1 TRABAJO FIN DE ESTUDIOS MÁSTER UNIVERSITARIO EN PROFESORADO DE ESO, BACHILLERATO, FP Y ENSEÑANZA DE IDIOMAS INGLÉS Master s degree final project: Theoretical framework, Bachillerato syllabus & research project Christopher John Hadfield Tutor: María del Pilar Agustín Llach Facultad de Letras y de la Educación Curso
2 Master s degree final project: Theoretical framework, Bachillerato syllabus & research project, trabajo fin de estudios de Christopher John Hadfield, dirigido por María del Pilar Agustín Llach (publicado por la Universidad de La Rioja), se difunde bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-SinObraDerivada 3.0 Unported. Permisos que vayan más allá de lo cubierto por esta licencia pueden solicitarse a los titulares del copyright. El autor Universidad de La Rioja, Servicio de Publicaciones, 2012 publicaciones.unirioja.es
3 MASTER S DEGREE FINAL PROJECT THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK, BACHILLERATO SYLLABUS & RESEARCH PROJECT Christopher J. Hadfield Trabajo Fin de Master, 2012 Master en Profesorado de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y Bachillerato, Formación Profesional y Enseñanza de Idiomas
4 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE SUBJECTS OF MASTER S DEGREE SYLLABUS INTRODUCTION EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT OBJECTIVES COMPETENCES CONTENTS METHODOLOGY ATTENTION TO DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA ASSESSMENT PLAN DIDACTIC UNITS DISTRIBUTION OF UNITS IN TIME UNIT 5: RUBBISH! INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES COMPETENCES CONTENTS METHODOLOGY ATTENTION TO DIVERSITY 43
5 ACTIVITIES ASSESSMENT MATERIALS & RESOURCES MATERIALS AND RESOURCES RESEARCH PROJECT INTRODUCTION WEBQUESTS REVIEW OF LITERATURE RESEARCH QUESTIONS METHOD AND DESIGN PARTICIPANTS INSTRUMENTS PROCEDURES WORKING PLAN CONCLUSIONS 69 REFERENCES 70 APPENDIX 73
6 INTRODUCTION This final project strives to reflect and express the skills and academic knowledge acquired over the period of the academic year at the University of La Rioja from 2011 to It is an accumulation of academic training attained by the trainee teacher, Christopher J. Hadfield of Secondary School Teaching. The project is split into three parts or sections. Section One is composed of the theoretical framework necessary for the modules within the Master s Degree regarding the teaching and learning process. Section Two reveals and develops a syllabus for a group of students in the second year of Bachillerato. The syllabus is developed from a textbook used at a Secondary School in Spain and it fulfils the criteria set forth by the Spanish State Curriculum for this educational level. Section Three presents a Research Project on the advantages of WebQuests over traditional methods on the acquisition and learning of vocabulary. 1. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE MODULES OF MASTER S DEGREE The content of the following section will be a theoretical framework providing details of the modules covered within the Master s Degree with respect to the teacherlearning process. It includes and explains an account of the competences assimilated from these subject disciplines and an explanation on the interaction and contribution of these modules in the materialization of teaching and teacher practice. The subjects of the Master s Degree are divided into two modules. The first module is the Generic or Common Modules, which concern themselves essentially with non-
7 linguistically minded matters but ones which provide the trainee teacher with the bedrock of teaching, namely: sociology, psychology and pedagogy. The second module relates to more specific or specialized matters, which deal with hands-on teacher related matters like the legal side, and an in depth outline of theory and practice. Regarding the generic side of the degree and more specifically sociology, it can be said to be weighed in favour of education but takes on board more statistical matters which are unconnected with education per se, but could be construed as having implications if one considers that statistics are part of the make-up of education. The module focuses on the social elements of education and the influence of the family on education in general. Great emphasis is placed on teachers and the conditions of the work place and the effects that teaching has on the life of the teacher as a whole. The social problems and welfare of the teacher is covered, not just the rookie but also the old-hand. The statistics is an element introduced to compare schools, teachers and other countries and conclude ideas from the lectures and transform them into conclusive reports in the tutorials. The psychology module is dedicated to the cognitive, social, personal, physical and mental behaviour of the child through to adolescence, with special emphasis placed on the teenager. It also includes the learning processes undertaken by children and the models of educational learning. It deals with the psychological problems like bullying, peer pressure and distractions both sexually and intellectually, which are experienced by the adolescent. Forms of punishment are dealt with in tutorials and ways of motivating the student. Re-enactments are acted out and tests are given to the trainee teachers as part of their own educational process. The trainee teachers glean adequate
8 knowledge about the adolescent from this module and feel prepared to tackle many a conflictive moment in the classroom. The pedagogy module is mainly concerned with the mechanics of teaching and the design of curricula and education plans and syllabuses. The major thinkers in this field are taught and the seminars are packed with the mechanics of teaching and designing. The subject matter is didactics and educational centres and school organization in the Spanish Education system. The course provides the trainee teacher with the basic knowledge and strategic know-how which are essential for any trainee teacher just starting out. Topics such as organizational structure within the secondary school, the staff and workers within the colleges, the rooms and layout of any centre and the official state laws of the education system in Spain. The seminars are more active and more feedback is responded to. Projects are issued and presentations are given, all of which facilitates the procedure and practice of the trainee teacher in preparation. The specific module, or specialized subjects, is made up of the following thematic units: Complements for the Training of Foreign Language Teachers, Foreign Language Learning and Teaching, and, Educational Innovation and Research. Complements for the Training of Foreign Language Teachers deals with foreign language teaching or in this case, English Language Teaching as an academic subject and the teacher training within the subject. The module covers the history of foreign language teaching and learning from early methods through to the modern methods. Humanistic, linguistic, content and communicative approaches are covered within this period. This is a very useful course as day-to-day problems in the classroom are covered like testing, discipline, classroom layout, classroom interaction,
9 motivation, using the four skills and approaches and feedback. The fact that so many approaches are covered is reflected in the point that foreign language teaching has always been a popular subject with education. Foreign Language Teaching and Learning is spilt three-fold. It consists of a theoretical input and starts off with the greatest thinkers in language learning and how each has left a mark or has influenced the following generation. The theoretical side explains everything from Structuralism through to Behaviorism to Communicative Competence and Discourse Analysis. Certain theories are explained like the Monitor Theory and Metaphors. Moreover, the legal aspect is also explained and the organic laws and decrees presiding over Spanish language education. The foreign language curriculum is dissected and analysed and teaching programmes from most methods and approaches. The practical side deals with text books and grammar books available on the market today (and previously) with clear grading and explanations. The second part of this module deals with multiculturalism in the school and the effects of multicultural and multilingual schools. Cultural misunderstandings are clarified, intercultural communication is elucidated and concepts such as languaculture are explained. Differences between intercultural, cross-cultural, multicultural and monocultural are given space with the module and readings reflecting the differences. Competence is also covered and the concepts of cultural competence, plurilingual competence and intercultural competence compared and contrasted. The course highlights the growing awareness inside the education establishments of a different future and a highly mixed classroom with varied needs. The third and final part of this subject concerns itself with syllabus planning and materials design with special emphasis on webquests and CLIL. These tools and
10 materials are innovative methods and a modern way of teaching. The use of computer assisted tools is introduced and demonstrated, and online webpages to aid the teacher are utilized for making crosswords, projects, videos, recordings, timelines, nodes, sketches and newspapers. All of these are suggested as classroom tools. CLIL is given special attention and the advantages and pitfalls of using it as a classroom tool. The final module, Educational Innovation and Research, deals with educational and pedagogic innovation in foreign language teaching. The subject is heavily balanced in favour of research projects and the styles, ways and methods used to do research. Questionnaires and interviews are explained carefully and test cases are visualized and studied. The subject matter permits the trainee teacher to recognize and pick out possible shortcomings from case studies. Readings and seminars complement the course and explain it in fuller detail.
11 2. SYLLABUS 2.1. INTRODUCTION The main objective of this section is to lay out and develop a syllabus for the English class in the foreign language curriculum for a second year class of bachillerato. A syllabus can be defined as an organization or plan of a series of classes within a curriculum. This syllabus enables the teacher to impart classes following a procedure and informs the teacher of what to teach, where and when to teach it, how long to spend on the units or themes, which tools to use and how to do it. It is usually descriptive unlike a curriculum which is rather rigid and prescriptive. A syllabus contains relevant information about the course. Also included in a syllabus is an evaluation, a guide to testing or exam information. For the syllabus to be binding it ought to follow the legal guidelines concerning its design, contents and structure and follow the legal framework established by the following official documents: Ley Orgánica de Educación 2/2006, 3 de mayo (BOE 2006) Real Decreto 1467/2007, 2 de noviembre (BOE 2007), which explains the structure of Bachillerato and the minimum requirements for this stage. Decreto 45/2008, 27 de junio (BOR 2008a), which sets out the structure of Bachillerato in La Rioja. Decreto 47/2010, 19 de agosto (BOR 2010), which modifies Decreto 45/2008. Orden 21/2008, 4 de septiembre (BOR 2008b), which regulates the implementation of Bachillerato in the education establishments of La Rioja. Orden 6/2009, 16 de enero (BOR 2009), which regulates the assessment, promotion and graduation of Bachillerato students in La Rioja.
12 This legal framework establishes, regarding foreign language instruction in Spain, a standard which is to be followed in the social structure. According to the Council of Europe instruments are needed in order to create a common language and changes in European society in the 20 th century have led to an impulse in language learning. Humanistic concepts of understanding and their cultural heritage propel us towards a social cohesion within the European states. The Council of Europe has published a white paper on intercultural dialogue in order to project these aims. Functional purposes have grown in importance, also as a result of geo-labour and mobility freedom of work within the European Union. As a consequence of the need to become a multilingual society within a plurilinguistic and multicultural European community, the curriculum pays heed to these callings and falls in line with these guidelines and concepts. Language teaching and learning not only facilitates and enables the student to become a more integrated European citizen, but moreover, promotes and stimulates interest in other languages and cultures. The need to respect other cultures and view them with a tolerant way of thinking is vital to this understanding as well. Ultimately, by heeding the Council of Europe s policies, and the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR), whose main aim is to provide a common method of teaching and learning to all languages by using six reference levels, [Table 1: vide infra] the proficiency of foreign language assimilation and competence, will increase. Finally, with the help of, and following the guidelines of the European Portfolio for Languages, the learner will be able to support the development of autonomous education, plurilingualism and intercultural awareness and competence.
13 COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK of REFERENCE for LANGUAGES BASIC USER INDEPENDENT USER PROFICIENT USER A1 breakthrough B1 threshold C1 operational proficiency or beginner or intermediate or advanced A2 waystage B2 vantage C2 mastery or elementary or upper intermediate or proficiency Table EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT The enclosed syllabus has been prepared and devised for a class of students at the State Secondary Education Centre called Mateo Práxedes Sagasta of Logroño. The school is located in the centre of Logroño next to the main square of the town. The surrounding area is mainly commercial with several public buildings close by such as the town hall, and a couple of ministries. Otherwise, there is a small area of residential dwelling and there are also entertainment facilities. The school is housed in an old building which has changed over the years and is not considered to be a school with a modern look. The actual building where the school is today is around a century old. There used to be an old convent on the site which was demolished to make way for the new building. While the new building was being built the school moved to Barriocepo Street. Then, in 1900 the new school premises was opened and renamed General Institute. According to the Ley Orgánica 10/2002, 23 de diciembre of Quality in Education, the public education centres for bachillerato and Professional Training will be called Institutes of Secondary Education
14 The current Institute has a surface area of 8,200 square metres. Its main buildings surround two square courtyards used as playgrounds. [Table 2: vide infra] On the ground floor there are: 17 classrooms, a gym, three special computer classrooms, a technology workshop, a library, a special music classroom, the main offices and the offices that deal with distance bachillerato. It also has a small cafeteria and a canteen service area. On the first floor, the Institute has 21 classrooms, a physics laboratory, a chemistry laboratory, a natural sciences laboratory, a performance room, a main assembly hall and two staff rooms, and a special drawing room. Educational department sub-rooms are situated on the second floor along with three extra classrooms THE BUILDING OF THE INSTITUTE IN FIGURES MAIN OFFICES 100 M 2 LOCKER ROOMS 50 M 2 DEPARMENTS 300 M 2 SECRETARIAL 70 M 2 CLASSROOMS 2,370 M 2 OFFICES 30 M 2 LIBRARY 350 M 2 STAFF ROOM 120 M 2 WORKSHOP/LABS 570 M 2 CORRIDORS/STAIRS 2000 M 2 AUDIOVISUAL 80 M 2 TOILETS 150 M 2 COMPUTER 130 M 2 STOREROOM 300 M 2 ROOM GYMNASIUM 130 M 2 BOILER ROOM 20 M 2 ASSEMBLY ROOM 350 M 2 KITCHEN 30 M M 2 Table 2 The points of origin of the students of the Institute are very widespread, coming from both old and newer areas of Logroño. According to the educational project, students
15 come from many different parts of La Rioja, and it should also be taken into account the large number of immigrant students living in and around Logroño. They come from European countries like Portugal, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia and France. Additionally, African countries namely: Morocco, Senegal, Cameroon, Guinea, Mauritius, Equatorial Guinea and Algeria. From Asian countries there are pupils from India, China, Pakistan and Georgia, and American countries like Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Uruguay, Argentina, Dominican Republic, Chile and Cuba; and even from the USA and Canada. It is also particularly heterogeneous given the Gypsy ethnic diversity, since many of them live in the old town of Logroño. The socio-cultural profile is equally diverse, and mingled in the classrooms there are pupils from very different social classes with which the centre maintains its base values in an open, flexible and liberal line. As already mentioned, the syllabus was devised for the school subject of Foreign Language for the second year of bachillerato within the Upper Secondary Education. This subject is compulsory and carries a load of 3 lessons per week, which corresponds to nearly 3 hours class time. The students have already received a base knowledge of English at the Lower Secondary level and by now their English has covered many areas of grammar, vocabulary and use. They also have been exposed to listening exercises and written exercises as well as practising their orals skills. It is usually the oral skills that have the lowest level. This is unsurprising as neither the teacher nor the pupils have the time to individually go round the class speaking to each and every person. The main objectives now are to develop existing skills and manage communication skills and enrich their vocabulary intake. Furthermore, the range of topics in the text
16 books is more satisfying and knowledgeable for this age group. They should now be developing oral skills better and an improved extent to their rhetoric. Social relations receive particular interest and special attention to scientific and technical subjects as well as the media and cultural and literary speech. While undergoing the bachillerato course it is important to carry on strengthening the autonomy of the students because their interests and needs are more defined, so completing the cycle of education that at this level is vital in order to fulfil the completion and continue the consolidation of existing knowledge and increase further development in new themes which are specialized in terms of academic abilities. Regarding the class to which this syllabus is aimed; it is a second year class of bachillerato, with 20 students of mixed gender. In the class there are 13 native Spanish students, and 7 immigrants: (2 from Pakistan, 2 from Romania, 2 from the Dominican Republic, 1 from Bolivia and one from Bulgaria.) They have quite a high passive level, i.e., written and comprehension, and a lower active level, i.e., spoken and aural. They all have a healthy interest in the subject; however, the girls tend to be stronger than the boys and more participatory. The fact that the immigrant quota is a quarter of the class leans towards multiculturalism. However, in my experience with this class, multiculturalism is too grand a word to describe the atmosphere. They accept each other without any disdain for race or creed. They are all welcoming, helpful and indifferent to cultural diversity. The classroom is equipped with a standard blackboard, a projector and speakers and it has internet possibility. The layout is in rows or two desks with spaces in between. The text book used with this group is called Distinction 2 by Sheila Dignen.
17 2.3 OBJECTIVES As is clearly promulgated in the Real Decreto 1467/2007 (BOE 2007) and the Decreto 45/2008 (BOR 2008a), foreign language teaching for bachillerato will help to develop the following skills: The school aims to provide students with education, maturity, intellectual and human, knowledge and skills that enable them to develop social functions and participating in an active life with responsibility and competence. In this way, students will also be able to access higher education. The Objectives of the bachillerato student are indicated in article 3 of the BOE, and are the following: Exercise democratic citizenship, from a global perspective, and acquire a responsible civic awareness, inspired by the values of the Constitution and human rights, which promote co-responsibility in the construction of a just and equitable society and promotes sustainability. Consolidate a personal and social maturity allowing them to act responsibly and autonomously and develop his/her critical spirit. Anticipate and resolve personal, family and social conflicts peacefully. Promote effective equality of rights and opportunities between men and women, analyze and critically assess existing inequalities and promote real equality and non-discrimination of persons with disabilities. Strengthen the habits of reading, study and discipline, as necessary conditions for the effective use of learning, and as a means of personal development.
18 Master, both in their oral expression as well as written, the Spanish language and, where appropriate, the co-official language of their autonomous community. Express themselves fluently and correctly in one or more foreign languages. Use information and communication technologies with solvency and responsibility. Know and critically assess the realities of the contemporary world, its historical background and the main factors of its evolution. Participate in solidarity in the development and improvement of their social environment. Access basic scientific and technological knowledge and master the basic skills of the chosen mode. Understand the elements and fundamental procedures of research and scientific methods. Know and evaluate in a critical way the contribution of science and technology in the changing conditions of life as well as strengthen the sensitivity and respect for the environment. Strengthen the entrepreneurial spirit with attitudes of creativity, flexibility, initiative, and teamwork, confidence in one same and heartfelt critique. Develop literary and artistic sensitivity, as well as an aesthetic criterion, as sources of training and cultural enrichment. Use sport and physical education for personal and social development. Strengthen attitudes of respect and prevention in the field of road safety. With this in mind, the teacher is well prepared for all eventualities with the students and is minded to concentrate on the overall objectives of the subject, which are the following:
19 Express themselves and interact in an oral way spontaneously, respectfully and be understood by using adequate strategies according to each and every situation which may arise. Write different types of language in a precise, clear and well-structured way, using the appropriate style for communication according to the situation. Understand world information as well as specific information spoken and be able to follow the thread of current affairs in an appropriate and communicative way. Understand various written texts of a general and specific nature and be able to critically interpret them using understandable and comprehensive strategies according to the required tasks and identifying the most important elements within the text and being able to grasp their meaning. Read texts autonomously with several purposes and be able to assess the meaning of the information supplied and take an interest in it for entertainment and / or leisure. Be able to speak and write correctly by means of using the knowledge of the language and the linguistic rules and to start thinking about the way languages function and their roles in different communication situations. Acquire and develop several different learning strategies and use their means with a freehand including information and communication technologies with the aim of using foreign languages autonomously and to maintain a constant interest in learning. Understand and know the basic social and cultural features of the foreign language being learned in order to interpret and understand different cultures and languages.
20 Value the foreign language in terms of appreciation of the culture of other languages and cultures and recognize its importance as an international vehicle of communication and comprehension in a multicultural society, and also to be conscious of the similarities and differences that exist between different cultures. Strengthen strategies of self-assessment in order to acquire a communicative competence in the foreign language being learned including having initiative, confidence and a responsible outlook concerning attitude COMPETENCES According to the Ley Orgánica 2/2006 de Educación (BOE 2006), there are eight stringently key competences that must be adhered to regarding secondary school education in the Spanish system. The competences relate to attitudes, skills, knowledge and ability. The competences within the syllabus have been devised and designed to boost the student s communicative confidence, as one might expect, and to advance their expertise in the other areas which depend upon competence to aid them in progress. The key competences are the following: Competence in linguistic communication: this competence deals with the role of language as a tool in spoken and written communication, representation, interpretation and comprehension of real life as a means of a knowledgeable construction and organization. It is also seen as a mode of self-regulation of thoughts, emotions and behaviour. Regarding knowledge and attitudes characteristic of this competence, it will allow students to articulate emotions, experiences and their own points of view as well as discussing and
21 constructing a critical and ethical opinion, organizing and regenerating ideas, creating their own thoughts, manipulating a coherent and cohesive style of speech, making decisions and making the most of skills pertaining to listening, reading, speaking and writing. These anilities will also add to the development of self-regard and self-esteem. By learning a different language it obviously contributes to the acquisition of this competence as the students progress in spoken and written skills by using it. Furthermore, it will improve this competence by endorsing students ability to use language in the proper way according to the context. Besides this, acquiring and understanding the rules of the foreign language champions the procurement of this competence. The syllabus develops the students ready awareness of the language and their linguistic expertise along with their comprehension of social and cultural aspects regarding oral communication. Competence in mathematical abilities: this deals with the capability to use figures, numbers and control simple operations, perform mathematical reasoning, identify symbols and characters with the purpose of producing and interpreting information to study more about the spatial and quantitative sides of reality and to have the ability to decipher problems related to everyday comings and goings in life. Although the main objective of the foreign language subject is not to develop too much the students competence in mathematics while undertaking the activities of this syllabus they must learn to reason and debate, formulate hypothesis, deduce and apply rules, which backs up the attainment of this competence. Students will also go through the dates
22 in the foreign language and learn to use measures in another tongue and identify ordinal and cardinal numbers in a linguistically challenging way. Competence in knowledge about the physical world and an interaction with it: this competence deals with the skills needed to interact in the physical world, not only with the natural side of things but also regarding the human one. This ability facilitates the comprehension of occurrences and foresees the consequences and also recognizes the activities tackled in order to better maintain and preserve life and the conditions of all living creatures and beings. This syllabus adds to the development of this competence through student discussions and reflections on matters directly connected to the world around us like the environment, health issues, scientific and technological questions and history, social sciences and the modern day world like consumerism and economy. Competence in digital and computer technology: this competence facilitates the understanding of computer technology and helps us to search, receive and obtain digital information and transform, process and communicate it into real knowledge. It deals with a number of abilities and skills like information access and processing, the different media for transmitting captured information the skill at communicating it on all levels. This syllabus consists of developing this competence in a spoken and written way and they learn how to extract key information and organize it correctly and to be able to assimilate and discuss it properly.
23 Competence in social and public skills: this competence consists of students understanding of the society around them and helps them learn to interact, coexist and address a democratic citizenship. By studying the foreign language, a new culture will be opened for them and they will learn how to respect that culture. Furthermore, they will be expected to show an interest in that new culture and start communicating with other foreign speakers. Henceforward, they will contribute to the growth of this competence. During the development of the course students will learn about the socio-cultural side of the foreign language and be expected to collaborate and cooperate. Competence in cultural and artistic skills: this competence refers to the knowledge, comprehension, appreciation and structural criticism regarding cultural and artistic aspects, and will enable them to encourage and enjoy a particular cultural tradition. Included in the syllabus is an array of activities and events in order to facilitate the competence. Competence in learning to learn: this competence deals with the skills necessary to acquire and initiate a learning process and encourage the student to continue learning in an effective and autonomous way. Moreover, it alerts the student to the conscious needs that enable the learner to process education and learning; including memory, concentration, attention and linguistic expression. The syllabus inspires learners to think about their own education and reflect on different learning patterns and approaches and sift through them to discover and ideal one.