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60 Stanley Price, M The bongo of the Cherengani Hills. 10: Stanley Price, M Fringe-eared oryx on a Kenya ranch. 14: Stelfox, B Wildlife ranching. 15-l 9. Stelfox, J.G.; Peden, D.G.; Epp, H.; Hudson, R.J.; Mbugua, S.W.; siva, J.L.; Amuyunzu, C.L Herbivore dynamics in southern Narok, Kenya. Journal of Wildlife Management 50: Stewart, D.R.M Wildlife census-lake Rudolf. East African Journal 1: I2 Stewart, D.R.M.; Stewart, J Distribution of some large mammals in Kenya. Journal of the East African Natural History Society l-52. Sutherland, W.J.E Development of the Olambwe Valley Game Reserve in south west Kenya. Biological Conservation 4: Watson, R.M.; Parker, I.S.C.; T A census of elephant and other large mammals in the Mkomazi region of northern Tanzania and southern Kenya. East African Wildlife Journal 7: 1 l-26. Western, D Water availability and its influence on the structure and dynamics of a Savannah large mammal community. East African Journal 13: Western, D Amboseli. Swara Wirtz, P Results of three game counts at Lake Nakuru National Park. Bulletin of the East African Natural History Society 1978: Introduction Tanzania possesses one of the richest wildlife heritages in the world, in terms of both species diversity and large and spectacular antelope populations. Much of the country is thinly populated, and whilst the expansion of human settlement and agricultural development are increasing, there are still extensive tracts of relatively undisturbed wildlife habitat, particularly in the west and south. Tanzania s commitment to wildlife conservation is demonstrated by many outstanding achievements for what economically is a poor, developing nation. These include maintaining a staffed, relatively effective conservation organisation compared to many African countries, and the establishment of an impressive system of conservation areas. There are 11 national parks, plus the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, 17 game reserves, all of which prohibit settlement and cultivation, plus several game controlled areas and forest reserves, where wildlife and its habitats also receive some protection. This fully protected wildlife area (parks and reserves) totals well over 15% of the country and is still increasing; Mahari Mountains National Park has just been gazetted and the Uzungwa Mountains National Park awaits formal declaration. Tanzania s determination to conserve its natural resources is also illustrated by the Government s willingness to endorse the World Conservation Strategy and ratify important international conservation conventions, such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Chapter 9: Tanzania W.A. Rodgers & I. Swai woodland, as in the Selous, Rungwa and Ugalla Game Reserves. The coastal areas are distinctive biogeographically, but are poorly protected. Scattered over this already complex pattern is an archipelago-like zone of Afro-montane forest and Afro-alpine moorland. The mountain national parks, Kilimanjaro, Meru and the proposed Uzungwa park are obvious examples. The extent of these major habitats is shown in Figure 1. Distribution of Antelopes in Tanzania: Antelope species distribution patterns largely follow the broad biogeographical zones described above. The west African forest zone is represented by some of the easternmost populations of Weyns duiker (bongo are not found in Tanzania). The savanna woodlands have medium grass minalia woodlands in the northwest and shorter grass Acacia woodlands in the north. Roan, and zebra (Equus are typical of the taller grass areas, and wildebeest, zebra and Thomson s gazelle dominate on the shorter grass areas. Antelopes typical of the semi-arid Acacia-Commiphora communities include gerenuk, Grant s gazelle, Kirk s dikdik, lesser kudu, oryx and steenbok. The miombo woodlands have extensive populations of greater kudu, Lichtenstein s hartebeest, roan (not in the east), sable and southern reedbuck. The large areas of flood plain grassland may have large but concentrations of bohor reedbuck, buffalo puku and (e.g., Kilombero, Rukwa and Moyowosi valleys); wetter areas in the west harbour sitatunga, e.g., Moyowosi swamps. The coastal mosaic of forests and is an important habitat of bushbuck, and red and blue duikers, with Aders Current Status of Antelopes duiker on Zanzibar Island. The montane forest habitats have populations of and Ecological Zones Much of Tanzania s great diversity Abbott s, blue and red duikers. Past of bongo on Mount of wildlife, and especially the antelopes, can be explained by the Meru are false (see 1982). extraordinary diversity of habitats, varying from sea level to 6000 m and from arid semi-deserts to rain forests. In addition, Tanzania sits at the junction of several major biogeographic regions (see Udvardy 1975, White 1983 and Lamprey 1975). The extensive West African Guinea-Congo tropical forest just reaches em Tanzania, an example of which is Mahari Mountains National Park. The Soudanian savanna woodland covers northwest Tanzania and is typified by Ibanda and Burigi Game Reserves and the Serengeti National Park. The semi-arid Somali-Masai bush reaches northeast Tanzania and extends as a tongue into central Tanzania, including for example Tarangire and parts of Ruaha National Park and Mkomazi Game Reserve. The southern and western part of Tanzania is a typical Central African miombo One species has become extinct in Tanzania in historical time, the kob, which was formerly present in the forest-grassland mosaic around Lake Victoria, an area now intensively settled. Tanzania s varied habitats thus support an antelope fauna of 35 species. Table 1 indicates that 29 of these species populations can be considered to have a satisfactory conservation status. The genetic diversity of Tanzania s antelope resource is not restricted to these 35 species; many of them exhibit considerable intra-specific variation, and often several subspecies are recognized. Such variation may be distinctive and have definite geographical barriers. The separation of eastern roosevelti sable from the southern race by the Nyassa-Usambara mountain chain is one example, the wildebeest of north and southeast Tanzania 53

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