3 Cycling is high on the policy agenda at the moment Media: The Times Cities fit for cycling campaign Funding: Local Sustainable Travel Fund Political: Active Travel Act in Wales All Party Parliamentary Cycling Group Identified policy direction: Get Britain Cycling Report
4 Broad policy consensus There is also a broad consensus over ideas like: 10% of all trips to be by bike by 2025, and 25% by 2050 a long-term cycling budget of at least 10 per British citizen per year, increasing to 20 These were supported by: Association of Directors of Public Health, Automobile Association, Brake, British Cycling, Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, Chartered Institution of Highways and Transportation, CTC, Faculty of Public Health, Parliamentary Advisory Council on Transport Safety, Play England, RoadPeace, RoSPA, Royal Society for Public Health, Sustrans, and many more
5 Reasons why there is such a consensus Lack of physical exercise contributes to the prevalence of many of today s public health issues: Circulatory diseases, such as coronary heart disease and stroke Cancers, such as breast and colon cancer Diabetes Mental health issues, such as depression, dementia and anxiety Injuries, such as falls in old age
6 Reasons why there is such a consensus For most people, the easiest and most acceptable forms of physical activity are those that can be incorporated into everyday life. Examples include walking or cycling instead of travelling by car, bus or train. - Start Active, Stay Active: A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries Chief Medical Officers
7 Discussion What impact might this have on traffic injuries?
8 What effect would an increase in cyclists have? We can look at what has happened before We can model what might happen We can look at what has happened in other countries
9 Cycle use in the UK In 1949: collectively we travelled 14.7 billion miles by bicycle in the UK. In 2011: we travelled 3.1 billion miles
10 Car use in the UK
11 What predictions have been made? Models can estimate the impact of modal shift on injuries Annual average daily traffic Motor vehicles Pedestrians Cyclists Relative number of accidents , , , Source: Elvik R. The non-linearity of risk and the promotion of environmentally sustainable transport. Accid Anal Prev Jul;41(4):
12 What predictions have been made? Reducing vehicles by 25%, corresponding increase in walking/cycling Annual average daily traffic Motor vehicles Pedestrians Cyclists Relative change in the number of accidents , ,
13 What predictions have been made? Reducing vehicles by 50%, corresponding increase in walking/cycling Annual average daily traffic Motor vehicles Pedestrians Cyclists Relative change in the number of accidents , , Important to mention that some alternative models show an increase in cyclist injuries. Single vehicle cyclist injuries not included.
14 Win-win Some interventions that increase cycling: Bike lanes, cycle tracks, car free zones, traffic calming, cycle parking, 20mph limits, signed bike routes Source: various, but see Pucher J et al. Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review. Preventive Medicine 50 (2010) S106 S125. Some interventions that make cycling safer*: Clearly-marked, bike-specific facilities (i.e. cycle tracks at roundabouts, bike routes, bike lanes, and bike paths), 20mph limits, street lighting Source: various, but see Reynolds C et al. The impact of transportation infrastructure on bicycling injuries and crashes: a review of the literature. Environ Health. 2009; 8: 47. Forthcoming Cochrane review. This is all infrastructure, but what about safety education?
15 Discussion What is the wider impact of safety education interventions? Where are the win-wins in safety education? Are there circumstances in which safety education can have a negative impact?
16 How do the LASER principles apply to cycling? 1. Encourage the adoption of, or reinforce, a whole school approach, within the wider community 2. Use active approaches to teaching and learning (including interactive and experiential learning) 3. Involve young people in real decisions to help them stay safe 4. Assess children and young people's learning needs 5. Teach safety as part of a comprehensive personal social and health curriculum
17 How do the LASER principles apply to cycling? 6. Use realistic and relevant settings and resources 7. Work in partnership 8. Address known risk and protective factors 9. Address psychosocial aspects of safety e.g. confidence, resilience, self-esteem, self-efficacy 10.Adopt positive approaches which model and reward safe behaviour, within a safe, supportive environment
Take action on active travel Why a shift from car-dominated transport policy would benefit public health For the first time, the UK s leading organisations working on all areas of public health, including
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