# Chapter 5. Analysis of Multiple Time Series. 5.1 Vector Autoregressions

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1 Chapter 5 Analysis of Multiple Time Series Note: The primary references for these notes are chapters 5 and 6 in Enders (2004). An alternative, but more technical treatment can be found in chapters and in Hamilton (1994). Multivariate time-series analysis extends many of the ideas of univariate time-series analysis to systems of equations. The primary model in multivariate time-series analysis is the vector autoregression (VAR), a direct and natural extension of the univariate autoregression. Most results that applo univariate time-series can be directly ported to multivariate time-series with a slight change in notation and the use of linear algebra. The chapter examines both stationary and nonstationary vector processes through VAR analysis, cointegration and spurious regression. This chapter discusses properties of vector time-series models, estimation and identification as well as Granger causality and Impulse Response Functions. The chapter concludes by examining the contemporaneous relationship between two or more time-series in the framework of cointegration, spurious regression and cross-sectional regression of stationarime-series. In many situations, analyzing a time-series in isolation is reasonable; in other cases univariate analysis may be limiting. For example, Campbell (1996) links financially interesting variables, including stock returns and the default premium, in a multivariate system that allows shocks to one variable to propagate to the others. The vector autoregression is the mechanism that is used to link multiple stationarime-series variables together. When variables contain unit roots, a different type of analysis, cointegration, is needed. This chapter covers these two topics building on many results from the analysis of univariate time-series. 5.1 Vector Autoregressions Vector autoregressions are remarkably similar to univariate autoregressions; so similar that the intuition behind most results carries over by simply replacing scalars with matrices and scalar operations with matrix operations.

2 322 Analysis of Multiple Time Series Definition The definition of a vector autoregression is nearly identical to that of a univariate autoregression. Definition 5.1 (Vector Autoregression of Order P). A P th order vector autoregression, written VAR(P), is a process that evolves according to = Φ 0 + Φ Φ Φ P P + ε t (5.1) where is a k by 1 vector stochastic process, Φ 0 is a k by 1 vector of intercept parameters, Φ j, j = 1,..., P are k by k parameter matrices and ε t is a vector white noise process with the additional assumption that E t 1 ε t = 0. Simply replacing the vectors and matrices with scalars will produce the definition of an AR(P). A vector white noise process has the same useful properties as a univariate white noise process; it is mean zero, has finite covariance and is uncorrelated with its past although the elements of a vector white noise process are not required to be contemporaneously uncorrelated. Definition 5.2 (Vector White Noise Process). A k by 1 vector valued stochastic process, {ε t }is said to be a vector white noise if where Σ is a finite positive definite matrix. Eε t = 0 k (5.2) Eε t ε t s = 0 k k Eε t ε t = Σ as The simplest VAR is a first-order bivariate specification which can be equivalently expressed = Φ 0 + Φ ε t, y1,t y 2,t = φ1,0 y 2,0 φ11,1 φ 12,1 + φ 21,1 φ 22,1 y1,t 1 y 2,t 1 + ε1,t ε 2,t, y 1,t = φ 1,0 + φ 11,1 y 1,t 1 + φ 12,1 y 2,t 1 + ε 1,t y 2,t = φ 2,0 + φ 21,1 y 1,t 1 + φ 22,1 y 2,t 1 + ε 2,t. It is clear that each element of is a function of each element of 1, although certain parameterizations of Φ 1 may remove the dependence. Treated as individual time-series, deriving the properties of VARs is an exercise in tedium. However, a few tools from linear algebra make working with VARs hardly more difficult than autoregressions.

3 5.1 Vector Autoregressions Properties of a VAR(1) The properties of the VAR(1) are fairly simple to study. More importantly, section 5.2 shows that all VAR(P)s can be rewritten as a VAR(1), and so the general case requires no additional effort than the first order VAR Stationarity A VAR(1), driven by vector white noise shocks, = Φ 0 + Φ ε t is covariance stationary if the eigenvalues of Φ 1 are less than 1 in modulus. 1 In the univariate case, this is equivalent to the condition φ 1 < 1. Assuming the eigenvalues of φ 1 are less than one in absolute value, backward substitution can be used to show that = Φ i 1 Φ 0 + Φ i 1 ε t i (5.3) which, applying Theorem 5.4, is equivalent to = (I k Φ 1 ) 1 Φ 0 + Φ i 1 ε t i (5.4) where the eigenvalue condition ensures that Φ i 1 will converge to zero as i grows large Mean Taking expectations of using the backward substitution form yields 1 The definition of an eigenvalue is: Definition 5.3 (Eigenvalue). λ is an eigenvalue of a square matrix A if and only if A λi n = 0 where denotes determinant. The crucial properties of eigenvalues for applications to VARs are given in the following theorem: Theorem 5.4 (Matrix Power). Let A be an n by n matrix. Then the following statements are equivalent A m 0 as m. All eigenvalues of A, λ i, i = 1, 2,..., n, are less than 1 in modulus ( λ i < 1). The series m Am = I n + A + A A m (I n A) 1 as m. Note: Replacing A with a scalar a produces many familiar results: a m 0 as m (property 1) and m a m (1 a ) 1 as m (property 3) as long as a <1 (property 2).

4 324 Analysis of Multiple Time Series E = E (I k Φ 1 ) 1 Φ 0 + E Φ i 1 ε t i = (I k Φ 1 ) 1 Φ 0 + = (I k Φ 1 ) 1 Φ 0 + Φ i 1 E ε t i Φ i 1 0 (5.5) = (I k Φ 1 ) 1 Φ 0 This result is similar to that of a univariate AR(1) which has a mean of (1 φ 1 ) 1 φ 0. The eigenvalues play an important role in determining the mean. If an eigenvalue of Φ 1 is close to one, (I k Φ 1 ) 1 will contain large values and the unconditional mean will be large. Similarly, if Φ 1 = 0, then the mean is Φ 0 since { } is composed of white noise and a constant Variance Before deriving the variance of a VAR(1), it often useful to express a VAR in deviation form. Define µ = E to be the unconditional expectation of y (and assume it is finite). The deviations form of a VAR(P) = Φ 0 + Φ Φ Φ P P + ε t is given by µ = Φ 1 ( 1 µ) + Φ 2 ( 2 µ) Φ P ( P µ) + ε t (5.6) ỹ t = Φ 1 ỹ t 1 + Φ 2 ỹ t Φ P ỹ t P + ε t and in the case of a VAR(1), ỹ t = φ i 1 ε t i (5.7) i =1 The deviations form is simply a translation of the VAR from its original mean, µ, to a mean of 0. The advantage of the deviations form is that all dynamics and the shocks are identical, and so can be used in deriving the long-run covariance, autocovariances and in forecasting. Using the backward substitution form of a VAR(1), the long run covariance can be derived as

5 5.1 Vector Autoregressions 325 E ( µ) ( µ) = E ( ) ( ) ỹ t ỹ t = E Φ i 1 ε t i Φ i 1 ε t i = E Φ i 1 ε t i ε t i = = ( ) Φ 1 Φ i 1 E ( ) ε t i ε t i Φ 1 Φ i 1 Σ ( Φ 1 vec ( E ( µ) ( µ) ) = (I k 2 Φ 1 Φ 1 ) 1 vec (Σ) ) (Since ε t is WN) (5.8) where µ = (I k Φ 1 ) 1 Φ 0. Compared to the long-run variance of a univariate autoregression, σ 2 /(1 φ1 2 ), the similarities are less obvious. The differences arise from the noncommutative nature of matrices (AB BA in general). The final line makes use of the vec (vector) operator to re-express the covariance. The vec operator and a Kronecker product stack the elements of a matrix product into a single column. 2 Once again the eigenvalues of Φ 1 play an important role. If any are close to 1, the variance will be large since the eigenvalues fundamentally determine the persistence of shocks: as was 2 The vec of a matrix A is defined: Definition 5.5 (vec). Let A = a i j be an m by n matrix. The vec operator (also known as the stack operator) is defined a 1 a 2 vec A =. (5.9). a n where a j is the j th column of the matrix A. The Kronecker Product is defined: Definition 5.6 (Kronecker Product). Let A = a i j be an m by n matrix, and let B = b i j be a k by l matrix. The Kronecker product is defined a 11 B a 12 B... a 1n B a 21 B a 22 B... a 2n B A B =.... a m1 B a m2 B... a mn B and has dimension mk by nl. It can be shown that: Theorem 5.7 (Kronecker and vec of a product). Let A, B and C be conformable matrices as needed. Then vec (ABC) = ( C A ) vec B

6 326 Analysis of Multiple Time Series the case in scalar autoregressions, higher persistence lead to larger variances Autocovariance The autocovariances of a vector valued stochastic process are defined Definition 5.8 (Autocovariance). The autocovariance matrices of k by 1 valued vector covariance stationary stochastic process { } are defined Γ s = E( µ)( s µ) (5.10) and Γ s = E( µ)( +s µ) (5.11) where µ = E = E j = E + j. These present the first significant deviation from the univariate time-series analysis in chapter 4. Instead of being symmetric around t, they are symmetric in their transpose. Specifically, but it is the case that 3 Γ s Γ s Γ s = Γ s. In contrast, the autocovariances of stationary scalar processes satisfy γ s = γ s. Computing the autocovariances is also easily accomplished using the backward substitution form, Γ s = E ( ( µ) ( s µ) ) ( ) = E Φ i 1 ε t i Φ i 1 ε t s i = E ( s 1 ) ( ) Φ i 1 ε t i Φ i 1 ε t s i ( ) ( ) + E Φ s 1 Φi 1 ε t s i Φ i 1 ε t s i ( ) ( ) = 0 + Φ s 1 E Φ i 1 ε t s i Φ i 1 ε t s i = Φ s 1 V (5.12) (5.13) and 3 This follows directly from the property of a transpose that if A and B are compatible matrices, (AB) = B A.

7 5.2 Companion Form 327 Γ s = E ( ( µ) ( +s µ) ) ( ) = E Φ i 1 ε t i Φ i 1 ε t +s i ( ) ( ) = E Φ i 1 ε t i Φ s 1 Φi 1 ε t i ( ) ( s 1 ) + E Φ i 1 ε t i Φ i 1 ε t +s i ( ) ( = E Φ i 1 ε t i ( ) ( = E Φ i 1 ε t i = V ( Φ 1 ) s ε t i ε t i ) ( ) Φ i ( ) 1 Φ s ) ( ) Φ i (Φ 1 1 ) s (5.14) (5.15) where V is the symmetric covariance matrix of the VAR. Like most properties of a VAR, this result is similar to the autocovariance function of an AR(1): γ s = φ s 1 σ2 /(1 φ 2 1 ) = φs 1 V. 5.2 Companion Form Once the properties of a VAR(1) have been studied, one surprising and useful result is that any stationary VAR(P) can be rewritten as a VAR(1). Suppose { } follows a VAR(P) process, = Φ 0 + Φ Φ Φ P P + ε t. By subtracting the mean and stacking P of into a large column vector denoted z t, a VAR(P) can be transformed into a VAR(1) by constructing the companion form. Definition 5.9 (Companion Form of a VAR(P)). Let follow a VAR(P) given by = Φ 0 + Φ Φ Φ P P + ε t where ε t is a vector white noise process and µ = companion form is given by ( I P p =1 Φ p) 1 Φ0 = E is finite. The z t = Υ z t 1 + ξ t (5.16) where z t = µ 1 µ. P +1 µ, (5.17)

8 328 Analysis of Multiple Time Series and Υ = Φ 1 Φ 2 Φ 3... Φ P 1 Φ P I k I k I k 0 ξ t = ε t 0. 0 (5.18). (5.19) This is known as the companion form and allows the statistical properties of any VAR(P) to be directly computed using onlhe results of a VAR(1) noting that Eξ t ξ = t Σ Using this form, it can be determined that a VAR(P) is covariance stationary if all of the eigenvalues of Υ - there are k P of them - are less than one in absolute value (modulus if complex) Empirical Examples Throughout this chapter two examples from the finance literature will be used Example: The interaction of stock and bond returns Stocks and long term bonds are often thought to hedge one another. VARs provide a simple method to determine whether their returns are linked through time. Consider the VAR(1) V W Mt 10Y R t = φ01 φ 02 which implies a model for stock returns + φ11,1 φ 12,1 φ 21,1 φ 22,1 V W Mt 1 10Y R t 1 + ε1,t ε 2,t V W M t = φ 01 + φ 11,1 V W M t 1 + φ 12,1 10Y R t 1 + ε 1,t 4 Companion form is also useful when working with univariate AR(P) models. An AR(P) can be reexpressed using its companion VAR(1) which allows properties such as the long-run variance and autocovariances to be easily computed.

9 5.3 Empirical Examples 329 and a model for long bond returns 10Y R t = φ 01 + φ 21,1 V W M t 1 + φ 22,1 10Y R t 1 + ε 2,t. Since these models do not share any parameters, they can be estimated separately using OLS. Using annualized return data for the VWM from CRSP and the 10-year constant maturitreasury yield from FRED covering the period May 1953 until December 2008, a VAR(1) was estimated. 5 V W Mt 10Y R t = (0.000) (0.000) (0.104) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) V W Mt 1 10Y R t 1 + ε1,t ε 2,t where the p-val is in parenthesis below each coefficient. A few things are worth noting. Stock returns are not predictable with their own lag but do appear to be predictable using lagged bond returns: positive bond returns lead to positive future returns in stocks. In contrast, positive returns in equities result in negative returns for future bond holdings. The long-run mean can be computed as ( ) These values are similar to the sample means of and = Example: Campbell s VAR Campbell (1996) builds a theoretical model for asset prices where economically meaningful variables evolve according to a VAR. Campbell s model included stock returns, real labor income growth, the term premium, the relative t-bill rate and the dividend yield. The VWM series from CRSP is used for equity returns. Real labor income is computed as the log change in income from labor minus the log change in core inflation and both series are from FRED. The term premium is the difference between the yield on a 10-year constant maturity bond and the 3-month t-bill rate. Both series are from FRED. The relative t-bill rate is the current yield on a 1-month t-bill minus the average yield over the past 12 months and the data is available on Ken French s web site. The dividend yield was computed as the difference in returns on the VWM with and without dividends; both series are available from CRSP. Using a VAR(1) specification, the model can be described 5 The yield is first converted to prices and then returns are computed as the log difference in consecutive prices.

10 330 Analysis of Multiple Time Series V W M t (0.155) L B R t (0.717) RT B t (0.106) T E R M t (0.084) D I V t (0.612) V W M t (0.155) L B R t (0.717) RT B t (0.106) T E R M t (0.084) D I V t (0.612) Raw Data V W M t 1 L B R t 1 RT B t 1 T E R M t 1 D I V t (0.001) (0.115) (0.974) (0.143) (0.989) (0.061) (0.606) (0.000) (0.803) (0.392) (0.844) (0.139) (0.002) (0.000) (0.380) (0.845) (0.701) (0.938) (0.660) (0.108) Standardized Series V W M t 1 L B R t 1 RT B t 1 T E R M t 1 D I V t (0.001) (0.115) (0.974) (0.143) (0.989) (0.061) (0.606) (0.000) (0.803) (0.392) (0.844) (0.139) (0.002) (0.000) (0.380) (0.845) (0.701) (0.938) (0.660) (0.108) Table 5.1: Parameter estimates from Campbell s VAR. The top panel contains estimates using unscaled data while the bottom panel contains estimates from data which have been standardized to have unit variance. While the magnitudes of many coefficients change, the p-vals and the eigenvalues of these two parameter matrices are identical, and the parameters are roughly comparable since the series have the same variance. V W M t L B R t RT B t T E R M t D I V t = Φ 0 + Φ 1 V W M t 1 L B R t 1 RT B t 1 T E R M t 1 D I V t 1 + ε 1,t ε 2,t ε 3,t ε 4,t ε 5t. Two sets of parameters are presented in table 5.1. The top panel contains estimates using nonscaled data. This produces some very large (in magnitude, not statistical significance) estimates which are the result of two variables having very different scales. The bottom panel contains estimates from data which have been standardized by dividing each series by its standard deviation. This makes the magnitude of all coefficients approximately comparable. Despite this transformation and very different parameter estimates, the p-vals remain unchanged. This shouldn t be surprising since OLS t -stats are invariant to scalings of this type. One less obvious feature of the two sets of estimates is that the eigenvalues of the two parameter matrices are identical and so both sets of parameter estimates indicate the same persistence.

11 5.4 VAR forecasting VAR forecasting Once again, the behavior of a VAR(P) is identical to that of an AR(P). Recall that the h-step ahead forecast, ŷ t +h t from an AR(1) is given by The h-step ahead forecast of a VAR(1), ŷ t +h t is h 1 E t +h = φ j 1 φ 0 + φ h 1. j =0 h 1 E t +h = Φ j 1 Φ 0 + Φ h 1 j =0 Forecasts from higher order VARs can be constructed by direct forward recursion beginning at h = 1, although they are often simpler to compute using the deviations form of the VAR since it includes no intercept, ỹ t = Φ 1 ỹ t 1 + Φ 2 ỹ t Φ P ỹ t P + ε t. Using the deviations form h-step ahead forecasts from a VAR(P) can be computed using the recurrence E t ỹ t +h = Φ 1 E t ỹ t +h 1 + Φ 2 E t ỹ t +h Φ P E t ỹ t +h P. starting at E t ỹ t +1. Once the forecast of E t ỹ t +h has been computed, the h-step ahead forecast of +h is constructed by adding the long run mean, E t +h = µ + E t ỹ t +h Example: The interaction of stock and bond returns When two series are related in time, univariate forecasts may not adequately capture the feedback between the two and are generally misspecified if the series belong in a VAR. To illustrate the differences, recursively estimated 1-step ahead forecasts were produced from the stock-bond VAR, V W Mt 10Y R t = V W Mt 1 10Y R t 1 + ε1,t and a simple AR(1) for each series. The data set contains a total of 620 observations. Beginning at observation 381 and continuing until observation 620, the models (the VAR and the two ARs) were estimated using an expanding window of data and 1-step ahead forecasts were computed. 6 Figure 5.1 contains a graphical representation of the differences between the AR(1)s and 6 Recursive forecasts computed using an expanding window use data from t = 1 to R to estimate any model parameters and to produce a forecast of R +1. The sample then grows by one observation and data from 1 to R + 1 are used to estimate model parameters and a forecast of R + 2 is computed. This pattern continues until the end ε 2,t

12 332 Analysis of Multiple Time Series 60 The Importance of VARs in Forecasting 1-month-ahead forecasts of the VWM returns month-ahead forecasts of 10-year bond returns AR(1) VAR(1) 0 20 Figure 5.1: 1987 The figure1990 contains step ahead 1995forecasts 1998from a2001 VAR(1) and 2004 an AR(1) 2006 for both the value-weighted market returns (top) and the return on a 10-year bond. These two pictures indicate that the return on the long bond has substantial predictive power for equity returns while the opposite is not true. the VAR(1). The forecasts for the market are substantially different while the forecasts for the 10-year bond return are not. The changes (or lack there of) are simply a function of the model specification: the return on the 10-year bond has predictive power for both series. The VAR(1) is a better model for stock returns (than an AR(1)) although it not meaningfully better for bond returns. 5.5 Estimation and Identification Estimation and identification is the first significant break from directly applying the lessons learned from the analogies to univariate modeling to multivariate models. In addition to autocorrelation function and partial autocorrelation functions, vector stochastic processes also have crosscorrelation functions (CCFs) and partial cross-correlation functions (PCCFs). Definition 5.10 (Cross-correlation). The s th cross correlations between two covariance stationof the sample. An alternative is to use rolling windows where both the end point and the start point move through time so that the distance between the two is constant.

13 5.5 Estimation and Identification 333 ary series {x t } and { } are defined ρ x y,s = E(x t µ x )( s µ y ) Vxt V (5.20) and ρ y x,s = E( µ y )(x t s µ x ) Vxt V (5.21) where the order of the indices indicates which variable is measured using contemporaneous values and which variable is lagged, E = µ y and Ex t = µ x. It should be obvious that, unlike autocorrelations, cross-correlations are not symmetric the order, x y or y x, matters. Partial cross-correlations are defined in a similar manner; the correlation between x t and s controlling for 1,..., (s 1). Definition 5.11 (Partial Cross-correlation). The partial cross-correlations between two covariance stationary series {x t } and { } are defined as the population values of the coefficients ϕ x y,s in x t = φ 0 + φ φ s 1 (s 1) + ϕ x y,s s + ε x,t (5.22) and ϕ y x,s in = φ 0 + φ 1 x t φ s 1 x t (s 1) + ϕ y x,s x t s + ε x,t (5.23) where the order of the indices indicates which variable is measured using contemporaneous values and which variable is lagged. Figure 5.2 contains the CCF (cross-correlation function) and PCCF (partial cross-correlation function) of two first order VARs with identical persistence. The top panel contains the functions for yt x t = yt 1 x t 1 while the bottom contains the functions for a trivial VAR yt.9 0 yt 1 = x t x t 1 + ε1,t ε 2,t ε1,t which is just two AR(1)s in a system. The nontrivial VAR(1) exhibits dependence between both series while the AR-in-disguise shows no dependence between and x t j, j > 0. With these new tools, it would seem that Box-Jenkins could be directly applied to vector processes, and while technically possible, exploiting the ACF, PACF, CCF and PCCF to determine what type of model is appropriate is difficult. For specifications larger than a bivariate VAR, there are simploo many interactions. The usual solution is to take a hands off approach as advocated by Sims (1980). The VAR specification should include all variables which theory indicate are relevant and a lag length should ε 2,t

14 334 Analysis of Multiple Time Series ACF and CCF for two VAR(1)s VAR(1) ACF (y on lagged y ) VAR(1) CCF (y on lagged x ) Diagonal VAR(1) ACF (y on lagged y ) Diagonal VAR(1) CCF (y on lagged x ) Figure 5.2: 0 The 5top panel 10 contains 15 the 20 ACF and CCF for a nontrivial 5 10 VAR process 15 where 20 contemporaneous values depend on both series. The bottom contains the ACF and CCF for a trivial VAR which is simply composed to two AR(1)s. be chosen which has a high likelihood of capturing all of the dynamics. Once these values have been set, either a general-to-specific search can be conducted or an information criteria can be used to select the appropriate lag length. In the VAR case, the Akaike IC, Hannan & Quinn (1979) IC and the Schwartz/Bayes IC are given by AIC: HQC: SBIC: ln ˆΣ(P ) + k 2 P 2 T ln ˆΣ(P ) + k 2 2 ln ln T P T ln ˆΣ(P ) + k 2 P ln T T where ˆΣ(P ) is the covariance of the residuals using P lags and indicates determinant. 7 The 7 ln ˆΣ is, up to an additive constant, the gaussian log-likelihood divided by T, and these information criteria are

15 5.5 Estimation and Identification 335 lag length should be chosen to minimize one of these criteria, and the SBIC will always choose a (weakly) smaller model than the HQC which in turn will select a (weakly) smaller model than the AIC. Ivanov & Kilian (2005) recommend the AIC for monthly models and the HQC for quarterly models, unless the sample size is less than 120 quarters in which case the SBIC is preferred. Their recommendation is based on the accuracy of the impulse response function, and so may not be ideal in other applications such as forecasting. To use a general-to-specific approach, a simple likelihood ratio test can be computed as (T P 2 k 2 ) ( ln ˆΣ(P 1 ) ln ˆΣ(P 2 ) ) A χ 2 (P 2 P 1 )k 2 where P 1 is the number of lags in the restricted (smaller) model, P 2 is the number of lags in the unrestricted (larger) model and k is the dimension of. Since model 1 is a restricted version of model 2, its variance is larger which ensures this statistic is positive. The P 2 k 2 term in the log-likelihood is a degree of freedom correction that generally improves small-sample performance. Ivanov & Kilian (2005) recommended against using sequential likelihood ratio testing for selecting lag length Example: Campbell s VAR A lag length selection procedure was conducted using Campbell s VAR. The results are contained in table 5.2. This table contains both the AIC and SBIC values for lags 0 through 12 as well as likelihood ratio test results for testing l lags against l + 1. Note that the LR and P-val corresponding to lag l is a test of the null of l lags against an alternative of l + 1 lags. Using the AIC, 12 lags would be selected since it produces the smallest value. If the initial lag length was less than 12, 7 lags would be selected. The HQC and SBIC both choose 3 lags in a specific-to-general search and 12 in a general-to-specific search. Using the likelihood ratio, a general-to-specific procedure chooses 12 lags while a specific-to-general procedure chooses 3. The test statistic for a null of H 0 : P = 11 against an alternative that H 1 : P = 12 has a p-val of 0. One final specification search was conducted. Rather than beginning at the largest lag and work down one at a time, a global search which evaluates models using every combination of lags up to 12 was computed. This required fitting 4096 VARs which only requires a few seconds on a modern computer. 8 For each possible combination of lags, the AIC and the SBIC were computed. Using this methodology, the AIC search selected lags 1-4, 6, 10 and 12 while the SBIC selected a smaller model with only lags 1, 3 and 12 - the values of these lags indicate that there may be a seasonality in the data. Search procedures of this type are computationally viable for checking up to about 20 lags. all special cases of the usual information criteria for log-likelihood models which take the form L + P I C where P I C is the penalty which depends on the number of estimated parameters in the model. 8 For a maximum lag length of L, 2 L models must be estimated.

16 336 Analysis of Multiple Time Series Lag Length AIC HQC BIC LR P-val N/A N/A Table 5.2: Normalized values for the AIC and SBIC in Campbell s VAR. The AIC chooses 12 lags while the SBIC chooses only 3. A general-to-specific search would stop at 12 lags since the likelihood ratio test of 12 lags against 11 rejects with a p-value of 0. If the initial number of lags was less than 12, the GtS procedure would choose 6 lags. Note that the LR and P-val corresponding to lag l is a test of the null of l lags against an alternative of l + 1 lags. 5.6 Granger causality Granger causality (GC, also known as prima facia causality) is the first concept exclusive to vector analysis. GC is the standard method to determine whether one variable is useful in predicting another and evidence of Granger causality it is a good indicator that a VAR, rather than a univariate model, is needed Definition Granger causality is defined in the negative. Definition 5.12 (Granger causality). A scalar random variable {x t } is said to not Granger cause { } if E x t 1, 1, x t 2, 2,... = E, 1, 2, That is, {x t } does not Granger cause if the forecast of is the same whether conditioned on past values of x t or not. Granger causality can be simply illustrated in a bivariate VAR. xt φ11,1 φ 12,1 xt 1 φ11,2 φ 12,2 = + φ 21,1 φ 22,1 1 φ 21,2 φ 22,2 xt ε1,t ε 2,t 9 Technically, this definition is for Granger causality in the mean. Other definition exist for Granger causality in the variance (replace conditional expectation with conditional variance) and distribution (replace conditional expectation with conditional distribution).

17 5.6 Granger causality 337 In this model, if φ 21,1 = φ 21,2 = 0 then {x t } does not Granger cause { }. If this is the case, it may be tempting to model using = φ 22,1 1 + φ 22,2 1 + ε 2,t However, it is not; ε 1,t and ε 2,t can be contemporaneously correlated. If it happens to be the case that {x t } does not Granger cause { } and ε 1,t and ε 2,t have no contemporaneous correlation, then is said to be weakly exogenous, and can be modeled completely independently of x t. Finally it is worth noting that {x t } not Granger causing { } says nothing about whether { } Granger causes {x t }. One important limitation of GC is that it doesn t account for indirect effects. For example, suppose x t and are both Granger caused by z t. When this is the case, x t will usually Granger cause even when it has no effect once z t has been conditioned on, and so E 1, z t 1, x t 1,... = E 1, z t 1,... but E 1, x t 1,... E 1, Testing Testing for Granger causality in a VAR(P) is usually conducted using likelihood ratio tests. In this specification, = Φ 0 + Φ Φ Φ P P + ε t, {y j,t } does not Granger cause {y i,t } if φ i j,1 = φ i j,2 =... = φ i j,p = 0. The likelihood ratio test can be computed (T (P k 2 k)) ( ln ˆΣ r ln ˆΣ u ) A χ 2 P where Σ r is the estimated residual covariance when the null of no Granger causation is imposed (H 0 : φ i j,1 = φ i j,2 =... = φ i j,p = 0) and Σ u is the estimated covariance in the unrestricted VAR(P). If there is no Granger causation in a VAR, it is probably not a good idea to use one Example: Campbell s VAR Campbell s VAR will be used to illustrate testing for Granger causality. Table 5.3 contains the results of Granger causalitests from a VAR which included lags 1, 3 and 12 (as chosen bhe global search SBIC method) for the 5 series in Campbell s VAR. Tests of a variable causing itself have been omitted as these aren t particularly informative in the multivariate context. The table tests whether the variables in the left hand column Granger cause the variables along the top row. From the table, it can be seen that every variable causes at least one other variable since each row contains a p-val indicating significance using standard test sizes (5 or 10%) since the null is no 10 The multiplier in the test is a degree of freedom adjusted factor. There are T data points and there are P k 2 k parameters in the restricted model.

18 338 Analysis of Multiple Time Series VWM LBR RTB TERM DIV Exclusion Stat P-val Stat P-val Stat P-val Stat P-val Stat P-val V W M L B R RT B T E R M D I V All Table 5.3: Tests of Granger causality. This table contains tests where the variable on the left hand side is excluded from the regression for the variable along the top. Since the null is no GC, rejection indicates a relationship between past values of the variable on the left and contemporaneous values of variables on the top. Granger causation. It can also be seen that every variable is caused by another by examining the p-values column by column. 5.7 Impulse Response Function The second concept new to multivariate time-series analysis is the impulse response function. In the univariate world, the ACF was sufficient to understand how shocks decay. When analyzing vector data, this is no longer the case. A shock to one series has an immediate effect on that series but it can also affect the other variables in a system which, in turn, can feed back into the original variable. After a few iterations of this cycle, it can be difficult to determine how a shock propagates even in a simple bivariate VAR(1) Defined Definition 5.13 (Impulse Response Function). The impulse response function of y i, an element of y, with respect to a shock in ε j, an element of ε, for any j and i, is defined as the change in y i t +s, s 0 for a unit shock in ε j,t. This definition is somewhat difficult to parse and the impulse response function can be clearly illustrated through a vector moving average (VMA). 11 As long as is covariance stationary it must have a VMA representation, = µ + ε t + Ξ 1 ε t 1 + Ξ 2 ε t Using this VMA, the impulse response y i with respect to a shock in ε j is simply {1, Ξ 1i i, Ξ 2i i, Ξ 3i i,...} 11 Recall that a stationary AR(P) can also be transformed into a MA( ). Transforming a stationary VAR(P) into a VMA( ) is the multivariate time-series analogue.

19 5.7 Impulse Response Function 339 if i = j and {0, Ξ 1i j, Ξ 2i j, Ξ 3i j,...} otherwise. The difficult part is computing Ξ l, l 1. In the simple VAR(1) model this is easy since = (I k Φ 1 ) 1 Φ 0 + ε t + Φ 1 ε t 1 + Φ 2 1 ε t However, in more complicated models, whether higher order VARs or VARMAs, determining the MA( ) form can be tedious. One surprisingly simply, yet correct, method to compute the elements of {Ξ j } is to simulate the effect of a unit shock of ε j,t. Suppose the model is a VAR in deviations form 12, µ = Φ 1 ( 1 µ) + Φ 2 ( 2 µ) Φ P ( P µ) + ε t. The impulse responses can be computed by shocking ε t by 1 unit and stepping the process forward. To use this procedure, set 1 = 2 =... = P = 0 and then begin the simulation by setting ε j,t = 1. The 0 th impulse will obviously be e j = 0 j k j, a vector with a 1 in the j th position and zeros everywhere else. The first impulse will be, Ξ 1 = Φ 1 e j, the second will be Ξ 2 = Φ 2 1 e j + Φ 2 e j and the third is This can be continued to compute any Ξ j. Ξ 3 = Φ 3 1 e j + Φ 1 Φ 2 e j + Φ 2 Φ 1 e j + Φ 3 e j Correlated Shocks and non-unit Variance The previous discussion has made use of unit shocks, e j which represent a change of 1 in j th error. This presents two problems: actual errors do not have unit variances and are often correlated. The solution to these problems is to use non-standardized residuals and/or correlated residuals. Suppose that the residuals in a VAR have a covariance of Σ. To simulate the effect of a shock to element j, e j can be replaced with ẽ j = Σ 1/2 e j and the impulses can be computed using the procedure previously outlined. This change has two effects. First, every series will generally have an instantaneous reaction to any shock when the errors are correlated. Second, the choice of matrix square root, Σ 1/2, matters. There are two matrix square roots: the Choleski and the spectral decomposition. The Choleski square root is a lower triangular matrix which imposes an order to the shocks. Shocking element j (using e j ) has an effect of every series j,..., k but not on 1,..., j 1. In contrast the 12 Since the VAR is in deviations form, this formula can be used with any covariance stationary VAR. If the model is not covariance stationary, the impulse response function can still be computed although the unconditional mean must be replaced with a conditional one.

20 340 Analysis of Multiple Time Series spectral matrix square root is symmetric and a shock to the j th error will generally effect every series instantaneously. Unfortunatelhere is no right choice. If there is a natural ordering in a VAR where shocks to one series can be reasoned to have no contemporaneous effect on the other series, then the Choleski is the correct choice. However, in many situations there is little theoretical guidance and the spectral decomposition is the natural choice Example: Impulse Response in Campbell s VAR Campbell s VAR will be used to illustrate impulse response functions. Figure 5.3 contains the impulse responses of the relative T-bill rate to shocks in the in the four other variables: equity returns, labor income growth, the term premium and the dividend rate. The dotted lines represent 2 standard deviation confidence intervals. The relative T-bill rate increases subsequent to positive shocks in any variable which indicates that the economy is improving and there are inflationary pressures driving up the short end of the yield curve Confidence Intervals Impulse response functions, like the parameters of the VAR, are estimated quantities and subject to statistical variation. Confidence bands can be constructed to determine whether an impulse response is large in a statistically meaningful sense. Since the parameters of the VAR are asymptotically normal (as long as it is stationary and the innovations are white noise), the impulse responses will also be asymptotically normal by applying the δ-method. The derivation of the covariance of the impulse response function is tedious and has no intuitive value. Interested readers can refer to 11.7 in Hamilton (1994). Instead, two computational methods to construct confidence bands for impulse response functions will be described: Monte Carlo and using a procedure known as the bootstrap Monte Carlo Confidence Intervals Monte Carlo confidence intervals come in two forms, one that directly simulates ˆΦ i from its asymptotic distribution and one that simulates the VAR and draws ˆΦ i as the result of estimating the unknown parameters in the simulated VAR. The direct sampling method is simple: 1. Compute ˆΦ from the initial data and estimate the covariance matrix ˆΛ in the asymptotic distribution T ( ˆΦ Φ 0 ) A N (0, Λ) Using ˆΦ and ˆΛ, generate simulated values Φ b from the asymptotic distribution as ˆΛ 1/2 ε + ˆΦ where ε i.i.d. N (0, I). These are i.i.d. draws from a N ( ˆΦ, ˆΛ) distribution. 3. Using Φ b, compute the impulse responses { ˆΞ j,b } where b = 1, 2,..., B. Save these values. 13 This is an abuse of notation. Φ is a matrix and the vec operator is needed to transform it into a vector. Interested readers should see 11.7 in Hamilton (1994) for details on the correct form.

21 5.7 Impulse Response Function RTB to VWM Impulse Response Function RTB to LBRG RTB to TERM Period RTB to DIV Period Figure 5.3: Impulse response functions for 12 steps of the response of the relative T-bill rate to equity returns, labor income growth, the term premium rate and the dividend yield. The dotted lines represent 2 standard deviation (in each direction) confidence intervals. All values have been scaled by 1, Return to step 2 and compute a total of B impulse responses. Typically B is between 100 and For each impulse response for each horizon, sort the responses. The 5 th and 95 th percentile of this distribution are the confidence intervals. The second Monte Carlo method differs only in the method used to compute Φ b. 1. Compute ˆΦ from the initial data and estimate the residual covariance ˆΣ. 2. Using ˆΦ and ˆΣ, simulate a time-series {ỹ t } with as many observations as the original data. These can be computed directly using forward recursion ỹ t = ˆΦ 0 + ˆΦ ˆΦ P P + ˆΣ 1/2 ε t

22 342 Analysis of Multiple Time Series where ε i.i.d. N (0, I k ) are i.i.d. multivariate standard normally distributed. 3. Using {ỹ t }, estimate Φ b using a VAR. 4. Using Φ b, compute the impulse responses { Ξ j,b } where b = 1, 2,..., B. Save these values. 5. Return to step 2 and compute a total of B impulse responses. Typically B is between 100 and For each impulse response for each horizon, sort the impulse responses. The 5 th and 95 th percentile of this distribution are the confidence intervals. Of these two methods, the former should be preferred as the assumption of i.i.d. normal errors in the latter may be unrealistic. This is particularlrue for financial data. The final method, which uses a procedure known as the bootstrap, combines the ease of the second with the robustness of the first Bootstrap Confidence Intervals The bootstrap is a computational tool which has become popular in recent years primarily due to the significant increase in the computing power of typical PCs. Its name is derived from the expression pulling oneself up bhe bootstraps, a seemingly impossible feat. The idea is simple: if the residuals are realizations of the actual error process, one can use them directlo simulate this distribution rather than making an arbitrary assumption about the error distribution (e.g. i.i.d. normal). The procedure is essentially identical to the second Monte Carlo procedure outlined above: 1. Compute ˆΦ from the initial data and estimate the residuals ˆε t. 2. Using ˆε t, compute a new series of residuals ε t by sampling, with replacement, from the original residuals. The new series of residuals can be described {ˆε u1, ˆε u2,..., ˆε ut } where u i are i.i.d. discrete uniform random variables taking the values 1, 2,..., T. In essence, the new set of residuals is just the old set of residuals reordered with some duplication and omission Using ˆΦ and {ˆε u1, ˆε u2,..., ˆε ut }, simulate a time-series {ỹ t } with as many observations as the original data. These can be computed directly using the VAR ỹ t = ˆΦ 0 + ˆΦ ˆΦ P P + ˆε ut 14 This is one version of the bootstrap and is appropriate for homoskedastic data. If the data are heteroskedastic, some form of block bootstrap is needed.

23 5.8 Cointegration Using {ỹ t }, compute estimates of Φ b from a VAR. 5. Using Φ b, compute the impulse responses { Ξ j,b } where b = 1, 2,..., B. Save these values. 6. Return to step 2 and compute a total of B impulse responses. Typically B is between 100 and For each impulse response for each horizon, sort the impulse responses. The 5 th and 95 th percentile of this distribution are the confidence intervals. The bootstrap has many uses in econometrics. Interested readers can find more applications in Efron & Tibshirani (1998). 5.8 Cointegration Many economic time-series have two properties that make standard VAR analysis unsuitable: they contain one or more unit roots and most equilibrium models specifhat deviations between key variables, either in levels or ratios, are transitory. Before formally defining cointegration, consider the case where two important economic variables that contain unit roots, consumption and income, had no long-run relationship. If this were true, the values of these variables would grow arbitrarily far apart given enough time. Clearlhis is unlikelo occur and so there must be some long-run relationship between these two time-series. Alternatively, consider the relationship between the spot and future price of oil. Standard finance theory dictates that the future s price, f t, is a conditionally unbiased estimate of the spot price in period t + 1, s t +1 (E t s t +1 = f t ). Additionally, today s spot price is also an unbiased estimate of tomorrow s spot price (E t s t +1 = s t ). However, both of these price series contain unit roots. Combining these two identities reveals a cointegrating relationship: s t f t should be stationary even if the spot and future prices contain unit roots. 15 It is also important to note how cointegration is different from stationary VAR analysis. In stationarime-series, whether scalar or when the multiple processes are linked through a VAR, the process is self-equilibrating; given enough time, a process will revert to its unconditional mean. In a VAR, both the individual series and linear combinations of the series are stationary. The behavior of cointegrated processes is meaningfully different. Treated in isolation, each process contains a unit root and has shocks with permanent impact. However, when combined with another series, a cointegrated pair will show a tendenco revert towards one another. In other words, a cointegrated pair is mean reverting to a stochastic trend. Cointegration and error correction provide the tools to analyze temporary deviations from long-run equilibria. In a nutshell, cointegrated time-series may show temporary deviations from a long-run trend but are ultimately mean reverting to this trend. It may also be useful to relate cointegration to what has been studied thus far: cointegration is to VARs as unit roots are to stationarime-series. 15 This assumes the horizon is short.

24 344 Analysis of Multiple Time Series Definition Recall that an integrated process is defined as a process which is not stationary in levels but is stationary in differences. When this is the case, is said to be I(1) and = 1 is I(0). Cointegration builds on this structure by defining relationships across series which transform I(1) series into I(0) series. Definition 5.14 (Bivariate Cointegration). Let {x t } and { } be two I(1) series. These series are said to be cointegrated if there exists a vector β with both elements non-zero such that β x t = β 1 x t β 2 I (0) (5.24) Put another way, there exists a nontrivial linear combination of x t and which is stationary. This feature, when present, is a powerful link in the analysis of nonstationary data. When treated individually, the data are extremely persistent; however there is a combination of the data which is well behaved. Moreover, in many cases this relationship takes a meaningful form such as x t. Note that cointegrating relationships are only defined up to a constant. For example if x t β is a cointegrating relationship, then 2x t 2β = 2(x t β ) is also a cointegrating relationship. The standard practice is to chose one variable to normalize the vector. For example, if β 1 x t β 2 was a cointegrating relationship, one normalized version would be x t β 2 /β 1 = x t β. The definition in the general case is similar, albeit slightly more intimidating. Definition 5.15 (Cointegration). A set of k variables are said to be cointegrated if at least 2 series are I (1) and there exists a non-zero, reduced rank k by k matrix π such that π I (0). (5.25) The non-zero requirement is obvious: if π = 0 then π = 0 and is trivially I(0). The second requirement, that π is reduced rank, is not. This technical requirement is necessary since whenever π is full rank and π I (0), the series must be the case that is also I(0). However, in order for variables to be cointegrated they must also be integrated. Thus, if the matrix is full rank, there is no possibility for the common unit roots to cancel and it must have the same order of integration before and after the multiplication by π. Finally, the requirement that at least 2 of the series are I (1) rules out the degenerate case where all components of are I (0), and allows to contain both I (0) and I (1) random variables. For example, suppose x t and are cointegrated and x t β is stationary. One choice for π is 1 β π = 1 β To begin developing a feel for cointegration, examine the plots in figure 5.4. These four plots correspond to two nonstationary processes and two stationary processes all beginning at the same point and all using the same shocks. These plots contain data from a simulated VAR(1) with

25 5.8 Cointegration Nonstationary and Stationary VAR(1)s Cointegration (Φ 11 ) Independent Unit Roots(Φ 12 ) Persistent, Stationary (Φ 21 ) Anti-persistent, Stationary(Φ 22 ) Figure 5.4: A plot of four time-series that all begin at the same point initial value and use the same shocks. All data were generated by = Φ i j 1 + ε t where Φ i j varies. different parameters, Φ i j. = Φ i j 1 + ε t Φ 11 = Φ 21 = Φ 12 = λ i = 1, 0.6 λ i = 1, Φ 22 = λ i = 0.9, 0.5 λ i = 0.43, 0.06 where λ i are the eigenvalues of the parameter matrices. Note that the eigenvalues of the nonstationary processes contain the value 1 while the eigenvalues for the stationary processes are all

26 346 Analysis of Multiple Time Series less then 1 (in absolute value). Also, note that the cointegrated process has only one eigenvalue which is unity while the independent unit root process has two. Higher dimension cointegrated systems may contain between 1 and k 1 unit eigenvalues. The number of unit eigenvalues indicates the number of unit root drivers in a system of equations. The picture presents evidence of another issue in cointegration analysis: it can be very difficult to tell when two series are cointegrated, a feature in common with unit root testing of scalar processes Error Correction Models (ECM) The Granger representation theorem provides a key insight to understanding cointegrating relationships. Granger demonstrated that if a system is cointegrated then there exists an error correction model and if there is an error correction model then the system must be cointegrated. The error correction model is a form which governs short deviations from the trend (a stochastic trend or unit root). The simplest ECM is given by xt = π11 π 12 π 21 π 22 xt ε1,t ε 2,t (5.26) which states that changes in x t and are related to the levels of x t and through the cointegrating matrix (π). However, since x t and are cointegrated, there exists β such that x t β is I(0). Substituting this into this equation, equation 5.26 can be rewritten xt = α1 α 2 The short-run dynamics take the forms 1 β x t ε1,t ε 2,t. (5.27) x t = α 1 (x t 1 β 1 ) + ε 1,t (5.28) and = α 2 (x t 1 β 1 ) + ε 2,t. (5.29) The important elements of this ECM can be clearly labeled: x t 1 β 1 is the deviation from the long-run trend (also known as the equilibrium correction term) and α 1 and α 2 are the speed of adjustment parameters. ECMs impose one restriction of the αs: they cannot both be 0 (if they were, π would also be 0). In its general form, an ECM can be augmented to allow past short-run deviations to also influence present short-run deviations or to include deterministic trends. In vector form, the generalized ECM is = π 0 + π 1 + π π π P P + ε t where π 1 captures the cointegrating relationship, π 0 represents a linear time trend in the original data (levels) and π j j, j = 1, 2,..., P capture short-run dynamics around the stochastic trend.

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