 1,..., u 1, u }, B { b p p P b }, i.e., the total number of breaks initiated in the interval { l, l + 1,..., u 1, u }. In this model the objective (1.4) is to minimize the cost of the scheduled shifts, subject to restrictions (1.5)-(1.10). Constraint set (1.5) ensures that demand requirements are met in all periods. Constraint sets (1.6) - (1.8) are the control constraints, which are included to ensure that the shifts are implicitly represented. Constraint set (1.6) ensures that sufficient quantities of breaks are appropriately available for allocation to subset of shifts with break windows which are fully contained within the successively larger intervals ( l, l + 1,..., k ) with k N. The function of constraint set (1.7) is the same as constraint set (1.6) except that the successively larger intervals are ( k, k + 1,..., u ) with k M. Constraint (1.8) ensures that exactly one break is available for each employee scheduled. The proof that the DLSM model is equivalent with this BJSSM is contained in [2] which was based upon the initial assumptions. The term equivalence is used to indicate that the two models represent the same set of allowed shifts and that the optimal objective

10 1.4. Model of Aykin 9 function values for the two models are equal. 1.4 Model of Aykin Aykin s model [1] is also based on the implicit representation of the break placements. He considered the problem with multiple rest and lunch breaks and multiple break windows. He introduced integer variables for the numbers of employees assigned to a shift and starting their breaks in different planning periods within the associated break window. This representation has high flexibility provided by the break windows, i.e., the number and the length of the break windows are optional in this model. Thus, without loss of generality he assumed that every employee receives two relief breaks and one lunch break. Further, it was also assumed that the duration of the relief breaks is one period and the duration of the lunch break is two periods. With these assumptions, Aykin s general shift scheduling model (ASSM) can be formulated as follows: min c t x t, (1.11) t T subject to a tp x t u tp w t(p 1) t T t T 1 p t T L (p 1) w tp v tp b p for p P, (1.12) t T L p t T 2 p x t u tp = 0 for t T, (1.13) p B1 t x t w tp = 0 for t T, (1.14) p BL t x t v tp = 0 for t T, (1.15) p B2 t x t, u tp, w tp, v tp N, (1.16) where the sets and the variables in the model are the following: x t the number of employees working shift t, b p the number of employees needed in period p, a tp { 1, if period p is a working period for shift (tour) t, 0, otherwise, u tp the number of employees assigned to shift t and starting their first relief break in period p,

11 1.5. Comparison of the models 10 w tp v tp T P B1 t B2 t BL t T 1 p T 2 p T L p the number of employees assigned to shift t and starting their lunch break in period p, the number of employees assigned to shift t and starting their second relief break in period p, the set of indices associated with allowable shifts, the set of indices associated with periods, the set of planning periods in which an employee working shift t may start his/her first relief break, the set of planning periods in which an employee working shift t may start his/her second relief break, the set of planning periods in which an employee working shift t may start his/her lunch break, the set of shifts for which period p is a break start time within the time windows for the first relief break, the set of shifts for which period p is a break start time within the time windows for the second relief break, the set of shifts for which period p is a break start time within the time windows for the lunch break. In this scheduling model the objective (1.11) is to minimize the cost of the scheduled shifts subject to the constraint sets (1.12)-(1.16). With constraint set (1.12) we ensure that sufficient number of employees are present in all periods. Every employee has to take exactly one first, one second relief break and one lunch break. We model these conditions with constraint sets (1.13)-(1.15), where constraint set (1.13) is responsible for the first relief breaks, constraint set (1.14) is responsible for the lunch breaks and constraint set (1.15) is responsible for the second relief breaks. This model can be extended with additional restrictions on break placements and shift types. For example, Aykin suggested the following constraint to model the situation when the number of employees taking a break in a period p has to be limited because of space availability or company policy. u tp + w t(p 1) + w tp + v tp h p. (1.17) t T 1 p t T L (p 1) t T L p t T 2 p It is possible to model shifts with different lengths or number of breaks with this formulation by introducing a new set of break variables and new break constraints for every additional break. 1.5 Comparison of the models In the previous sections we introduced three different formulations of the shift scheduling problem: Dantzig [4], Bechtold and Jacobs [3] and Aykin [1].

12 1.5. Comparison of the models 11 In this section we compare these models, focusing on the number of variables and the number of constraints in them. First, we will introduce notations for the cardinality of the following sets: P = n P, where P is the set of indices associated with planning periods, T = n T, where T is the set of indices associated with allowable shifts, N = n N, where N is the set of final (latest) periods (ascending order) in the break windows associated with all shifts, M = n M, where M is the set of initial (earliest) periods (ascending order) in the break windows associated with all shifts, V t = n Vt, where V t is the set of periods associated with the break window for shift t, B = n B, where B = { b p p is in the set of break periods } and b p is the total number of breaks initiated at the start of period p, B1 t = n 1t, where B1 t is the set of planning periods in which an employee working shift t may start his/her first relief break, BL t = n Lt, where BL t is the set of planning periods in which an employee working shift t may start his/her lunch break, B2 t = n 2t, where B2 t is the set of planning periods in which an employee working shift t may start his/her second relief break. Let us denote with NC(P ) the number of constraints in any mathematical programming model P and with NV (P ) the number of variables in that model. In our analysis, we deal with the DLSM, the BJSSM and the ASSM scheduling models and analyze them from this point of view. With the introduced notations, we have the following results: NC(DLSM) = n P, (1.18) NV (DLSM) = n Vt = n 1t n Lt n 2t, t T t T (1.19) NC(BJSSM) = n P + n M + n N 1, (1.20) NV (BJSSM) = n T + n B, (1.21) NC(ASSM) = 3n T + n P, (1.22) NV (ASSM) = n T + ( ) n1t + n Lt + n 2t. (1.23) t T Equation (1.18) comes directly from the constraint set (1.2) in the model of Dantzig on page 6. In that model we formulate all shifts implicitly; thus on one hand, if we have

13 1.5. Comparison of the models 12 V t break periods for any t T then we have altogether t n V t variables in it. On the other hand, if we have n 1t, n 2t, n Lt number of periods for the first, the second relief break and the lunch break respectively for any t T, we should multiply them and sum the result over all shifts t. This result is shown in equation (1.19). In the model of Bechtold and Jacobs on page 7, we have the constraint set (1.6) for all periods in N except the latest period and the constraint set (1.7) for all periods in M except the earliest one. This implies that we have n N 1 + n M 1 constraints from these sets, n P from the constraints in equation (1.5) and an additional one from equation (1.6). Hence, we get the result in (1.20). Result (1.21) is derived from constraints (1.9) and (1.10) on page 7. In Aykin s model on page 9, we assumed that there are three breaks for every employee. This assumption has a big effect on the number of constraints and variables in formulas (1.22) and (1.23). The previous result comes from constraint set (1.12), where we have n P constraints and from equation (1.12)-(1.14), where we have n T constraints for each break. In this model we have one variable for each shift t and n 1t, n 2t and n Lt for any period t. These results lead us to equation (1.23). We can easily make a comparison between the DLSM and the BJSSM model. From result (1.18) and (1.20) is it clear that in the model of Dantzig we have less constraints. If we would like to compare the number of variables in these two models, we have to do a more in-depth analysis. If break flexibility is not modeled, then NV (BJSSM) = n T, so we have less variables in the DLSM model. However, the relative advantage in using the BJSSM formulation increases significantly when n Vt is increasing, because in this case the number of variables increases rapidly in the Dantzig model. In the comparison between Dantzig s model and the model of Aykin we can see that there are less constraints than in the previous model, i.e., if we compare equation (1.18) and (1.22). As for the variables, in the Dantzig model we have a product of three variables (or even more if we have more breaks) and in the Aykin model we have the sum of them. From this we can conclude that if n 1t, n 2t and n Lt are big enough then Aykin s model has less variables. If we would like to compare the BJSSM and the ASSM model we have a little problem, because these models model different scheduling problems. The main difference between them is the number and the length of breaks: we have three breaks in Aykin s model (one is two periods) and one break in Bechtold and Jacobs model. To be able to compare them we have to model the similar problem with these formulations. Fortunately, it is possible to model a scheduling problem with one break, which is one period long, with both models. In this case results of the BJSSM model remain true,

14 1.6. Model of Thompson 13 i.e., equation (1.20) and (1.21), but we have to modify Aykin s model in the following way: we have to use only the variables and the constraints, which are for the first relief break. In this case we have n P constraints from constraint set (1.12) and n T from constraint set (1.12), which means that we have n P + n T constraints in this model, i.e., in this case NC(ASSM) = n P + n T. This result is comparable with the result in equation (1.20). Using the same logic as above we have that in Aykin s model there are n T + t T n 1t variables, which is comparable also with the number of variables in the BJSSM model in equation (1.21). So far in this chapter we introduced and analyzed three different mathematical programming approaches for the shift scheduling problem. In the next section we will introduce a model for assigning employees to shifts. 1.6 Model of Thompson In this section we deal with Thompson s model [8] for assigning employees to shifts with some special characteristics. There are some initial restrictions in the model, which are the following: (1) All shifts have to be assigned. These shifts were identified by the scheduler previously. (2) It is obliged contractually to satisfy preferences for shifts in order of employee seniority, i.e., a senior employee receives his/her desired maximum number of shifts before a less senior employee receives more than one shift. (3) Employees have special characteristics: (a) availability, i.e., the time when they are available and the maximum number of shifts they can work, (b) skills and location, (c) all employees receive at least one shift per week, (d) an employee cannot be assigned more than one shift per day. With these restrictions, Thompson s model is the following: ( ) min P 0 P e v et x et t T u t + e E {t T c t C e,d t D e} (1.24) subject to

15 1.6. Model of Thompson 14 {e E c t C e,d t D e} {t T c t C e,d t D e} {t T c t C e,d t D e} {t T c t C e,d t=i} {t T c t C e,d t D e} {t T c t C e,d t D e} x et + u t = 1 for t T, (1.25) x et 1 for e E, (1.26) x et m e for e E, (1.27) x et 1 for e E, i D e, (1.28) x et 1 + (m e 1)y e 1 for {e E e > 1}, (1.29) x et m e y e for e {E e < E}, (1.30) x et {0, 1} for e E, {t T c t C e, d t D e }, (1.31) y e {0, 1} for {e E e < E}, (1.32) u t {0, 1} for t T, (1.33) where the sets and the variables of the model are the following: T the set of shifts, E the set of employees, ordered from most senior to least senior, P i the priority of component i, where P i P i+1 (the priority for component i is much larger than the priority for component i + 1), C e the set of shift categories that employee e can work, the set of days that employee e can work, D e x et { 1, if employee e is assigned to shift s, 0, otherwise, m e the maximum number of shifts to assign to employee e, v et the undesirability of assigning employee e to shift t, y e { 1, if employee e is assigned the maximum number of shifts, 0, otherwise, c t the category of shift t, d t the day on which shift t is scheduled, u t { 1, if shift t is unassigned, 0, otherwise. In this model the objective (1.24) is to minimize the number of unassigned shifts and specify that employees shift choices are to be satisfied, if possible, in order of seniority.

16 1.6. Model of Thompson 15 With constraint set (1.25) we ensure that all shift will be assigned, i.e., minimizing the number of unassigned shifts u t. We have to assign at least one shift to each employee. We model this condition with constraint set (1.26). Constraint set (1.27) ensures that we assign no more than the maximum desired number of shifts for each employee and constraint set (1.28) ensures that no more than one shift per day per employee is assigned. With constraint set (1.29)-(1.31) we force a more senior employee to work their desired number of shifts before a less senior employee works more than one shift. In the next chapter we will introduce our workforce scheduling model. In this model we will present and use a different approach for formulating labor scheduling problems.

17 Chapter 2 Scheduling model with logical constraints In the previous chapter we introduced three mathematical programming models of the shift scheduling problem and one mathematical programming model for the employee assignment problem. In these shift scheduling models we saw different techniques for modeling the breaks: explicit modeled breaks in Dantzig model [4], implicit modeled breaks in Bechtold and Jacobs s [3] and Aykin s model [1]. In all of these models the shifts are represented by the set T, which means that in these models the allowable shifts are explicitly in the model. In Thompson s model [8] we saw a modeling technique, with which we can assign shifts to employees and satisfy employees preferences for shifts in order of seniority. In this chapter we will introduce our labor scheduling model, in which we will model shifts implicitly. For this reason at the beginning of the chapter we will deal with the relationship between mathematical logic and operation research, i.e., the way we can represent logical constraints with LP or IP formulation. Using this formulation we can provide high flexibility with involve different rules to the model, with which we can model shifts in an implicit way. In our model we will distinguish between employees with a long term contract and employees, who can work only in specific periods a day (e.g., students, part time workers, etc.). It is possible that we have employees, who have long term contract, with different skills, experiences and different preferences, i.e., we have different employees for different types of work and they would like to work in different periods (e.g., an employee does not want to work in the night or he/she would like to finish his/her work earlier). We will model these preferences in the following way: we will penalize if an employee has to work in the period, in which he/she does not want and vice versa. At the end of the chapter we will present our shift scheduling model, which we will use to solve a scheduling problem from call centers in Chapter 4.

18 2.1. Decision, indicator variables Decision, indicator variables In a linear programming (LP) or integer programming (IP) environment we may use additional variables to represent connections between different variables and states. In this section we will introduce the connection between certain states of a continuous variable and states of its indicator or decision variable. In our representation the indicator and decision variables are always 0-1 variables. We will denote the LP or IP variables with x or x i and the indicator or decision variable with δ. It is a frequently occuring situation when we want to distinguish between the state where x = 0 and the state when x > 0. For this we can use an indicator variable δ. By introducing the following constraint we can force δ to take value 1 when x > 0: x Mδ 0, (2.1) where M is a constant coefficient representing a known upper bound for x. With inequality (2.1) we now have logically the following condition: Now we would like to impose the other condition, that is or equivalently, x > 0 δ = 1. (2.2) x = 0 δ = 0, (2.3) δ = 1 x > 0. (2.4) Together condition (2.2) and condition (2.3) or (2.4) impose the following logical relation: δ = 1 x > 0. (2.5) It is not possible to represent (2.4) by a constraint. Instead we can find a realistic lower bound m for the continuous variable x. With this lower bound we can satisfy the condition: δ = 1 x m. (2.6) For this we can use the following constraint: x mδ 0. (2.7) In the above described method we only use the decision variable δ to distinguish between two states of one continuous variable. It is possible to use indicator variables in a similar way to show whether an inequality holds or does not hold. First, we wish to indicate whether the following inequality holds by means of an indicator variable δ: a j x j b. j

19 2.1. Decision, indicator variables 18 Therefore we would like to model the following condition first: δ = 1 j a j x j b. (2.8) Condition (2.8) can be represented by a constraint: a j x j + Mδ M + b. (2.9) j The usual way of constructing (2.9) from condition (2.8) is the following method. First, we would like to establish the logical condition, δ = 1 j a jx j b, that is equivalent with the condition: δ = 1 j a jx j b 0. In the other way it means, that if (1 δ) = 0 then we wish to have j a jx j b 0. This condition is imposed if a j x j b M(1 δ), j where M is a sufficiently large upper bound, such that it does not give an undesired constraint. Now the next step is to model the reverse implication of constraint (2.8), i.e., a j x j b δ = 1. (2.10) j This can be expressed with the following condition, which is equivalent with (2.10): δ = 0 j a j x j b, (2.11) i.e., δ = 0 j a j x j > b. (2.12) When we are dealing with the expression j a jx j > b, we run into the same difficulties that we met with the expression x > 0 in condition (2.4). We must rewrite the expression a j x j > b, as j a j x j b + ɛ, j

20 2.1. Decision, indicator variables 19 where ɛ is some small tolerance value beyond which we will regard the constraint as having been broken. If the coefficients a j are integers as well as the variables x j for all j, there is no difficulty as ɛ can be taken equal to 1. With this ɛ (2.12) may now be written as: δ = 0 j a j x j (b + ɛ) 0. (2.13) Now we can represent condition (2.13) with a constraint, which is: a j x j (m ɛ)δ b + ɛ, (2.14) where m is a lower bound for expression j a jx j b. j Using the above described method for inequalities, which are of the form j a jx j b, we can indicate whether an inequality of the form a j x j b j holds or not. We only have to transform the relation into the relation. The logical condition δ = 1 a j x j b (2.15) j can be represented with the inequality a j x j + mδ m + b, (2.16) where m is again the lower bound of the expression a j x j b. j j For the condition δ = 0 j a j x j < b (2.17) when applying the described method, we get the following constraint, a j x j (M + ɛ)δ b ɛ, (2.18) j

21 2.2. Logical constraints 20 where M is again the upper bound for the expression j a jx j b. Finally, to use an indicator variable δ for a constraint of the form = such as a j x j = b, j is more complicated. We can use δ = 1 to indicate that the and cases hold simultaneously. This is done by stating both (2.9) and (2.16) together. If δ = 0 we want to force either the or the constraint to be broken. This can be done by expressing (2.14) and (2.18) with two variables δ 1 and δ 2 giving a j x j (m ɛ)δ 1 b + ɛ, (2.19) j a j x j (M + ɛ)δ 2 b ɛ. (2.20) j The indicator variable δ forces the required condition by the extra constraint 2.2 Logical constraints δ 1 + δ 2 δ 1. (2.21) In the previous section it was pointed out that extra 0-1 variables can be introduced into an LP or IP model as decision variables or indicator variables. In these models it has frequently happened that we have to model also the logical connections between these decision or indicator variables with linear programming tools. Including these connections in a mathematical programming model we will able to represent real life problems in a more efficient way. In this section we will introduce some basic concepts and properties from mathematical logic, which are necessary from the modeling point of view. It will be convenient to use notations from Boolean algebra. First of all we would like to introduce the so called set of connectives. In general, connectives are often used to make compound propositions. The main ones are shown in the following table (p and q are given propositions):

22 2.2. Logical constraints 21 Name Symbol Representation Meaning negation p not p conjuction p q p and q disjunction p q p or q (or both) implication p q if p then q biconditional p q p if and only if q Table 2.1: Main compound propositions The truth value of these compound propositions only depends on the truth value of its components. It is quite important to understand how the propositions value will change if the value of a component changes. These relations are shown in Table 2.2, where p, q, are given propositions, t is written if a statement is true and f if it is false. p q p p q p q p q p q t t f t t t t t f f f t f f f t t f t t f f f t f f t t Table 2.2: Truth table of main compound propositions There are some equivalences ( ) between these propositions, that are sufficient for dealing with connectives. In the following, we will explore these equivalences. Let p, q and r be given propositions, t stands for true and f stands for false statements. With these terms, we have the following laws: Idempotent laws Commutative laws Associative laws p p p, p p p. (2.22) p q q p, p q q p. (2.23) (p q) r p (q r), (p q) r p (q r). (2.24)

23 2.3. The IP formulation of the logical relationships 22 Distributive laws Domination laws p (q r) (p q) (p r), (2.25) p (q r) (p q) (p r). (2.26) Double negation law p t t, p t p, p f p, p f f, (2.27) p p t, p p f, t f, f t. (2.28) De Morgan s laws p p. (2.29) (p q) p q, (p q) p q. (2.30) Implication laws p q p q. (2.31) (p q) ( p q) p q, (2.32) q p q p p q, (2.33) p (q r) (p q) (p r), (2.34) p (q r) (p q) (p r), (2.35) (p q) r (p r) (q r), (2.36) (p q) r (p r) (q r). (2.37) 2.3 The IP formulation of the logical relationships In the previous sections we introduced indicator, decision variables to distinguish between certain states of the variables in an LP or IP model. Afterwards we dealt with some basic concepts from mathematical logic to give a background for manipulating with these variables. In this section we would like to describe how we can model these Boolean algebraic manipulations with equalities and inequalities in an LP or IP modeling area. From now on we will use X i to stand for a proposition with truth value δ i {0, 1} i.e., X i is true if and only if δ i = 1, where δ i {0, 1}. The following propositions and constraints are equivalent [9]: X 1 X 2 δ 1 + δ 2 1, (2.38) X 1 X 2 δ 1 δ 2 = 1 δ 1 = 1, δ 2 = 1, (2.39)

24 2.4. The model with logical constraints 23 X 1 δ 1 = 0, (2.40) X 1 X 2 δ 1 δ 2 0, (2.41) X 1 X 2 δ 1 δ 2 = 0. (2.42) If a product term such as δ 1 δ 2 were to appear anywhere in a model, the model could be made linear by the following steps: (i) replace δ 1 δ 2 by a 0 1 variable δ 3, (ii) impose the logical condition by means of the extra constraints δ 3 = 1 δ 1 = 1, δ 2 = 1 (2.43) δ 1 + δ 3 0, δ 2 + δ 3 0, (2.44) δ 1 + δ 2 δ 3 1. It is even possible to linearize terms involving a product of a 0-1 variable δ with a continuous variable x. The term xδ can be treated in the following way: (i) replace xδ by a continuous variable y, (ii) impose the logical condition δ = 0 y = 0, δ = 1 y = x. by the extra constraints y Mδ 0, x + y 0, (2.45) x y + Mδ M, where M is an upper bound for x (and hence also y). 2.4 The model with logical constraints So far in this chapter we established the mathematical background for representing logical relationships between variables in mathematical LP or IP programming. With this we will create a model in which these relations are involved. In this section we will focus on the workforce scheduling problems. In our model we will use logical constraints to represent different restrictions (e.g., management policy, contractual obligations, governmental regulations, etc. ). To deal with the model it is sufficient to introduce some new terms and definitions (the definitions from Section 1.1 will be used also here).

25 2.4. The model with logical constraints Terms, variables and sets In the constraint set of the model we will use the following variables and sets: I the index set of employees, K the index set of different types employees, T k the index set of employees from type k, where k K, P the index set of periods, n (k) p the number of employees needed in period p from type k, x pi { 1, if employee i is hired for period p, 0, if employee i is not hired for period p, y (k) pe the number of extra employees for period p from type k. Logic(X) all the necessary logical constraints on matrix X, of which the elements are denoted by x pi. With index set K we can represent different types of employees, e.g., if there are different skills for handling different types of jobs. This situation occurs frequently for example in call centers (we will discuss this topic in Section 3.3). We use the index set T k to group employees according to their skills. Set P was already defined and used in the previous models from literature in Chapter 1. Because we have different types of employees, who can handle different jobs, we need to distinguish between required levels of staffing for all types. We will use parameter in our model to make this distinction between the required number of workers in all types. The variable x pi {0, 1} is for scheduling employees into periods. n (k) p We already made a distinction between employees with different skills. It is quite rational to differentiate employees who have a long term contract with the company and employees who are applying for a part time job with exact requirements for their working time, i.e., they have periods in which they can work and periods in which it is impossible for them to work. For this reason we will introduce index set I c for the employees with a long term contract and index set I p for employees with a part time job. Notice that, I c I p = and I c I p = I.

26 2.4. The model with logical constraints 25 It is possible that we do not have enough employees to satisfy the required level (e.g., we do not have enough employees in set I c and there are only a few members in I p ). The companies usually try to avoid this situation but in case of unpredictably high load they have to hire extra workers (e.g., those who have a day off). In our model we denote with y pe (k) the number of extra employees for period p from type k. These employees are far the most expensive ones so we will try to avoid to use them. In our model we will use matrix A to represent the exact possible working times for employees with a part time job (i.e., employees in the index set I p ): a pi { 1, if employee i can work in period p, 0, if for employee i period p is not a possible working period The constraint set of the model With the terms and notations from the previous section the constraint set of our scheduling model is the following: A X 1 0 x pi + y pe (k) n(k) p k, p P LC. i T k Logic(X) Because we give indexes to employees it is possible to partition X into to submatrices, i.e., X = [X 1 X 2 ]. In this partition X 1 is a sub-matrix of X, of which the columns are representing employees with a part time job, i.e., X 1 {0, 1} P Ip and sub-matrix X 2 {0, 1} P Ic is representing employees with a long term contract. In our model we use constraint A X 1 0 to schedule only those part time employees to a period, who are able to work in that one. It is very important that this constraint has only effect on employees with a part time job (employees in index set I p ), because we formulate their exact requirements for working time with it. With the second constraint, i.e., x pi + y pe (k) n(k) p k, p i T k we ensure that sufficient number of employees are present for every period from every type. This constraint is always satisfiable because of y pe (k) and thus our P LC is always feasible. In the Logic(X) part it will be useful if we put rarely or never changing constraints (e.g., governmental restrictions, special characteristics of the firm, contractual obligations, etc.).

27 2.4. The model with logical constraints The objective function In the previous section we defined and introduced the constraints for our model. As in every mathematical programming model, we should define an objective function, with which we can express the goals of the model. This part of the modeling method is quite complicated because we should find the proper balance between our goals. In this section we will focus on our objectives and the way we can involve them into the model. Afterwards we will use S PLC to denote the solution set of P LC, i.e., A X 1 0 S PLC = (X, y) {0, 1} P I N P K x pi + y pe (k) n(k) p i T k Logic(X) k, p. (2.46) We would like to introduce a binary relation between the X 2 partitions of X in S PLC to represent the preferences of employees with a long term contract (e.g., employees can prefer a schedule for themselves against another one). We will use the following notation for this partition set: { SP c LC := Y X = [ X 1 Y ] }, X S PLC. There are some basic and rational properties of a preference relation, that we would like satisfy. These are the following: Definition If is a binary relation in S c P LC, then we can define two other binary relations with Z V Z V and V Z A binary relation is transitive, if A binary relation is complete, if and Z V Z V and V Z, Z, V S c P LC. Z V and V W = Z W, Z, V, W S c P LC. Z V or V Z, Z, V S c P LC.

28 2.4. The model with logical constraints 27 These properties are very natural if we want to model the preference of employees. With a preference relation we can distinguish between good and bad objects (schedules). This distinction is based on the subjective order of the decision maker. We can represent this order with a metric, which expresses the distance between an optimal schedule and any other schedules in S c P LC. We will denote with S the optimal schedule for employees with a long term contracts (i.e., all employees having their ideal schedule for the day). In this S {0, 1} P Ic the columns represent the employees, the rows represent the periods (as in X). So S pi { 1, if employee i would like to work in period p, 0, if employee i would not like to work in period p. With this ideal schedule we can measure the quality of any other schedules. The reasonable way to do this is to consider a schedule good if it is near to the ideal one and consider a schedule bad if it is far from the ideal one. It is important to see that S is not necessary an element of the set S c P LC. To deal with such notations as near and far we will introduce a metric between matrices in {0, 1} P Ic space. Definition A metric space M = (X, d) consists of a set X together with a function, called metric, d : X X R such that i) d(x, y) 0 for all x, y X, and d(x, y) = 0 x = y, ii) d(x, y) = d(y, x) for all x, y X, iii) d(x, z) d(x, y) + d(y, z) for all x, y, z X. As we can see, the definition of metric space allows us to define different kinds of metrics. For our purposes, we will use the so called discrete metric. This is defined by { 0, if x = y, d 0 (x, y) = 1, if x y. Using this metric, we can define a metric in our {0, 1} P Ic space, such that d M (X, Y ) = p,i v i d 0 (X pi, Y pi ), where v i positive integer weight for column i (in our model we will represent the value or the seniority of the employee with it).

29 2.4. The model with logical constraints 28 Lemma The space M = ({0, 1} P Ic, d M ) is a metric space, with d M : {0, 1} P Ic {0, 1} P Ic N. Proof of Lemma To proof that d M is a metric we should show that it satisfies all the properties in Definition First, we would like to prove property i) from the definition: d M (X, Y ) = p,i v i d 0 (X pi, Y pi ) and v i d 0 (X pi, Y pi ) 0 p, i thus, d M (X, Y ) 0. The function d M (X, Y ) = 0 if and only if v i d 0 (X pi, Y pi ) = 0 for all p, i, thus d M (X, Y ) = 0 if and only if X = Y, which means that d M (X, Y ) satisfies property i). Now we would like to prove property ii), i.e., the symmetry: d M (X, Y ) = p,i v i d 0 (X pi, Y pi ) = p,i v i d 0 (Y pi, X pi ) = d M (Y, X), which means that d M (X, Y ) satisfies property ii). Finally, we show that d M satisfies property iii), i.e., it satisfies the triangle inequality: d M (X, Z) = v i d 0 (X pi, Z pi ) ) v i (d 0 (X pi, Y pi ) + d 0 (Y pi, Z pi ) = p,i p,i = p,i v i d 0 (X pi, Y pi ) + p,i v i d 0 (Y pi, Z pi ) = d M (X, Y ) + d M (Y, Z), which means that d M (X, Y ) satisfies property iii). As we can see our d M function satisfied all the sufficient properties, thus d M (X, Y ) is a metric. It is also clear that d M (X, Y ) satisfy the natural conditions in Definition So far we introduced a metric, with which we can represent the preferences of employees. Using this metric, one of our goal is to minimize the distance between the optimal schedule S and the solution, which means that we would like to give the best possible schedule. We have another very natural goal in our model. It is to minimize the cost of the schedule, i.e., minimize the cost of employees. For this we would like to introduce the following notations:

30 2.4. The model with logical constraints 29 c pe (k) the cost of extra employees for period p from type k, c pi the cost of employee i for period p, i I. With these notations our objective function is the following: [ min w 1 c pe (k) y(k) pe + ] c pi x pi + w 2 d M (S, X 2 ). (2.47) p P i I k K p P In this objective function w 1 and w 2 are weights to determine the balance between the cost part and the preference part. Finally, we have all elements to introduce our labor scheduling model, which is subject to [ min w 1 c pe (k) y pe (k) + ] c pi x pi + w 2 d M (S, X 2 ), (2.48) p P i I k K p P A X 1 0 x pi + y pe (k) n(k) p i T k Logic(X) k, p P LC. (2.49)

31 Chapter 3 Call centers Up to this point we dealt with the basic staff scheduling models and we set up a model with logical constraints. In this chapter we study the world of call centers; a real life area, where workforce scheduling plays a very important role. First we will give a basic introduction about these centers. After we will discuss some basic concepts from queueing theory; a field of mathematics, which helps us to model call centers. Finally, we will go into details of workforce scheduling in call centers, to introduce this field of problems for the next chapter where we will solve a specific workforce scheduling problem. 3.1 Introduction Nowadays, the most preferred and frequently used way for companies to communicate with their customers are call centers and their contemporary successors, contact centers. The economic role of these centers is thus significant and rapidly expanding. Most organizations with customer contact - private companies, as well as government and emergency services - have re-engineered their infrastructure to communicate with customers via call centers. For many companies operating world-wide, such as airlines, banks, credit card companies call centers provide a primary link between customer and service provider. 3.2 Call centers in general From Koole [7]: A call center can be considered as a set of resources - typically personnel, telecommunication equipment and computers - which enable to deliver different kind of services via the telephone. More generally, a current trend is the extension of the call center into a contact center, which is a call center in which the traditional telephone service is enhanced by some

32 3.3. Call center characteristics 31 additional multi-media customer-contact channels, commonly , fax, Internet or chat. 3.3 Call center characteristics Call centers can be categorized along many dimensions. Call centers with different characteristics can have huge differences from the mathematical point of view. Thus it is very important to determine the basic characteristics of our center before we start to build a mathematical model of it. The functions that call centers can provide vary highly: help desk for computer software, emergency response (e.g., police, ambulance etc.), costumer service, tele-marketing and order taking. They greatly vary in size and geographic dispersion, from single-located centers with few agents that take local calls to large multi-site international centers in which thousands of agents work at any time. Modern call centers are challenged with multitude types of calls, coming in over different communication channels (telephone, Internet, fax, , chat mobile devices,... ), thus these centers require agents with the skill to handle one or more types of calls (single- vs. multi-skilled agents). When multiple skills are required to handle calls, a center may cross-train low-skilled employees to handle all type of calls. Due to the growing complexity of contact centers the organization of work becomes more complex. A recent trend in networking is skill based routing that is used to route calls to appropriate agents. The central characteristic of a call center is whether it handles inbound or outbound calls. Inbound call centers handle incoming calls that are initiated by outside callers calling to a center. Typically, these types of centers provide costumer support, help desk services, reservation and sales support for airlines and hotels, and order-taking functions for catalog and web-based merchants. Outbound call centers handle outgoing calls, calls that are initiated from within a center. These types of operations have been traditionally associated with advertisement, tele-marketing and survey businesses. A recent development in some inbound centers is to initiate outbound calls too. 3.4 Mathematics and call centers In every call center the typical goal is to provide service at a given quality, subject to a given budget. Call center managers are thus faced with the problem of having a high service level with rapidly changing inbound calls. This service level is usually quantified in terms of congestion or other performance measures. Because of this highly variable environment, the performance in terms of the qual-

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