1 WHITE PAPER #6 GREEN GRID DATA CENTER POWER EFFICIENCY METRICS: PUE AND DCIE EDITORS: CHRISTIAN BELADY, MICROSOFT CONTRIBUTORS: ANDY RAWSON, AMD JOHN PFLEUGER, DELL TAHIR CADER, SPRAYCOOL
2 PAGE 2 ABSTRACT The Green Grid is an association of IT professionals seeking to dramatically raise the energy effi ciency of datacenters through a series of short-term and long-term proposals. This is an update to the very fi rst white paper published by the Green Grid in February 2007 called Green Grid Metrics: Describing Data Center Power Effi ciency to refi ne the nomenclature and intent of that paper. In that paper, The Green Grid proposed the use of Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) and its reciprocal, Datacenter Effi ciency (DCE) metrics, which enable datacenter operators to quickly estimate the energy effi ciency of their datacenters, compare the results against other datacenters, and determine if any energy effi ciency improvements need to be made. Since then PUE has received broad adoption in the industry but DCE has had limited success due to the misconception of what data center effi ciency really means. As a result, this paper re-affi rms the use of PUE but redefi nes its reciprocal as datacenter infrastructure effi ciency (DCiE). This refi nement will avoid much of the confusion around DCE and will now be called DCiE. In the long term, The Green Grid is developing metrics to measure data center productivity as well as effi ciency metrics for all major power-consuming subsystems in the datacenter. To promote these metrics and drive greater datacenter energy effi ciency for businesses around the world, The Green Grid will publish future white papers that provide detailed guidance on using these metrics. We will also continue to collaborate with organizations such as the EPA, ECMA and Climate Savers that promote a similar goal and vision.
3 PAGE 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...4 BACKGROUND...4 SHORT TERM (TACTICAL)...4 LONG TERM (STRATEGIC)...6 REFERENCES...9
4 PAGE 4 INTRODUCTION The Green Grid believes that several metrics can help data centers better understand and improve the energy effi ciency of their existing datacenters, as well as help them make smarter decisions on new datacenter deployments. In addition, these metrics provide a dependable way to measure their results against comparable IT organizations. Why the need for greater energy effi ciency? Because datacenter power and cooling are two of the biggest issues facing IT organizations today, and growing companies need a way to control these costs while enabling future expansion. With more effi cient datacenters, IT organizations can better manage increased computing, network, and storage demands, lower energy costs, and reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) all while remaining competitive and able to meet future business needs.1 BACKGROUND The Green Grid is a non-profi t trade organization of IT professionals that addresses power and cooling requirements for datacenters and the entire information service delivery ecosystem. The Green Grid does not endorse any vendor-specifi c products or solutions, but instead provides recommendations on best practices, metrics, and technologies designed to improve overall datacenter effi ciency. SHORT TERM (TACTICAL) The Green Grid recognizes the importance of establishing metrics for datacenter effi ciency, and offers guidance on technologies that claim to improve performance-per-watt. Ideally, these metrics and processes will help determine if the existing datacenter can be optimized before a new datacenter is needed. In the earlier white paper, the Green Grid supported two related metrics Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE)2 and Datacenter Effi ciency (DCE)2,3. Since then PUE has received broad adoption in the industry but DCE has had limited success due to the misconception of what data center effi ciency really means. As a result, this paper re-affi rms the use of PUE but redefi nes its reciprocal as datacenter infrastructure effi ciency (DCiE). This refi nement will avoid much of the confusion around DCE and will now be called DCiE. POWER USAGE EFFECTIVENESS (PUE) AND DATACENTER INFRASTRUCTURE EFFICIENCY (DCIE) The PUE is defi ned as follows: PUE = Total Facility Power/IT Equipment Power (1) and its reciprocal, the DCiE is defi ned as: DCiE = 1/PUE = IT Equipment Power/Total Facility Power x 100% (2) For equations 1 and 2, the Total Facility Power is defi ned as the power measured at the utility meter the power dedicated solely to the datacenter (this is important in mixed-use buildings that house datacenters as one of a number of consumers of power). The IT Equipment Power is defi ned as the equipment that is used to manage, process, store, or route data within the data center. It is important to understand the components for the loads in the metrics, which can be described as follows: 1. IT EQUIPMENT POWER. This includes the load associated with all of the IT equipment, such as compute, storage, and network equipment, along with supplemental equipment such as KVM switches, monitors, and workstations/laptops used to monitor or otherwise control the datacenter.
5 PAGE 5 2. TOTAL FACILITY POWER. This includes everything that supports the IT equipment load such as: Power delivery components such as UPS, switch gear, generators, PDUs, batteries, and distribution losses external to the IT equipment. Cooling system components such as chillers, computer room air conditioning units (CRACs), direct expansion air handler (DX) units, pumps, and cooling towers. Compute, network, and storage nodes. Other miscellaneous component loads such as datacenter lighting. The PUE and DCiE provides a way to determine: Opportunities to improve a datacenter s operational effi ciency. How a datacenter compares with competitive datacenters. If the datacenter operators are improving the designs and processes over time. Opportunities to repurpose energy for additional IT equipment. While both of these metrics are essentially the same, they can be used to illustrate the energy allocation in the datacenter differently. For example, if a PUE is determined to be 3.0, this indicates that the datacenter demand is three times greater than the energy necessary to power the IT equipment. In addition, the ratio can be used as a multiplier for calculating the real impact of the system s power demands. For example, if a server demands 500 watts and the PUE for the datacenter is 3.0, then the power from the utility grid needed to deliver 500 watts to the server is 1500 watts. DCiE is quite useful as well. A DCiE value of 33% (equivalent to a PUE of 3.0) suggests that the IT equipment consumes 33% of the power in the datacenter. Figure 1: Illustration of How PUE and DCE Would Be Calculated In A Datacenter In Figure 1, Total Facility Power is measured at or near the facility utility s meter(s) to accurately refl ect the power entering the datacenter. This should represent the total power consumed in the datacenter.
6 PAGE 6 The datacenter-only portion of a building utility meter should be measured since power not intended to be consumed in the datacenter would result in faulty PUE and DCiE metrics. For example, if a datacenter resides in an offi ce building, total power drawn from the utility will be the sum of the Total Facility Power for the datacenter, and the total power consumed by the non-datacenter offi ces. In this case the datacenter administrator would have to measure or estimate the amount of power being consumed by the nondatacenter offi ces (an estimate will obviously introduce some error into the calculations). IT Equipment Power would be measured after all power conversion, switching, and conditioning is completed and before the IT equipment itself. The most likely measurement point would be at the output of the computer room power distribution units (PDUs). This measurement should represent the total power delivered to the compute equipment racks in the datacenter. The PUE can range from 1.0 to infi nity. Ideally, a PUE value approaching 1.0 would indicate 100% effi ciency (i.e. all power used by IT equipment only). Currently, there are no comprehensive data sets which show the true spread of the PUE for datacenters. Some preliminary work indicates that many datacenters may have a PUE of 3.0 or greater, but with proper design a PUE value of 1.6 should be achievable4. This theory is supported by measurements completed by Lawrence Berkley National Labs5 which shows that the 22 datacenters measured had PUE values in the 1.3 to 3.0 range. Other research indicates that PUE values of 2.0 are achievable with proper design6. However, there is currently no comprehensive industry data set that shows accurate PUE statistics for datacenters. Furthermore, there is no general agreement on what constitutes an effi cient or ineffi cient datacenter. In the future the Green Grid will offer values that profi le target PUE and DCiE metrics for a variety of typical datacenter confi gurations. In the short term, The Green Grid suggests that datacenter owners begin using either the PUE or DCiE metrics. While the measurement points may not be clearly defi ned, The Green Grid feels it is important to begin measuring datacenter effi ciency, even if the method currently requires data manipulation. In addition, The Green Grid also encourages datacenter owners to share and compare their respective PUE and/or DCiE results, which will help each datacenter owner better analyze their measurement methodology as well as understand how their results compare to the rest of the industry. LONG TERM (STRATEGIC) A mixed-use building may house any number of functions, such as datacenter(s), labs, offi ces, etc. For these types of mixed-use environments, determining the power usage of just the datacenter environment is diffi cult. This is particularly true when the utility power grid enters the building through a single entrance point (e.g., through a utility room) and is then distributed to various building locations. These building confi gurations also make it diffi cult to determine the power losses between the power entry into the building and its delivery to the datacenter. To further complicate the calculation of PUE and DCiE, the latest cooling technologies integrate cooling elements such as pumps, refrigeration, blowers, and heat exchangers within the IT equipment itself. These technologies blur the lines between what has traditionally been a clear delineation between facility equipment and IT equipment. However, equipment used to provide power and cooling to the datacenter must be accounted for in the metrics described in this paper.
7 PAGE 7 As part of the effort to promote dramatic effi ciency improvements in the datacenter, The Green Grid will provide clearer distinctions between facility and IT equipment and recommend power consumption measuring techniques throughout the datacenter, as well as for the equipment itself. DATA CENTER PRODUCTIVITY (DCP) For the long term, The Green Grid is working on metrics to defi ne data center productivity. This is the natural evolution from PUE and DCiE and such a metric could be in a form that looks as follows 4 : Datacenter Productivity = Useful Work/Total Facility Power While data center productivity is much more diffi cult to determine, members of The Green Grid feel that this is a key strategic focus for the industry. In effect, this calculation defi nes the datacenter as a black box power goes into the box, heat comes out, data goes into and out of the black box, and a net amount of useful work is done by the black box. This in some ways parallels the work being done with the EPA and Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) at the server level in which the SPEC working group may produce a standard on the performance of a system, and the EPA provides a process by which to measure power consumed by the server. The Green Grid hopes to eventually increase the scope of that work to all IT equipment and will require broad participation from the IT community to help guide and defi ne this work. FURTHER POWER USAGE EFFECTIVENESS (PUE) DEVELOPMENTS The Green Grid will also consider the development of metrics that provide more granularity for the PUE and DCiE metrics by breaking it down into the following components 5 : PUE= 1/DCiE= Cooling Load Factor (CLF) + Power Load Factor (PLF) Where all factors are ratios that are divided by the IT Load and: 1.0 represents the normalized IT Load. Effectively this is the IT Load Factor (ILF) but is always 1.0. Cooling Load Factor (CLF) is the total power consumed by chillers, cooling towers, computer room air conditioners (CRACs), pumps, etc. divided by the IT Load. Power Load Factor (PLF) is the total power dissipated by switch gear, uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs), power distribution units (PDUs), etc. divided by the IT Load. These metrics will be designed to address the blurring of the lines between the IT equipment and facility infrastructure as discussed above. The Green Grid will look at these and other possible PUE and/or DCiE related metrics in the future. COMPONENT EFFICIENCY STANDARDS The Green Grid will also work with the industry to defi ne energy effi ciency guidelines for all of the components in the datacenter. Such components include the following: Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) Switch gear Chillers Computer room air conditioners
8 PAGE 8 Direct expansion (DX) units Pumps Cooling tower Generators Distribution losses external to the racks Power distribution units (PDUs) Batteries Lighting Servers Storage This effort will require close collaboration with other industry bodies such as the American Society for Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). CONCLUDING REMARKS In addition to developing best practices, metrics, guidelines, and standards to help improve data center effi ciency, The Green Grid also proposes defi ning metrics at the rack level as rack-level cooling solutions become more prominent. The group will also offer guidance for measuring both power consumption and useful work at both the facility and rack levels, and will continue to provide technical updates as these metrics and measurement techniques evolve. In the meantime, The Green Grid recommends the use of either PUE or its reciprocal, DCiE.
9 PAGE 9 REFERENCES 1 Patterson, M.K., Costello, D., Grimm P, Loeffl er, M. (2007) Data Center TCO; A Comparison of High-density and Low-density Spaces, THERMES 2007, Santa Fe, NM 2 Malone, C., C. Belady. (2006) Metrics to Characterize Data Center & IT Equipment Energy Use, Proceedings of 2006 Digital Power Forum, Richardson, TX. DPF%20Final.pdf\t_parent 3 Rassmussen, N., Electrical Effi ciency Modeling of Data Centers, White Paper #113, APC. (2005). 4 Belady, C., How to Minimize Data Center Utility Bills, Line 56. (September 5, 2006). https://www.line56. com/articles/default.asp?articleid= Greenberg, S., E. Mills, B. Tschudi, P. Rumsey, and B. Myatt. (2006). Best Practices for Data Centers: Results from Benchmarking 22 Data Centers. Proceedings of the 2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Effi ciency in Buildings. 6 Patterson, M.K., Pratt, A., Kumar, P., From UPS to Silicon, an End-to-End Evaluation of Data Center Effi ciency, Proceedings of the EPA Event: Enterprise Servers and Data Centers: Opportunities for Energy Savings. (February 2006) HYPERLINK APratt_Case_Study.pdf, Study.pdf
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