Chatham House EUTR & CITES Assuring legal sourcing under CITES. CITES Secretariat

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1 Chatham House EUTR & CITES Assuring legal sourcing under CITES CITES Secretariat

2 Outline 2 What is CITES? The scope of CITES? How does CITES work? What assurance does CITES provide? What safeguards are provided by CITES?

3 What is CITES? 3

4 What is CITES? 4 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora An international agreement between governments To ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival

5 What is CITES? 5 Concluded in 1973 Entered into force Parties

6 What is the scope of CITES? 6

7 CITES Scope 7 Species subject to CITES regulation are divided amongst 3 Appendices. I II III "Species" means any species, subspecies, or geographically separate population thereof

8 CITES Scope 8 Appendix I - Species threatened with extinction - Over 600 animal species - Over 300 plant species - General principle: International trade is generally prohibited except in exceptional circumstances

9 CITES Scope 9 Appendix II Species not threatened with extinction, but trade must be controlled to avoid them becoming threatened Species that resemble species already included in Appendix I or II More than 4,800 animal species More than 29,500 plant species General principle: International trade is permitted but regulated

10 CITES Scope 10 Appendix III Species for which a country is asking Parties to help with its protection Over 130 animal species About 12 plant species General principle: International trade is permitted but regulated to ensure legality (less restrictive than Appendix II)

11 CITES Scope 11 Tree species, including: - Aquilaria spp. and Gyrinops spp. (Agarwoodproducing species) - Cedrela odorata (West Indian cedar) [App. III] - Dalbergia spp., (Afrormosia, rosewood, sandalwood, etc.) Madacascar populations - Gonystylus spp. (Ramin species) - Pericopsis elata (Afrormosia) - Prunus africana (African cherry) - Swietenia macrophylla (Bigleaf mahogany) - Swietenia mahagoni (West Indian mahogany)

12 CITES Scope 12 >35,000 listed species Live and dead specimens and parts and derivatives

13 CITES Scope 13 import export re-export introduction from the sea

14 How does CITES work? 14

15 How does CITES work? 15 CITES permits and certificates provides: Scientific information (non-detriment findings) Legal origin & sourcing Trade data Purpose of the trade Duration of validity

16 How does CITES work? 16 Import permit: Appendix I only An import permit may be issued only if: The specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes The purpose of the import will not be for detrimental to the survival of the species (Scientific Authority advice) [specific conditions regarding live specimens]

17 How does CITES work? 17 Export permit: Appendix I / Appendix II An export permit may be issued only if: the export will not be detrimental to the survival of the species the specimen was obtained in accordance with national wildlife protection laws for an Appendix-I specimen, the import permit has been issued [specific conditions regarding live specimens]

18 How does CITES work? 18 Appendix III: Export permit / Certificate of Origin For export from the country that included the species in Appendix III, an export permit is required and may be issued only if: the specimen was obtained in accordance with national wildlife laws Any live specimen will be shipped in a manner which will minimize the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment For other countries a certificate of origin is required This may only be issued by a Management Authority of the country of origin

19 How does CITES work? 19 Re-export certificate: Appendix I or II or III A re-export certificate may be issued only if the specimen was imported in accordance with the Convention [specific conditions regarding live specimens]

20 20 What assurance does CITES provide? Legality Sustainability

21 What assurance does CITES provide? 21 Legality Export permit Specimen not obtained in contravention of the laws of the State for the protection of fauna and flora Re-export certificate Imported into the State in accordance with the provisions of the Convention Certificate of origin Country of origin of the specimen

22 What assurance does CITES provide? 22 Sustainability Appendix I Scientific Authority advice: Purpose of import not detrimental to the survival of the species Appendix I and II Scientific Authority advice: Export not detrimental to the survival of the species Appendix III Depends on national law of listing State

23 What assurance does CITES provide? 23 Shared responsibility In Resolution Conf (Rev. CoP16), the Conference of the Parties recommends that: Parties not authorize the import of any specimen if they have reason to believe that it was not legally acquired in the country of origin

24 24 What safeguards does CITES provide? Text of the Convention Resolutions of the Conference of the Parties

25 Safeguards 25 National Legislation Project Resolution Conf. 8.4 (Rev. CoP15) Review of Significant Trade in Specimens of Appendix-II Species Resolution Conf (Rev. CoP13) Management of National Export Quotas Resolution Conf (Rev. CoP15) Permits and Certificates Resolution Conf (Rev. CoP16)

26 Safeguards 26 Article XIII Where Appendix I or II species are adversely affected by trade, or Compliance and Enforcement Resolution Conf (Rev. CoP16) CITES Compliance Procedures Resolution Conf National Reports Resolution Conf (Rev. CoP16)

27 Thank you very much 27

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