Cycling in Cities: The Research Program and its Impact

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1 Cycling in Cities: The Research Program and its Impact Meghan Winters Faculty of Health Sciences Simon Fraser University Creating Active Communities Saskatoon, Oct 2012

2 % of trips by bicycle Gap 1: cycling modal share: North America vs. Europe Pucher & Dijkstra, Am J Pub Health, 2003:93:

3 Gap 2: who cycles? North America vs. Europe 3

4 Gap 3: cycling injury rates North America vs. Europe [data sources: International - Pucher & Buehler Transport Reviews 2008;28: BC - Motor Vehicle Branch, 2005 to 2007, TransLink s 2008 Trip Diary Survey, Census 2006]

5 why the differences? what about route infrastructure? typical in North America to provide little or no bike infrastructure North America: John Forester vehicular cycling in high cycling European countries, usually provide separated facilities where motor vehicle traffic volumes and speeds are high

6 cycling in cities research program evidence on city design to increase cycling mode share & improve public health 6

7 cycling in cities research program evidence on city design to increase cycling mode share & improve public health injury study opinion survey bikeability mapping 7

8 Bicyclists Injuries & the Cycling Environment Teschke K, Harris MA, Reynolds CCO, Winters M, Chipman M, Cripton PA, Cusimano MD, Babul S, Brubacher J, Chisholm D, Hunte G, Friedman S, Monro M, Vernich, Shen H. Bicyclists Injuries and the Cycling Environment: The impact of route infrastructure. In press: American Journal of Public Health.

9 participating cities Vancouver 2 participating hospitals 0.6 million people rain in winter, temperate summer lots of hills 26 km of bike lanes & paths per 100,000 population 3.7% of trips by bike Toronto 3 participating hospitals 2.5 million people snow in winter, heat in summer mostly flat 11 km of bike lanes & paths per 100,000 population 1.7% of trips by bike 9

10 study overview: case-crossover design Cyclist to Emergency Department Cyclist to emergency department Interview Site observations Data analysis

11 participants & trips Toronto 273 Vancouver 417 } 690 male 59% 19 to 39 years old 62% income > $50,000 56% cycle > 52 times/year 88% wore helmet 69% wore high viz clothes 33% trip < 5 km 68% weekday, daylight 77% commute 42% other transport 32% 11

12 injury circumstances % of injury events 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% Car Bus or truck Vehicle door Streetcar or train track Other cycling surface Infrastructure Cyclist Pedestrian Dog Other collision Avoiding motor vehicle collision Avoiding other collision Loss of balance Bike malfunction Braking too hard Item caught in wheel Cornering Clipped into toe clips Other fall Collisions n=497 Falls n=181 Motor vehicle involved, n=331 No Motor vehicle involved, n=347

13 major street sidewalk cycle track comparison of 15 route types main focus of study

14 relative risks by route type decreased risk 1/100 1/10 1/2 1 toy 10 Major streets with parked cars no bike infrastructure shared lane bike lane Major streets, no parked cars no bike infrastructure shared lane bike lane Local streets no bike infrastructure bike route bike route with traffic diverters bike route with traffic slowing Separated from traffic sidewalk multiuse path, paved multiuse path, unpaved bike only path cycle track

15 on or alongside major streets... bike lane with parked cars 7/10 th of the risk bike lane without parked cars ~ half the risk cycle track ~ 1/10 th the risk

16 on residential streets... traffic slowing 7/10 th of the risk traffic diverting 4/10 th of the risk

17 other considerations.. streetcar tracks 3 times the risk construction 2 times the risk temporary, but ubiquitous and dangerous a special risk almost one-third of crashes in Toronto

18 opinion survey

19 the near market for cycling own a bicycle, and are current cyclists, or willing to cycle more in the future 31% of adult population 500,000 people regular cyclists: cycle at least weekly 2.4% of population, ~40,000 adults frequent cyclists: cycle at least monthly 9.9% of population, ~160,000 adults occasional cyclists: cycle at least yearly 12.7% of population, ~200,000 adults potential cyclists: cycle less than once a year 6.2% of population, ~100,000 adults other adults 69% of population, ~1,100,000 adults

20 opinion survey: factors that influence cycling motivators: route ease & enjoyment away from air pollution or traffic noise beautiful scenery away from traffic flat time to travel shorter than other modes deterrents: safety ice & snow car, bus & truck traffic glass or debris vehicles driving faster than 50 km/h motorists who don t know how to drive safely near bikes

21 opinion survey: route preferences 1 1. paved off-street cycle paths for bikes only (82% likely to choose) 3 2. paved off-street multi-use paths (78% likely to choose) top 5 routes (of 16) 3. unpaved off-street multi-use paths (69% likely to choose) 4. cycle paths next to major streets, separated by barrier (68% likely to choose) 2 5. residential street bicycle routes with traffic calming (66% likely to choose) 4

22 opinion survey: route preferences 16. major streets with parked cars (71% unlikely to choose) bottom 5 routes (of 16) 15. major city streets with no parked cars (70% unlikely to choose) 14. rural road with no paved shoulder (61% unlikely to choose) 13. rural road with paved shoulder (49% unlikely to choose) 12. major streets with bike symbols & parked cars (48% unlikely to choose)

23 Paved off-street paths for bikes only Paved off-street multiuse paths Unpaved off-street multiuse paths Cycle path next to major street, separated by barrier Residential streets marked as bike routes, with traffic calming Residential streets marked as bike routes Residential streets Major city streets with bike lanes, no parked cars Rural roads with paved shoulder and bike symbols Major city streets with bike symbols, no parked cars Major city streets with bike lanes, parked cars Major city streets with bike symbols, parked cars Rural roads with paved shoulder Rural roads with no paved shoulder Major city streets with no parked cars Major city streets with parked cars opinion survey: route preferences Separate from traffic Quiet streets Busy streets

24 Paved off-street paths for bikes only Paved off-street multiuse paths Unpaved off-street multiuse paths Cycle path next to major street, separated by barrier Residential streets marked as bike routes, with traffic calming Residential streets marked as bike routes Residential streets Major city streets with bike lanes, no parked cars Rural roads with paved shoulder and bike symbols Major city streets with bike symbols, no parked cars Major city streets with bike lanes, parked cars Major city streets with bike symbols, parked cars Rural roads with paved shoulder Rural roads with no paved shoulder Major city streets with no parked cars Major city streets with parked cars opinion survey: route preferences regular frequent occasional potential

25 are safe routes also preferred routes?

26 Route Preference route preferences vs. safety High Preference Bike only path Multiuse path paved Multiuse path unpaved Local street bike route & traffic diverters Local street bike route Cycle track Major street bike lane, no parked cars Major street shared lane, no parked cars Major street bike lane, parked cars Major street shared lane, parked cars Local street Major street with parked cars Major street no parked cars Low Preference Less safe Route Safety More safe

27 Route Preference route preferences vs. safety High Preference Bike only path Multiuse path paved Multiuse path unpaved Local street bike route & traffic diverters Local street bike route Cycle track Major street bike lane, no parked cars Major street shared lane, no parked cars Major street bike lane, parked cars Major street shared lane, parked cars Major streets: shared lanes, parked cars, no bike facilities Major street with parked cars Major street no parked cars Local street Low Preference Less safe Route Safety More safe

28 Route Preference route preferences vs. safety High Preference Mixed-use facilities Bike only path Multiuse path paved Multiuse path unpaved Local street bike route & traffic diverters Local street bike route Cycle track Major street bike lane, no parked cars Major street shared lane, no parked cars Major street bike lane, parked cars Major street shared lane, parked cars Local street Major street with parked cars Major street no parked cars Low Preference Less safe Route Safety More safe

29 Route Preference route preferences vs. safety High Preference Multiuse path paved Multiuse path unpaved Bike only path Local street bike route & traffic diverters Local street bike route Bike-specific facilities Cycle track Major street bike lane, no parked cars Major street shared lane, no parked cars Major street bike lane, parked cars Major street shared lane, parked cars Local street Major street with parked cars Major street no parked cars Low Preference Less safe Route Safety More safe

30 applying the research: mapping Bikeability Partners: Simon Fraser University, University of British Columbia, and Walk Score Funding: Knowledge Translation Grant through Canadian Institutes for Health Research

31 Seattle-based company that developed Walk Score in 2008 has ranked 2,500 cities in the US on walkability had interest in Bike Score great interactive website history of partnerships with researchers, planners and the real estate industry

32 Bike Lane Score Hill Score Destinations Score

33 making research have impact

34 sharing: papers, presentations and pamphlets

35 incorporating: evidence in practice? to improve cycling safety training by comparing cycling education materials to research evidence on cycling safety

36 applying: innovative web-based tools online bicycle trip planner 2008 (www.cyclevancouver.ubc.ca) Bike Score (www.walkscore.com/bike)

37 making it matter: relationships dedicated presentations: municipalities, advocates, decision-makers Municipalities Transportation bodies Provincial government Business organizations Health bodies Advocates The public! advising Bicycle Advisory committee/ Active Transportation Policy Council Transportation Plan Stakeholder Consultant reports 37

38 outcomes supported policy for infrastructure - Burrard Bridge, Dunsmuir, Hornby successful research grants - Injury Study, Public Bikeshare research relevance - Bike Score, Education Materials, Cycle Route Planner new projects - Comox-Helmcken Greenway 38

39 Vancouver: cycling for all ages and abilities

40

41

42 thanks to everyone, especially study participants and... Kay Teschke (UBC) Mike Brauer (UBC) Funders Funders Matt Lerner (Walk Score) Toronto and Vancouver BICE Study Teams

43 cyclingincities.spph.ubc.ca 43

44 Cycling injuries vs. health

45 net health impact?

46 risks vs. benefits of cycling authors location benefits & risks taken into account ratio of benefit : risk British Medical Association, 1992 United Kingdom physical activity traffic crashes 20 : 1 lives saved vs. lost Woodcock et al., 2009 London, England Johan de Hartog et al., 2010 Netherlands physical activity population air pollution traffic crashes physical activity traffic crashes individual air pollution 49 : 1 lives saved vs. lost 15 : 1 DALYs saved vs. lost 9 : 1 lives saved vs. lost Rojas-Rueda et al., 2011 Barcelona, Spain physical activity traffic crashes individual air pollution 96 : 1 lives saved vs. lost Rabl & de Nazelle, 2012 Europe physical activity population air pollution traffic crashes individual air pollution 19 : 1 Euros saved vs. lost

47 risks vs. benefits of cycling in spite of the hostile environment in which most cyclists currently ride, the benefits in terms of health promotion & longevity far outweigh the loss of life years in injury on the roads [source: British Medical Association. Cycling: Towards Health and Safety. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992]

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