1 Ch. 15-Restoration Ecology Conservation focuses on protecting and maintaining diversity and ecological processes Restoration emphasizes active management to bring back a former state of an ecosystem ( to make almost as good as new ) Conservation is the objective; Restoration is an example of a method, one way of accomplishing that goal.
2 Ecological Restoration The process of intentionally altering a site to establish a defined, indigenous, historic ecosystem The goal of this process is to emulate the structure, function, diversity and dynamics of the specified ecosystem Society for Ecological Restoration
3 Ecological restoration is an iterative process that includes 1. Examining reference (historic) conditions 2. Developing a restoration plan 3. Obtaining permits 4. Implementing the design (modifying soils, hydrology, plants, animals, etc.) 5. Monitoring restored site
4 Fig A flowchart of the decisions made in designing and carrying out an ecological restoration project
5 Other common terms Revegetation: Re-establishment of some sort of vegetative cover, not necessarily the original vegetation. Rehabilitation: Aesthetically enhancing a site to make it look like its former condition. Reclamation: Restoration of the functions but not necessarily the components and structure. Re-creation: Reconstruct an ecosystem to an historic condition that might not be the undisturbed reference condition. Ecological Recovery: Hands-off approach to let the system regain desirable attributes. Ecological Engineering: Design, construct and monitor ecosystems for the benefit of humans and nature. Ecological Restoration: Return a degraded system to its undisturbed historic state (with sustainable function and structure).
6 Fig The trajectory of a restoration project in terms of ecosystem structure (species richness and complexity of interactions) and processes (primary productivity, nutrient cycling). [after Bradshaw, 1984]
9 FISH TISSUE SAMPLING EVENTS
10 SEDIMENT SAMPLING EVENTS
11 Ottawa River, Ohio Authorized Legacy Act Project Site
12 Restoration Challenges Likelihood a site can truly be restored natural modified Condition of the neighborhood
13 Restoration Challenges Lack of knowledge
14 Potential pathways by which displacement of native plant species by exotic plants can cause shifts in soil community composition and function. Several direct pathways: differences in the quantity or quality of (1) litter production or (2) root exudates, altering resource availability for belowground communities (3) release of novel chemicals with antimicrobial activities (4) novel nutrient acquisition strategies such as N fixation that change biogeochemical processes (5) differences in the local soil environment induced by changes in root architecture or function. Wolfe and Klironomos (BioScience 2005). These direct mechanisms may lead to indirect effects, such as changes in disturbance regimes, including fire (1a).
15 Restoration Challenges Lack of knowledge Issues of scale Implementation in practice
16 The Winous Point marshes near Port Clinton (Ohio) 130 years ago (left, digitized from detailed hand-drawn maps) and the way they appear today (right, Landsat- 7 true color image, 1999). Protection of property and preservation of habitat for waterfowl and wildlife has required widespread use of dikes and water control structures throughout the coastal areas of western Lake Erie and elsewhere.
17 Winous Point Horseshoe Marsh
18 Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Water level in open wetland Water level in diked wetland Feb Jan Water level
19 Trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator)
20 Restoration has only recently gained attention because Conservationists have been preoccupied with identifying and protecting natural areas. Restored systems are thought to be inferior. True restoration of ecosystems is not possible. Restoration might be used to weaken arguments for conservation.
21 Restoration ecology is now a growing discipline, because Advances in research in restoration ecology (see book and field trips). Success stories. Massive ecological destruction (forests, wetlands) makes restoration necessary. Legislation requiring restoration, mitigation, rehabilitation, etc. ( legal ecology )
22 Some selected titles of recent papers in Conservation Biology Greening the U.S. Constitution Legal Ecology: Ecosystem Function and the Law Conservation Science, Biodiversity, and the 2005 U.S. Forest Service Regulations Ecosystem services and the law A Multidisciplinary Approach to Assessing the Sustainability of Freshwater Crayfish Harvesting in Madagascar Coffee and Conservation: a Global Context and the Value of Farmer Involvement Where Conservation Biology and Conservation Ballistics Meet Ecological Ethics: Building a New Tool Kit for Ecologists and Biodiversity Managers
23 Endangered Species Act (1973) One of the drivers of restoration (see book Ch 15) Conservation and protection of threatened and endangered species and the habitats in which they are found. Endangered species: in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range Threatened species: likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future Designated critical habitat: land or water of special significance to the listed species survival.
24 Yellowstone NP early winter wolf population
25 International conservation laws Environmental protection, management, and conservation are not bounded by national borders. Hundreds of legal instruments that focus on international environmental and conservation issues. Problems surrounding global cooperation in conservation equitability economic realities need for incentives need for a leader country many diversity threats occur across international boundaries (particularly in the tropics where economic stress is more severe and environmental regulation, management and enforcement are lacking).
26 The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (1971) The 159 Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (shaded green) 1. Conduct land-use planning for wetland preservation. 2. Designate and protect at least one wetland in their country as a Wetland of International Importance. 3. Establish wetland reserves
27 Some procedures and examples of ecological restoration Soil restoration Grassland restoration Forest restoration Aquatic ecosystem restoration
28 Restoring terrestrial systems Soil restoration
29 Windbreaks Terracing
30 Conservation tillage system that leaves at least 30 percent of the soil covered after planting with last year's crop residue (Central Iowa). Source: NRCS-USDA
31 Bioremediation of contaminated sites
32 Phytoremediation of contaminated soils
33 Restoring terrestrial systems Grassland restoration
34 Forest restoration and management Contour stripcropping and managed forests in Iowa save soil on highly erodible land. Managed woodland in South Carolina Source: NRCS
35 Controlled burns Herbivore exclusion
36 Restoring aquatic systems Re-establishing hydrological characteristics Reducing anthropogenic delivery of sediments and contaminants Revegetation with native species/removal of exotic species
37 Kissimmee River (FL)
38 Kissimmee River Restoration
39 Restoration Principles Identify key processes that stress the system. Determine realistic goals and measures of success. Use methods that have produced success elsewhere. Monitor effectiveness.
41 Case: Western Lake Erie stresses Physical restructuring: wetlands drainage, regulation of flows, damming of rivers, dredging of harbors, etc. Pollution: sewage, industrial discharges, agricultural runoff. Overharvesting: depletion of stocks of commercial fish. Introduction of exotics: lamprey, alewife, smelt, zebra mussels, Asian carp, round goby, etc.
42 Restoration Principles Identify key processes that stress the system. Determine realistic goals and measures of success. Use methods that have produced success elsewhere. Monitor effectiveness.
43 What is a realistic restoration goal for Lake Erie? Do we know what Lake Erie looked like pre-european colonization? Lake Erie Protection and Restoration Plan (2006) with goals for water quality, pollution sources, habitat, biological indicators, boating, fishing, beaches, and tourism.
44 Ohio Lake Erie Commission
45 Restoration Principles Identify key processes that stress the system. Determine realistic goals and measures of success. Use methods that have produced success elsewhere. Monitor effectiveness.
46 Strategies Pollution control regulations (industry, urban wastewater) Alternative farming practices. Wetland protection and restoration. Fishing restrictions. Tighter control over the spread of exotics. Removal of dams.
47 Restoration Principles Identify key processes that stress the system. Determine realistic goals and measures of success. Use methods that have produced success elsewhere. Monitor effectiveness.
48 Many other methods of monitoring. Monitoring by academia, agencies, private organizations. Using indices of Biological Integrity (IBI biological), Trophic (TSI chemical/ physical/biological), time-series data, etc. Comparisons with reference systems. Publication of reports (e.g., 2004 State of the Lake Report).
49 Examples of Restoration Projects (see book Ch. 15) Harpy eagle conservation program Achieving success in mine reclamation Genetic considerations in reintroductions Restoration the Nation s wetlands Temperate riverine ecosystem restoration Tropical montane forest restoration others
RESTORATION & REVITALIZATION Legal preservation has not proved to be sufficient to preserve natural communities. Restoration activities are diverse and includes revitalization of natural communities which
Restoration Planning and Development of a Restoration Bank Black Creek Pioneer Village, South Theatre 8:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. Habitat Restoration and Environmental Monitoring Projects Section Restoration
Sustainability Brief: and Watershed Integrity New Jersey depends on water resources for the health of our people, the strength of our economy, and the vitality of our ecosystems. The quality of our water
Biodiversity Concepts WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth. For any kind of animal or plant each individual is not exactly the same as any other; nor are species or ecosystems.
Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon fact SHEET Policy & Management Applications of Blue Carbon Coastal Blue Carbon - An Important Wetland Ecosystem Service Coastal Blue Carbon refers to the
Living Natural Resources Overview of Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability 1. IFC s Sustainability Framework articulates the Corporation s strategic commitment to sustainable
Creating Green Jobs within the Environment and Culture sector. Matilda Skosana Environmental Programmes (ILO Definition): 1. DEFINITION OF GREEN JOB. Jobs are green when they help reduce negative environmental
Ecological Restoration of a Brackish Marsh at Parcel 11, Estate Carolina, St. John Gary Ray, Ph.D. Virgin Forest Restorations For Coral Bay Community Council Aerial of Parcel 11 Brackish Marsh Ecological
The Pantanal ---- People, Places, Priorities Can integrated water management serve society and ecosystems? The Pantanal Program (2001-2009) U$400 Million IDB project to: a) restore ecosystem quality b)
Ecological Engineering and Ecosystem Restoration History, definitions, and principles William J. Mitsch Professor of Natural Resources and Environmental Science Director, Olentangy River Wetland Research
WILDLIFE HABITAT CANADA 2016-2017 Grant Program Guidance Document 2016 Canadian Wildlife Habitat Conservation Stamp and Print image, Offshore Wind Surf Scoters by Pierre Leduc. Without habitat, there is
AT&T Global Network Client for Windows Product Support Matrix January 29, 2015 Product Support Matrix Following is the Product Support Matrix for the AT&T Global Network Client. See the AT&T Global Network
Pamela Birak, Jordan Lake State Park, Chatham County, NC 3 Lakes, Reservoirs, and Ponds Forty-six states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia (collectively referred to as states in the rest of this
PROJECT EVALUATION (1.011) Spring 2011 Lecture 2 Instructors: Professor Joseph Sussman Carl Martland Teaching Assistants: Nihit Jain Edna Edzell Outline Word/phrases Checklists Public Projects, Martland
Post-Wildfire Clean-Up and Response in Houston Toad Habitat Best Management Practices Purpose The purpose of this document is to provide guidance and recommendations for minimizing potential impacts to
A Global View of Ecological Restoration and the Role of SER International Presented by: George D. Gann Chair, SER International Board of Directors Executive Director, The Institute for Regional Conservation
A view from a former tidal river manager expert with experience from 6 decades living at, with and from the Tidal River Elbe chairman of the European Interreg Project TIDE (Tidal River Development) Land
Integration of Forestry & Wildlife Management By Ken Negray Regional Certification Manager, NewPage Corp & member of the KY SIC Committee Abstract: Kentucky SIC (Sustainable Forestry Initiative Implementation
Aquatic Biomes, Continued Introduction Extent of Marine biomes Issues & challenges Factors influencing distribution Dynamics in time & space Depth Tour of marine biomes Issues (by biome) Freshwater biomes
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Emergency Watershed Protection Program Floodplain Easements Rhode Island Natural Resources Conservation Service Rhode Island NRCS received approximately $2.4
NAV HISTORY OF DBH FIRST MUTUAL FUND () Date NAV 11-Aug-16 10.68 8.66 0.38% -0.07% 0.45% 3.81% 04-Aug-16 10.64 8.66-0.19% 0.87% -1.05% 3.76% 28-Jul-16 10.66 8.59 0.00% -0.34% 0.34% 3.89% 21-Jul-16 10.66
ECOLOGICAL A MEANS OF CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINING LIVELIHOODS RESTORATION The Society for Ecological Restoration International (SER) is a non-profit organization infused with the energy of involved
Section 4 Soil Conservation Key Concept Soil is a nonrenewable resource that can be endangered if it is used unwisely. What You Will Learn Soil is important for plants and animals and for the storage of
DEQ Response to Comments regarding the Public Notice for a Coal Mining Project in the Panther Creek watershed In Craig and Nowata Counties. There were 10 comments received in response to an April 14, 2014
NEW JERSEY HIGHLANDS COALITION 508 Main Street, Boonton, New Jersey 07005 973-588-7190 (office)/973-588-7193 (fax) www.njhighlandscoalition.org Forest Stewardship Position Paper of the Natural Heritage
Markets for Ecosystem Services on Agricultural Lands: Experience and Outlook in the United States Frank Casey Conservation Economics and Finance Program Defenders of Wildlife Presented at the Biodiversity
Amherst County Public Schools AP Environmental Science Curriculum Pacing Guide College Board AP Environmental Science Site REV: 8/12 1 st 9 weeks AP Objectives Energy Resources and Consumption A. Energy
NATURAL RESOURCE RESTORATION LESSON PLAN Fix It! Theme Repairing Damaged Resources Links to Overview Essays and Resources Needed for Student Research http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/corals http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/topics/coasts/restoration/
Environmental Law Primer Adapted from Vermont Law School s Environmental Law Primer for Journalists General Categories Command and Control Liability Disclosure Ecosystem and Place-based Programs Marketable
COMPARISON OF FIXED & VARIABLE RATES (25 YEARS) 2 Fixed Rates Variable Rates FIXED RATES OF THE PAST 25 YEARS AVERAGE RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE LENDING RATE - 5 YEAR* (Per cent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
COMPARISON OF FIXED & VARIABLE RATES (25 YEARS) 2 Fixed Rates Variable Rates FIXED RATES OF THE PAST 25 YEARS AVERAGE RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE LENDING RATE - 5 YEAR* (Per cent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun
Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest About deforestation Forests are cut down for many reasons, but most of them are related to money or to people s need to provide for their families. The
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FOOD PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION Palaniappa Krishnan Bioresources Engineering Department, University of Delaware, USA Keywords: Soil organisms, soil fertility, water quality, solar
2011 2016 Strategic Plan for Research and Development Water, Air, and Soil Strategic Program Area Executive Summary Research and Development (R&D) in the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Lesson Overview 6.3 6.3 Objectives Define biodiversity and explain its value. Identify current threats to biodiversity. Describe how biodiversity can be preserved. THINK ABOUT IT From multicolored coral
STATE LEVEL AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE NATRAL RESORCES CONSERVATION SERVICE (NRCS) AND THE NEW JERSEY OFFICE OF HISTORIC PRESERVATION PRPOSE The NRCS, and New Jersey State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO)
UNDERGRADUATE MINOR AND GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS IN RECLAMATION AND RESTORATION ECOLOGY 1 George F. Vance 2 Abstract. Reclamation and Restoration Ecology undergraduate minor and graduate certificate
UNEP GLOBAL JUDGES PROGRAMME APPLICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW BY NATIONAL COURTS AND TRIBUNALS PRESENTATION 2 MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION A) Major environmental issues B) Responses
1. Recent evidence indicates that lakes in large areas of New York State are being affected by acid rain. The major effect of acid rain in the lakes is (1) an increase in game fish population levels (3)
Wildlife Habitat Conservation and Management Program Manual for Counties and Cities Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife 2015 Table of Contents 1. Introduction Purpose of the habitat program Objective
Review and Summary of DR/GR-Related Related Studies Southeastern Lee County, Florida Presented to the Board of County Commissioners Lee County, Florida June 11, 2007 McLane Environmental, LLC Princeton,
Viewed broadly, the concept of ecosystem services describes the many resources and services provided by nature. Typically, traditional planning and development practices do not adequately represent the
Payments for Ecosystem Services: towards improved biodiversity conservation and water security in South Africa, a semi-arid, developing country Jane Turpie & James Blignaut Introduction Ecosystems largely
Buena Vista Creek Watershed 4.2 Buena Vista Creek Watershed Watershed Overview The Buena Vista Creek Watershed is the fourth-largest system within the Carlsbad Hydrologic Unit. The watershed extends approximately
CTSO Course Alignments: Natural Resource Management Below you will find standards for the Natural Resource Management course aligned with competitive events from appropriate career and technical student
Mixed Forests and Biodiversity are Crucial for Freshwater We cannot think about freshwater and the global water cycle without thinking about mixed forests and biodiversity. These play an absolutely indispensable
STATEMENT OF JOSEPH G. PIZARCHIK, DIRECTOR OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BEFORE THE COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENT AND PUBLIC WORKS U.S. SENATE ON THE IMPLICATIONS
LOW INTEREST LOANS FOR AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION LILAC MANUAL LOW INTEREST LOANS FOR AGRICULTURAL CONSERVATION TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 3 General Eligibility... 4 Specific Eligibility Criteria
AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES POSSESSION RULES 312 IAC 9-6-7 Exotic fish Authority: IC 14-22-2-6 Affected: IC 14-22-2-3 Sec. 7. (a) Except as otherwise provided under this section, a person must not import,
Topic: Endangered Species Endangered Species Day A Lesson Plan - Elementary/Middle School Goals/Objective: 1) Educate students about endangered species. This includes their habitat, ecological and social
Grade 7 Objective Students will be able to: Describe the carbon cycle in more detail: o Learn about the importance of carbon and the role it plays in photosynthesis and cellular respiration, Identify elements
LIVING LANDS Helping Land Trusts Conserve Biodiversity Land Trust Biodiversity Survey, Winter 2006 Purpose of Survey To better understand local land trusts current activities and interest in biodiversity
IS ENVIRONMENTAL LAW READY FOR ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION? An Cliquet IUCN AEL Conference, University of Maryland 2 July 2012 Overview Policy and legal obligations for ecological restoration Where, what and
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SECTION B, ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES April 20, 2010 EXHIBIT 1 ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 GOALS AND POLICIES 4.2.A General Goals and Policies 1 4.2.B
Going green : Environmental jobs for scientists and engineers Alice Ramey Alice Ramey is an economist in the Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, BLS. She is available at (202)
Sugarcane Production and the Environment Jason Clay, WWF-US Better Sugar Meeting, June 21 WWF and Agricultural Commodities The goal reduce measurably the most significant social and environment impacts
Backyard Buffers Protecting Habitat and Water Quality What is a buffer? A buffer (also called a riparian buffer area or zone) is the strip of natural vegetation along the bank of a stream, lake or other
United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Asian Longhorned Beetle Control Program Environmental Assessment, December 1996 United States Department of Agriculture
ANNEXURE 1 STATUS OF 518 DEMAT REQUESTS PENDING WITH NSDL Sr. No. Demat Request No.(DRN) DP ID Client ID Date of Demat Request Received Quantity Requested Date of Demat Request Processed No. of days of
Priority 2 Protection and restoration of biodiversity and soil and promotion of ecosystem services, including through Natura 2000, and green infrastructure Kristina Veidemane, Baltic Environmental Forum
Ecosystems and Food Webs How do AIS affect our lakes? Background Information All things on the planet both living and nonliving interact. An Ecosystem is defined as the set of elements, living and nonliving,
City of Los Angeles Department of Public Works Bureau of Engineering Machado Lake Ecosystem Rehabilitation Project & Wilmington Drain Multi-Use Project Community Workshop 5 February 24, 2009 In association
RESTORATION OF URBAN WATERWAYS AS A GREEN INFRA October 10, 2014 Hyoseop Woo President Korean Society of Ecology and Infrastructure Engineering (KSEIE) Green Infra (EU Commission) a strategically planned
Global Environment Facility GEF OPERATIONAL PROGRAM #13 ON CONSERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE USE OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IMPORTANT TO AGRICULTURE CONTENTS Introduction..1 Convention Guidance... 2 Agricultural
Compilation of Upper Mississippi River System Science Questions developed by the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program Includes: 1. Questions from the Science Planning Effort in 2003 2. FY07 Additional
Fish and Wildlife Division Sustainable Resource Development Recommended Land Use Guidelines for Protection of Selected Wildlife Species and Habitat within Grassland and Parkland Natural Regions of Alberta
Then and Now Using Aerial Photography to Measure Habitat Changes Method Subject Areas: environmental education, science, social studies Conceptual Framework Topic References: HIIIB, HIIIB1, HIIIB2, HIIIB3,
Biological Diversity and Tourism: Development of Guidelines for Sustainable Tourism in Vulnerable Ecosystems Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity Foreword The rapid and often uncontrolled
Presenter s name Aquatic Ecosystems Restoration Lessons Learned from Asian Development Bank Operations Qingfeng Zhang, Senior Water Resources Engineer Asian Development Bank This Presentation will discuss
GREAT BARRIER REEF Climate Change Action Plan 2007 2011 Climate change is now recognised as the greatest long-term threat to the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef is internationally renowned as
1.7.0 Floodplain Modification Criteria 1.7.1 Introduction These guidelines set out standards for evaluating and processing proposed modifications of the 100- year floodplain with the following objectives:
USDA Forest Service Proposed Soil and Water Restoration Categorical Exclusions Frequently Asked Questions 2013-09-05 Table of Contents What is the Final Rule implemented by the Forest Service?... 2 Why
THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR WASHINGTON ORDER NO. 3336 Subject: Rangeland Fire Prevention, Management and Restoration Sec. 1 Purpose. This Order sets forth enhanced policies and strategies for preventing
Chesapeake Bay Preservation Area (CBPA) in Virginia Beach, Virginia The Resource Protection Area (RPA) and Buffers The First 100 Feet How Large is the Chesapeake Bay Watershed? The Chesapeake Bay Watershed