# Power Quality Analysis and Evaluation at Water Pumping Station Supplied by Medium Voltage

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2 42 sinusoidal components, the frequency of which is a multiple of that of the fundamental. The amplitude of a harmonic is generally a few percent of that of the fundamental [1-4]. Fig.1. shows a typical real, fundamental and harmonic current waveform in power systems. Figure 1.Typical distorted current waveform in electric power systems. Harmonic indices have been developed to assess the service quality of a power system with respect to the harmonic distortion levels. These indices are measures of the effective value of a waveform and can be applied to both the current and the voltage [5-7]. The IEEE-519 document has set limits on the level of allowable harmonics [14]. Several indices are available for harmonic analysis; however, the two most commonly used are the total harmonic distortion (THD) and the total demand distortion (TDD). Mathematical formulations of (THD) and (TDD) for voltage and current are given in equations (1), (2) and (3) respectively [1,4,14]: THD V h2 V 1 V 2 h 2 Ih h2 (1) THDI (2) I1 Where V1 and I1 are the RMS value of the fundamental, and Vh and Ih are the RMS value of the h-order harmonic component. Total Demand Distortion (TDD): Is the total harmonic current distortion defined by the ratio of the RMS value of the sum of the individual harmonic amplitudes to the maximum or rated demand load current IL as shown in the following expression: TDD I 2 Ih h2 I L (3) 3. Technical properties of power plant Drinking water is pumped to the city by means of power plant under study. There is one piece induction motor which is the rated power f 1000 kw in the plant. Nominal operating voltage of the motor is 10 kv. Motor is supplied by one power transformer which is rated power of 5000 kva. İndividual compensatin system is performed in the plant. Total power of capacitor connected parallel to the network is 450 kvar. Short technical specifications of the motor, transformer and capacitor are given the Table 1.

3 43 Table 1. Technical specifications of the motor, transformer and capacitor. Transformer Unit Secondary Voltage (kv) 10 Rating (kva) 5000 Motors Operation Voltage (kv) 10 Rating (kw) 100 Capacitors Voltage (kv) 10 Rating (kvar) Results and discussion In this study, power quality investigation has been performed in a plant supplied by medium voltage level. Voltage, current, active power and harmonics have been analyzed and evaluated based on IEEE standart [14]. All Power quality parameters are measured and recorded while motor is loaded within nomial value and all capacitors are connected to network for fully compensation. Measurement was carried out by using AR5 type portable power analyzer. Voltage and current transformer already installed in the plant are used for this measurement. The measurement results are given and analized below in summary. Fig.2. shows the waveform of the three phase voltage measured from the network. As shown in the fig.2, waveform of the voltage is not pure sinusoidal form but it has some distortions. Figure 2. Voltage variations of three phases at grid. The single phase waveform of the voltage and current are also given in the Fig.3. Maximum and minimum of the fundamental voltage rms value has been changed between volt while current varies between milliampere.

4 44 Figure 3. Single phase waveform of the voltage and current. Fig.4. and 5 Shows the waveform of the voltage and current during motor start up respectively. As can be seen from the fig, sudden change in voltage and current is observed during starting up the motor. It is called transient and disappears after a short period of time. Motors should be started up with the help of soft tart techniques in order to avoid any damage on the motor. Additionally, waveform of the active power measured from the motor is given in fig.6 Figure 4. Voltage change of the motor during start up. Figure 5. Current change of the motor during start up.

5 45 Figure 6. Avtive power change of the motor during start up Total harmonic distortion (THD) value of the voltage and current obtained from the network buses are shown in the fig.2. It can be seen that the fig.2, maximum value of the voltage THD is 3,1% at bus while the maximum value of the current THD is 5,5% at bus. Table 2 and 3 shows the total distortion limits (THD) of voltage and current according to IEEE Std respectively [14]. Considering the voltage and current THD, current value is high compared with the allowed standart values while voltage value is acceptable limit. These values should be lowered using a proper filtering system. Fig.7. Shows the individual harmonic spectrum of voltage and current measured from power plant. There are 5th and 7th harmonics order for voltage spectrum while current harmonics have 5th,7th and 13th. According to IEEE std , voltage harmonics order is within the acceptaple level while 7th harmonic order exceeds the allowable limit. Figure 7. Indivudial harmonic spectrum of voltage and current at power plant.

6 46 Table 2. Voltage distortion limits for general distribution system. Voltage Distortion Limits Bus Voltage at PCC Individual Voltage Total Voltage Distortion THD (%) Distortion THD (%) 69 kv and below kv through 161 kv kv and above Table 3. Current distortion limits for general distribution system at medium and high voltage. Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (120 V Through 69 kv) Maximum Harmonic Current Distortion in Percent of IL Individual Harmonic Order (Odd Harmonics) Isc/Il <11 11<h<17 17<h<23 23<h<35 35<h TDD <20* < < < > Conclusions In this paper, a power quality evaluation of the power plant supplied by medium voltage level under maximum loading condition is presented. Harmonics and power quality events such as voltage, current, active power have been measured, analyzed and evaluated based on IEEE standards. The investigations show that total harmonic distortion of current measured from the plant has slightly exceeded the limit while the voltage and other parameters are mainly good. A proper filter should be designed for harmonic elimination. After applying filters, harmonic distortions will be reduced considerably and that their maximum values are within the maximum allowable limits. Acknowledgements Authors would like to thanks GASKİ power plant, it s manager and staff for their helps, collaboration and supports in our study. References [1] C. Sankaran, Power Quality, Crc press, New York, (2002). [2] B. Ebrahim, F.K. Mohammad, Sensitive load voltage compensation against voltage sags/swells and harmonics in the grid voltage and limit downstream fault currents using DVR, Electric Power Systems Research 83, (2012). [3] M.M. Ertay, H.T. Duru, Harmonic analysis and passive power filter design for a medium voltage power system according to IEEE standards, Energy Education Science And Technology Part A 29(2), (2012). [4] M. Sekkeli, Investigation of Power Quality Impact on the Textile Factories, Electronic Journal of Textile Technologies 3(3), 1-11 (2009). [5] M. Şekkeli, A.S. Yılmaz, Bir taş kırma tesisinde güç kalitesi seviyesinin ölçümü ve değerlendirilmesi, Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi 15(3), (2009). [6] M. Sekkeli, N. Tarkan, Development of a novel method for optimal use of a newly designed reactive power control relay, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems 44, (2013). [7] K.J. Sachin, S.N. Singh, Harmonics estimation in emerging power system: Key issues and challenges, Electric Power Systems Research 81, (2011). [8] N. Thai, L. Yuan, Power quality disturbance classification utilizing S-transform and binary feature matrix method, Electric Power Systems Research 79, (2009). [9] R. Sanae, N. Éloi, X. Jianhong, S. Pierre, Performance evaluation of harmonics detection methods applied to harmonics compensation in presence of common power quality problems, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 63, (2003). [10] Z. Ming, L. Kaicheng, H. Yisheng, A real-time classification method of power quality disturb-

7 47 ances, Electric Power Systems Research 81, (2011). [11] C. Kocatepe, A. Inan, O. Arikan, R. Yumurtaci, B. Kekezoglu, M. Baysal, A. Bozkurt, Y. Akkaya, Power quality assessment of gridconnected wind farms considering regulations in Turkey, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 13, (2009). [12] F.C. Victor, L.A. Patricia, Hybrid Power Filter to Enhance Power Quality in a Medium-Voltage Distribution Network, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 5(8), (2009). [13] A.P. Stavros, S. Fritz, Power-Quality Measurements in an Autonomous Island Grid With High Wind Penetration, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 21(1), (2006). [14] IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems, IEEE Standard , USA, (1992).

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