21 st Century Facilities

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "21 st Century Facilities"

Transcription

1 Electrical Testing

2 21 st Century Facilities Facility Owners face tough challenges 24 X 7 reliability needed Non linear loads cause harmonics VFD Computers Switching transients disrupt operations Less customer support from Utilities Pressure to hold energy costs down Compressed schedules for expanding facilities Effect of EMF on computers and equipment How to expand facilities to meet customer needs cost effectively Harsh environments

3 Formula For Successful Facilities Facility Planning and Scheduling Engineering Design Quality Installation Acceptance Testing Regular and Complete Maintenance Preventative Maintenance Testing

4 Testing for All Phases of Facility Improvements Load analysis for facility improvements Trouble shooting and correction of problems Acceptance Testing for New Projects Switchboards and/or Switchgear Circuit Breakers Preventative Maintenance Forensic Testing

5 Testing Load Analysis Measuring existing loads with portable test equipment 120V to 480V, Amps Recorded values Volts - Power Factor Amps - KVA KW - KVAR Measure harmonic distortion THD - Voltage & Current Individual harmonics Measure loads for emergency generator sizing Motor starting studies

6 CURRENT Trend Monitoring Trend Plot For Device: 3 Phase Current IAvg IA :50 AM 11:00 AM 11:10 AM 11:20 AM 11:30 AM 11:40 AM 11:50 AM 11/5/01 10:50:00 AM to 11/5/01 11:50:00 AM IB IC

7 Testing Acceptance Testing Equipment Acceptance Testing Medium Voltage Transformers Switchgear Cables PFC Air Switches SF6 Circuit Breakers Below 600V Switchboards and Switchgear Motor Control Centers Generator Load Testing

8 Acceptance Testing Cont d. Short Circuit and Coordination Studies Short Circuit Study verifies overcurrent protective devices meet requirement for interrupting available fault current. Coordination Study graphically shows how overcurrent protective devices coordinate to have the CB closest to the fault open. Ground Resistance Testing 3 Point Fall of Potential Method Ground Fault Interruption Testing Required by NEC

9 Transformer Testing Oil Filled Transformers On Line, no shutdown Excellent analytical technique developed by IEEE to evaluate condition of transformer IEEE/ANSI C57 Distribution, Power and Regulating Transformers. C is the Standard for Interpretation. NFPA 70B Section Oil Tests Section Dissolved Gas Analysis

10 Transformer Testing Cont. d Mineral Oil is complex hydrocarbon molecular compound At normal conditions it is very stable Heat, corona and arcing break molecule down to sub elements (combustible gases) (H 2, CH 4, etc.) Analysis of dissolved combustible gases gives the condition of the transformer. Trending of gases is very helpful in the analysis. DGA is one of the best ways to monitor the condition of the transformer and help the Owner plan repairs or replacements.

11 Infrared Thermography Scan Heat is the enemy for electrical equipment Heat breaks down electrical insulation 10 C Rule = ½ life Infrared thermography scanning Looks at thermal image of switchgear, busbars, connections, cables, etc. Hot spots and irregularities are discovered by trained technicians Problem areas can be corrected before they cause shutdowns or cause fires. Scanning Saves Equipment Technician scanning is much faster that tightening all bolts. Cannot see some circuit breaker problems without IR. Early detection and correction = preventative maintenance.

12 Infrared Thermography Scan F SP02 SP F 100 Spot 1 Temperature Spot 2 Temperature Spot 1 Rise over Spot 2 Ambient Temperature F 93.9 F F 68.0 F

13 Circuit Breaker Testing Contact Resistance Results vary with size and construction of circuit breaker less than 100 microhms for medium voltage Contact resistance exposes problems not detectable with IR when there is little load current. Insulation Resistance Phase to ground Phase to phase Functionality Tests Close, Open Trip Kirk key interlocks, etc.

14 Circuit Breaker Testing Cont d. Overcurrent Trip Point Calibration and Testing Secondary Injection Testing Electronic CB test sets for accurate testing Square D Cutler Hammer GE Siemens New Circuit Breakers with on-board secondary injection testing Cutler Hammer 1150 Trip Unit

15 Medium Voltage (> 600 Volts) Cable Testing New Cables Insulation resistance testing using hi pot at manufacturer s recommended values NETA use Table 10.6 of Acceptance Testing Specs. Leakage current should be <10 micro Amps for new cables. Existing Cables Watch out! Be careful what voltage you use on old cables. Conservative approach RMS X Square Root of 2 = Peak voltage Use peak value as DC value

16 Relay Testing Relays are typically used on medium voltage systems Older electro mechanical style relays (typical single phase) Newer models microprocessor based, 1 Phase + 3 Phase Incorporate metering and relay tripping. Programmable on site Fault analysis logging for retrieval Short Circuit and Coordination Studies At least 50% of facilities are not coordinated Poor maintenance Poor installation

17 Power Quality - Today s Perspective The quality of power 30 years ago was not much of an issue Linear Devices Today many devices disrupt and corrupt the quality of the power Utility Side Voltage Sags Impulses Transient Disturbances Loss of One Phase Over voltage

18 Power Quality Today s Perspective Customer Side Switch mode power supplies (non-linear device) Harmonic Distortion Overloaded neutrals Transformer heating SCR (non-linear device) Loose wiring Large motor starting

19 PQ Testing Power Quality Analyzer 3 phase microprocessor based analyzer that samples the voltage waveform 128 times per second. We set thresholds for voltages. By exceeding the thresholds, the machine is activated to record the events as they occur. Harmonic testing and analysis Measure voltage and current THD Analyze individual harmonic values Engineering investigation of problem and surrounding power distribution system by power quality engineer.

20 Main Switchboard Voltage Sag Model V RMS Sag Disturbance Three Phase Wye 340.0A Vc Ic 175.0V 170.0A 0.0V 0.00ns M SWBD 0.0A 5.83 ms/div ms 11/22/01 07:57:32.98 AM Channel Y1 Y2 Delta Voltage Channel Y1 Y2 Delta Current Time X1 X2 Delta

21 Main SWBD Voltage Sag on Phase C-N Model V Impulse Disturbance Three Phase Wye 640.0A Vc 0.0V 0.0A V 0.00ns M SWBD A 2.50 ms/div 50.00ms 11/22/01 07:57:32.98 AM

22 Main SWBD Utility Capacitor Switching Transient Phase B-N Model V Impulse Disturbance Three Phase Wye 2.1KA Vb 0.0V 0.0A V 0.00ns M SWBD -2.1KA 2.50 ms/div 50.00ms 12/03/01 09:48:07.93 AM

23 Time X1 X2 Delta Utility Capacitor Switching Transient Phase B-N Model V Impulse Disturbance Three Phase Wye 2.3KA Vb 0.0V 0.0A V 0.00ns M SWBD -2.3KA 2.50 ms/div 50.00ms 12/03/01 11:43:11.90 AM Channel Y1 Y2 Delta Voltage Channel Y1 Y2 Delta

24 Panel NEH1 Power Source Switching Transient Phase A-N Model V Impulse Disturbance Three Phase Wye 575.0A Va 0.0V 0.0A V 0.00ns Pnl NEH A 2.50 ms/div 50.00ms 01/03/02 02:00:54.74 PM

25 Panel NEH1 Power Source Switching Phase B-N Model V Impulse Disturbance Three Phase Wye 570.0A Vb 0.0V 0.0A V 0.00ns Pnl NEH A 2.50 ms/div 50.00ms 01/03/02 02:48:29.37 PM

26 Harmonic Distortion Voltage Waveform Model V Snapshot Waveform Three Phase Wye 50.0A Va 0.0V 0.0A V -50.0A 0.00ns ms PDU PnlD us/div 01/17/02 01:06:45.97 PM 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% 60Hz 2940Hz Distortion: thd=1.41% Odd=1.36%

27 Harmonic Distortion - Current Model V Snapshot Waveform Three Phase Wye 50.0A Ia 0.0V 0.0A V -50.0A 0.00ns ms PDU PnlD us/div 01/17/02 01:06:45.97 PM 32.0% 16.0% 0.0% 60Hz 2940Hz Distortion: thd=42.34% Odd=42.19%

28 How Do You Spot PQ Problems? Variable speed drives trip off line more than usual. Computer data errors that cannot be explained by hardware or software Lights flicker (not in a storm). Equipment power supplies have burned or damaged boards. Transformers overheating. Circuit breaker nuisance tripping. Motors overheating or failing easily. Voltages vary significantly from loose wiring. Computer screens wave or are disrupted.

29 Power Quality and Facility Maintenance Are Related Loose connections are one of the leading power quality problems Lack of coordination of overcurrent protection devices can cause blackouts that could have been avoided. Coordination Study Short Circuit Study Preventative Maintenance Infrared thermography scan looks for hot spots Transformer Testing Oil Quality Dissolved Gas Analysis Cable Testing Test Circuit Breakers Switchgear Maintenance

30 Conclusion Facilities today face tough problems: Harsh environments Power Quality Problems Need for 24/7 Reliability Compressed schedules A successful 21 st Century Facility needs four solid legs to stand on: Engineering Design Quality Installation Maintenance Testing

31 Conclusion Cont d. Excellent resources and standards from IEEE, NETA and NFPA for Testing and Maintenance A proper test is worth a thousand opinions. The right test equipment and experience will aid the Design Engineer in ensuring success for the Customer. Call IETC at for a quote today!

MV, HV AND EHV SWITCHGEAR TESTING & COMMISSIONING

MV, HV AND EHV SWITCHGEAR TESTING & COMMISSIONING Training Title MV, HV AND EHV SWITCHGEAR TESTING & COMMISSIONING Training Duration 5 days Training Date MV, HV and EHV Switchgear Testing & Commissioning 5 20 24 Apr $3,750 Dubai, UAE In any of the 5 star

More information

Line to Ground Voltage Monitoring on Ungrounded and Impedance Grounded Power Systems

Line to Ground Voltage Monitoring on Ungrounded and Impedance Grounded Power Systems Line to Ground Voltage Monitoring on Ungrounded and Impedance Grounded Power Systems by Reza Tajali, P.E. Square D Company, Power Systems Engineering Group 295 Tech Park Drive LaVergne, Tennessee 37086

More information

ENGINEERING REPORT. XYZ Corporation 100 Anyplace Drive Chicago, Illinois 60613

ENGINEERING REPORT. XYZ Corporation 100 Anyplace Drive Chicago, Illinois 60613 ENGINEERING REPORT XYZ Corporation 100 Anyplace Drive Chicago, Illinois 60613 PERFORMED BY: MIDWEST ELECTRICAL CONSULTANTS, INC 18055 UPLAND DRIVE TINLEY PARK, ILLINOIS 60487 (708) 444-0001 fax: 444-0003

More information

Understanding Arc Flash

Understanding Arc Flash Understanding Arc Flash Presented by Eddie F. Jones, PE 1 2 3 4 5 Five to 10 arc flash explosions occur in electric equipment every day in the United States. This number does not include cases in which

More information

Part 1 System Modeling & Studies for Existing Systems

Part 1 System Modeling & Studies for Existing Systems Part 1 System Modeling & Studies for Existing Systems Operation Technology, Inc. Copyright 2009 Result of rapid release of energy due to an arcing fault between two conductors. Bus voltages > 208V Temperatures

More information

PMCS. Integrated Energy Management Solution. Unlock the Full Potential of Power Networks Through Integration. Complete Solution. Informed Decisions

PMCS. Integrated Energy Management Solution. Unlock the Full Potential of Power Networks Through Integration. Complete Solution. Informed Decisions PMCS Integrated Energy Management Solution Unlock the Full Potential of Power Networks Through Integration Power Management Control System (PMCS) is a highly customizable, fully integrated end-to-end Energy

More information

Enhance Power Equipment Reliability with Predictive Maintenance Technologies

Enhance Power Equipment Reliability with Predictive Maintenance Technologies Enhance Power Equipment Reliability with Predictive Maintenance Technologies November 2012/1910DB1208 by S. Frank Waterer, Electrical Engineerinig, Fellow Schneider Electric USA, Inc. Make the most of

More information

Arc Flash Energy Mitigation Techniques

Arc Flash Energy Mitigation Techniques Arc Flash Energy Mitigation Techniques When short circuits occur on an electrical distribution system, an arc flash event usually forms. These arc flash events can cause dangerous and potentially fatal

More information

Innovation on Medium Voltage Switchgear

Innovation on Medium Voltage Switchgear Bruno Rivas, Guarulhos - Brazil, April 2015 Jornadas Técnicas de ABB en Perú Innovation on Medium Voltage Switchgear May 5, 2015 Slide 1 Application 5. Mai 2015 Slide 2 Unigear ZS1 Design concepts: Single

More information

Fundamentals of Power

Fundamentals of Power Fundamentals of Power Fundamentals of Power 2008 American Power Conversion Corporation. All rights reserved. All trademarks provided are the property of their respective owners. Learning Objectives At

More information

Emergency Power System Services Industrial UPS, Batteries, Chargers, Inverters and Static Switches

Emergency Power System Services Industrial UPS, Batteries, Chargers, Inverters and Static Switches Emergency Power System Services Industrial UPS, Batteries, Chargers, Inverters and Static Switches Downtime Is Not An Option The industrial uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is the foundation of your

More information

The Importance of the X/R Ratio in Low-Voltage Short Circuit Studies

The Importance of the X/R Ratio in Low-Voltage Short Circuit Studies The Importance of the X/R Ratio in Low-Voltage Short Circuit Studies DATE: November 17, 1999 REVISION: AUTHOR: John Merrell Introduction In some short circuit studies, the X/R ratio is ignored when comparing

More information

Power System Harmonics

Power System Harmonics Pacific Gas and Electric Company Power System Harmonics What are power system harmonics? Ideally, voltage and current waveforms are perfect sinusoids. However, because of the increased popularity of electronic

More information

Introduction. Harmonics and IEEE 519 Page 1 of 19

Introduction. Harmonics and IEEE 519 Page 1 of 19 Introduction In an ideal power system, the voltage supplied to customer equipment, and the resulting load current are perfect sine waves. In practice, however, conditions are never ideal, so these waveforms

More information

UFES Active protection for switchgear

UFES Active protection for switchgear Active protection for switchgear ABB AG Oberhausener Strasse 4047 Ratingen, Germany Phone: +49 0-0 Fax: +49 0-7 77 Note: We reserve the right to make technical changes or modify the contents of this document

More information

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Facilities Services Design Guide. Electrical. Switchboards. Basis of Design. Design Evaluation

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Facilities Services Design Guide. Electrical. Switchboards. Basis of Design. Design Evaluation Basis of Design This section applies to the design relating to low voltage switchboards. Design Criteria UW Class N1 facilities main switchboards shall be rear accessible. The main, tie and feeder breakers

More information

Arc Flash Hazards. Electrical Hazards. Dan Neeser Field Application Engineer DanRNeeser@Eaton.com. Electrical Hazards 2/18/2015. Shock.

Arc Flash Hazards. Electrical Hazards. Dan Neeser Field Application Engineer DanRNeeser@Eaton.com. Electrical Hazards 2/18/2015. Shock. Arc Flash Hazards Dan Neeser Field Application Engineer DanRNeeser@Eaton.com Electrical Hazards Electrical Hazards Shock Arc Flash Arc Blast 2 1 Arcing Fault Basics 35,000 F Radiant Heat & UV Speed of

More information

Product Data Bulletin

Product Data Bulletin Product Data Bulletin Power System Harmonics Causes and Effects of Variable Frequency Drives Relative to the IEEE 519-1992 Standard Raleigh, NC, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION This document describes power system

More information

Electrical Network Management System

Electrical Network Management System Electrical Network Management System Optimisation of the electrical network Measure to understand Understand to control Control to optimise Cost of power and fluids Power quality Power availability 2 Improvement

More information

Power Quality Standards for Electric Service

Power Quality Standards for Electric Service Power Quality Standards for Electric Service Effective June 1, 2008 A transition period will exist from June 1 through December 31, 2008 in which installations may be approved and connected as long as

More information

Selecting Current Transformers Part 1 By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E.

Selecting Current Transformers Part 1 By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E. By Darrell G. Broussard, P.E. Introduction: As engineers, we are aware that electrical power systems have grown. How much have they grown? When was the last time you specified a 2400-volt system, a 4160-volt

More information

ELECTRICAL ACCEPTANCE TESTS

ELECTRICAL ACCEPTANCE TESTS Scope This guideline defines the standard tests that all electrical systems and equipment must pass prior to final acceptance by the University. These tests are in addition to acceptance tests specified

More information

Neutral Currents in Three Phase Wye Systems

Neutral Currents in Three Phase Wye Systems POWER SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA PUBLISHED BY SQUARE D, OSHKOSH, WISCONSIN Subject: Neutral Currents in Three Phase Wye Systems by Robert Arthur Square D Company Oshkosh, Wisconsin (414) 46-80 and R. A.

More information

The Facts About Harmonics and Power Factor. Power Quality: Harmonics & Power Factor Correction

The Facts About Harmonics and Power Factor. Power Quality: Harmonics & Power Factor Correction The Facts About Harmonics and Power Factor Power Quality: Harmonics & Power Factor Correction 1 Agenda I. Harmonic Basics II. Harmonic Mitigation Methods III. Active Harmonic Filters IV. Applications V.

More information

Primary and Secondary Electrical Distribution Systems

Primary and Secondary Electrical Distribution Systems Primary and Secondary Electrical Distribution Systems Critical Facilities Round Table 12th Quarterly Membership Meeting June 2, 2006 David D. Roybal. P.E. Eaton Electrical Cutler-Hammer Products Utility

More information

Fusible Disconnect Switch

Fusible Disconnect Switch Circuit Breakers Circuit breakers are used in panelboards and switchboards to provide circuit protection and provide a means of energizing and de-energizing a circuit. Siemens Sentron molded case circuit

More information

Title: Australian Guidelines for grid connection of energy systems via inverters.

Title: Australian Guidelines for grid connection of energy systems via inverters. Title: Australian Guidelines for grid connection of energy systems via inverters. Foreword 28 April, 1998 The guidelines have been developed by a group of utility, photovoltaic and inverter industry experts

More information

Motor Protection Voltage Unbalance and Single-Phasing

Motor Protection Voltage Unbalance and Single-Phasing Motor Protection Voltage Unbalance and Single-Phasing Cooper Bussmann contributes the following information, which is an excerpt from their 190-page handbook SPD Selecting Protective Devices Based on the

More information

CONSULTANT REPORT. Behavior of Two Capstone 30kW Microturbines Operating in Parallel with Impedance Between Them CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

CONSULTANT REPORT. Behavior of Two Capstone 30kW Microturbines Operating in Parallel with Impedance Between Them CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Behavior of Two Capstone 3kW Microturbines Operating in Parallel with Impedance Between Them CONSULTANT REPORT MARCH 2 CEC-2-2 Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY

More information

SECTION 16425 SWITCHBOARDS. 1. Requirements for main and distribution switchboards.

SECTION 16425 SWITCHBOARDS. 1. Requirements for main and distribution switchboards. SECTION 16425 SWITCHBOARDS PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SUMMARY A. Section Includes: 1. Requirements for main and distribution switchboards. B. Related Sections: 1. Section 16420 - Service Entrance 2. Section 16430

More information

Predictive Maintenance

Predictive Maintenance PART ONE of a predictive maintenance series Predictive Maintenance Overview Predictive maintenance programs come in all shapes and sizes, depending on a facility s size, equipment, regulations, and productivity

More information

OPTIMIZING POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION FOR MODERN DATA CENTERS

OPTIMIZING POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION FOR MODERN DATA CENTERS OPTIMIZING POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION FOR MODERN DATA CENTERS Data center power systems are constructed with a premium on reliability at a significant cost. The return on this investment is realized if it

More information

Circuit Breakers and Switchgear. Thomas Greer Director of Engineering TLG Services

Circuit Breakers and Switchgear. Thomas Greer Director of Engineering TLG Services Circuit Breakers and Switchgear Thomas Greer Director of Engineering TLG Services Presentation Outline Switchgear Definition Overcurrent Protection Devices Circuit Breaker Trip Curves and Coordination

More information

GUIDE TO LV SWITCHGEAR & FORMS OF SEPARATION

GUIDE TO LV SWITCHGEAR & FORMS OF SEPARATION GUIDE TO LV SWITCHGEAR & FORMS OF SEPARATION CONTENTS INDEX...PAGE # PRODUCT EXAMPLES Mobile Battery Charging Unit... 3 PRODUCT EXAMPLES Form 4 Type 5 PDU - C/W Isolating Transformer... 3 PRODUCT EXAMPLES

More information

Capacitor Bank Controls

Capacitor Bank Controls Capacitor Bank Controls CBC-8000 Capacitor Bank Controller Device Functional Specification Guide 1. Capacitor Bank Controllers (CBCs) 1.1. The Capacitor Bank Control (CBC) shall be designed to control

More information

Philosophy Always On ovides:

Philosophy Always On ovides: Sl Sales Presentation tti A CANADIAN COMPANY Providing Complete Customezed Power Solutions for Mission Critical and Industrial Applications Philosophy Always On provides: State of the Art, Cutting Edge

More information

7-41 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

7-41 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION POWER FTOR CORRECTION INTRODUCTION Modern electronic equipment can create noise that will cause problems with other equipment on the same supply system. To reduce system disturbances it is therefore essential

More information

Sentron Series Circuit Breakers

Sentron Series Circuit Breakers Sentron Series Circuit Breakers Siemens Sentron Series circuit breakers are available in nine frame sizes: ED, FD, JD, LD, LMD, MD, ND, PD, and RD. Sentron Series circuit breakers have a wide range of

More information

LTR Series Uninterruptible Power Systems 700 VA - 2.1 KVA. General Specification

LTR Series Uninterruptible Power Systems 700 VA - 2.1 KVA. General Specification 08/17/12 Rev2 LTR Series General Specification 700 VA to 2.1 KVA 1.0 General LTR Series Uninterruptible Power Systems 700 VA - 2.1 KVA General Specification This specification describes the features and

More information

Specifying a Variable Frequency Drive s

Specifying a Variable Frequency Drive s Specifying a Variable Frequency Drive s Put on by Bruce Reeves and Jeremy Gonzales Dykman Electrical Covering the Western US For all of your VFD and Soft Start and Motor Needs How To Specify a Variable

More information

DATA CENTER UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE ROLE OF MEDIUM VOLTAGE VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKERS

DATA CENTER UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE ROLE OF MEDIUM VOLTAGE VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKERS DATA CENTER UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE ROLE OF MEDIUM VOLTAGE VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKERS ABSTRACT Data Centers are a critical part of the world economic systems. Billions of electronic transactions happen

More information

Transfer Equipment Controls

Transfer Equipment Controls Control Types Manual Transfer Switches Nonautomatic Transfer Switches Automatic Transfer Switches The type of control system for the transfer switch will vary depending on the type of switching equipment

More information

ARC FLASH CALCULATIONS & LABELING REQUIREMENTS

ARC FLASH CALCULATIONS & LABELING REQUIREMENTS ARC FLASH CALCULATIONS & LABELING REQUIREMENTS Presented by: Edmund Elizalde EYP Mission Critical Facilities, Inc. Slides by: Lonnie Lindell SKM Systems Analysis, Inc. 1 Agenda NEC 110.16 NFPA 70E IEEE

More information

RISH EM 3490 DS Dual Source Energy Meter RISH EM 3490 DS. Application : Product Features:

RISH EM 3490 DS Dual Source Energy Meter RISH EM 3490 DS. Application : Product Features: Application : RISH Master 3490 DS measures important electrical parameters of Utility (in normal mode) & Generators (in Power back up) in three phase and single phase Network & replaces the multiple analog

More information

Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution System of a Technical Institution

Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution System of a Technical Institution Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution System of a Technical Institution Nandita Dey, Dr.A.K.Chakraborty Lecturer, Electrical Engineering Department, Tripura University Suryamaninagar

More information

New alternatives aid medium voltage automatic transfer for critical power systems

New alternatives aid medium voltage automatic transfer for critical power systems POWER MONITORING SYSTEMS CAN RESOLVE GROUND RELAY TRIPPING New alternatives aid medium voltage automatic transfer for critical power systems By Reza Tajali, P.E. Power Systems Engineering, Square D Company

More information

METAL-CLAD AND METAL-ENCLOSED SWITCHGEAR 3.6KV~40.5KV. tgood.com. Energy. Fast.

METAL-CLAD AND METAL-ENCLOSED SWITCHGEAR 3.6KV~40.5KV. tgood.com. Energy. Fast. METAL-CLAD AND METAL-ENCLOSED SWITCHGEAR 3.6KV~40.5KV tgood.com Energy. Fast. TGOOD produces over 5000 switchgear units annually for projects around the globe PRODUCT OVERVIEW Integral substation component

More information

WHAT IS INFRARED (IR) THERMOGRAPHY

WHAT IS INFRARED (IR) THERMOGRAPHY WHAT IS INFRARED (IR) THERMOGRAPHY IR Thermography is the technique of producing pictures called from the invisible thermal radiation that objects emit. This is a non-contact means of identifying electrical

More information

Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies

Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies Soonwook Hong, Ph. D. Michael Zuercher Martinson Harmonics and Noise in Photovoltaic (PV) Inverter and the Mitigation Strategies 1. Introduction PV inverters use semiconductor devices to transform the

More information

Electrical Shore Connections / Cold Ironing

Electrical Shore Connections / Cold Ironing STANDARD FOR CERTIFICATION No. 2.25 Electrical Shore Connections / Cold Ironing JULY 2014 The electronic pdf version of this document found through http://www.dnv.com is the officially binding version

More information

Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems

Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems Survey of Harmonics Measurements in Electrical Distribution Systems Leon M. Tolbert, Member, IEEE Oak Ridge National Laboratory* P.O. Box 28, Bldg Oak Ridge, TN 3783-6334 Alexandria, VA 2235-3862 Phone:

More information

Electrical Resistance Resistance (R)

Electrical Resistance Resistance (R) Electrical Resistance Resistance (R) Any device in a circuit which converts electrical energy into some other form impedes the current. The device which converts electrical energy to heat energy is termed

More information

Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers

Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers Power Quality Issues, Impacts, and Mitigation for Industrial Customers By Kevin Olikara, Power and Energy Management Products Rockwell Automation, Inc. Now, more than ever, electronic equipment and computing

More information

Ultrasound Condition Monitoring

Ultrasound Condition Monitoring Ultrasound Condition Monitoring Whitepaper Alan Bandes UE Systems, Inc. Abstract: Instruments based on airborne/structure borne ultrasound technology offer many opportunities for reducing energy waste

More information

Evaluating Water-Damaged Electrical Equipment

Evaluating Water-Damaged Electrical Equipment Evaluating Water-Damaged Electrical Equipment 1 USE OF THIS PUBLICATION This publication provides information on how to evaluate electrical equipment that has been exposed to water through flooding, fire

More information

Choosing the Best Solution for Reducing Arc Energy

Choosing the Best Solution for Reducing Arc Energy CONVENTION SESSION HANDOUT Choosing the Best Solution for Reducing Arc Energy Terry L. Schiazza, Business Development Manager Square D / Schneider Electric SESSION #11 Independent Electrical Contractors

More information

SECTION A. UL rd Edition (2009 Revision effective 9/29/2009).

SECTION A. UL rd Edition (2009 Revision effective 9/29/2009). SECTION 16289 TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SURGE SUPPRESSION PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 DESCRIPTION A. This section describes the materials and installation requirements for Surge Protective Devices (SPDs) and includes

More information

New standardized approach to arc flash protection

New standardized approach to arc flash protection New standardized approach to arc flash protection Samuel Dahl Juha Arvola Tero Virtala Arcteq Relays Ltd Arcteq Relays Ltd Arcteq Relays Ltd Wolffintie 36 F 11 Wolffintie 36 F 11 Wolffintie 36 F11 65200

More information

4160: THE GREEN 480 MEDIUM VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

4160: THE GREEN 480 MEDIUM VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 4160: THE GREEN 480 MEDIUM VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS for DATA CENTERS Michael Mosman, PE Chief Technical Officer CCG Facilities Integration Incorporated FACILITIES INTEGRATION INCORPORATED MEDIUM VOLTAGE

More information

Understanding Power Factor, Crest Factor, and Surge Factor. White Paper #17

Understanding Power Factor, Crest Factor, and Surge Factor. White Paper #17 Understanding Power Factor, Crest Factor, and Surge Factor White Paper #17 Executive Summary This paper explains the technical terms of Power Factor, Crest Factor, and Surge Factor. The use of these terms

More information

3) What is the difference between "Insulating", "Isolating", and "Shielded Winding" transformers?

3) What is the difference between Insulating, Isolating, and Shielded Winding transformers? Tyco Electronics Corporation Crompton Instruments 1610 Cobb International Parkway, Unit #4 Kennesaw, GA 30152 Tel. 770-425-8903 Fax. 770-423-7194 1) What is a transformer and how does it work? A transformer

More information

Harmonics in your electrical system

Harmonics in your electrical system Harmonics in your electrical system What they are, how they can be harmful, and what to do about them Abstract Harmonic currents, generated by non-linear electronic loads, increase power system heat losses

More information

A. This Section includes SPDs for low-voltage power, control, and communication equipment.

A. This Section includes SPDs for low-voltage power, control, and communication equipment. PART 1 - GENERAL... 1 1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS... 1 1.2 SUMMARY... 1 1.3 REFERENCES... 1 1.4 DEFINITIONS... 2 1.5 SUBMITTALS... 2 1.6 QUALITY ASSURANCE... 2 1.7 PROJECT CONDITIONS... 3 1.8 COORDINATION...

More information

Electronic Trip Circuit Breaker Basics Circuit Breaker Application Guide Class 0600

Electronic Trip Circuit Breaker Basics Circuit Breaker Application Guide Class 0600 Electronic Trip Circuit Breaker Basics Circuit Breaker Application Guide Class 0600 Data Bulletin 0600DB1104 03/2012 Retain for future use. Electronic Trip Circuit Breaker Basics 0600DB1104 Table of Contents

More information

Low Voltage Switchgear

Low Voltage Switchgear Arc Resistant Switchgear n Insulated and isolated bus n Separation barriers and top venting n Breaker shutters 12 SWITCHGEAR Arc resistant metal-enclosed low voltage switchgear is an optional product offering

More information

Arc flash can kill. Arc flash can be considered as a short circuit through

Arc flash can kill. Arc flash can be considered as a short circuit through The Official Publication of the InterNational Electrical Testing Association Spring 2007 Methods of Inspection to Determine the Presence of Potential Arc-Flash Incidents Feature Arc flash can kill. Arc

More information

RLW Reactors Technical Reference Manual

RLW Reactors Technical Reference Manual Form: RLW-TRM-E Rel: March 2011 Form RLW-TRM-E March 2011 Page 1 Table of Contents STANDARD DELIVERY SCHEDULE... 3 SELECTION & APPLICATION GUIDE... 4 MODEL CODE PART NUMBER CONFIGURATION... 5 RL REACTOR

More information

Arc Terminator Active Arc-Resistant Switchgear

Arc Terminator Active Arc-Resistant Switchgear Arc Terminator Active Arc-Resistant Switchgear Increasing safety and productivity by extinguishing internal arcing faults within the switchgear. The Square D Arc Terminator from Schneider Electric offers

More information

Simple Methods for Calculating Short Circuit Current Without a Computer By Dennis McKeown, PE GE Senior System Application Engineer

Simple Methods for Calculating Short Circuit Current Without a Computer By Dennis McKeown, PE GE Senior System Application Engineer Simple Methods for Calculating Short Circuit Current Without a Computer By Dennis McKeown, PE GE Senior System Application Engineer A Short Circuit analysis is used to determine the magnitude of short

More information

TWENTIES WORKSHOP, EWEA 2012 Unveiling the future energy system: full scale demonstrations to reach 2020 targets. 17th April 2012

TWENTIES WORKSHOP, EWEA 2012 Unveiling the future energy system: full scale demonstrations to reach 2020 targets. 17th April 2012 TWENTIES WORKSHOP, EWEA 2012 Unveiling the future energy system: full scale demonstrations to reach 2020 targets 17th April 2012 Session 2 Technological challenges to cope with in TWENTIES field tests

More information

Why Buy HVI VLF Products?

Why Buy HVI VLF Products? Very Low Frequency AC Hipots AC testing of cables and electrical apparatus is now easier than ever. Since the introduction of the High Voltage, Inc. line of portable and affordable VLF hipots, there is

More information

Safe and secure distribution of medium voltage with AX1

Safe and secure distribution of medium voltage with AX1 Safe and secure distribution of medium voltage with AX1 The intelligent switchgear AX1 is a modern, air-insulated switchgear that lies at the very front line of safety and security safety for operating

More information

7. Reactive energy compensation

7. Reactive energy compensation 593 7. Reactive energy compensation 594 7. REACTIVE ENERGY COMPENSATION Reactive energy compensation is an important element for reducing the electricity bill and improving the quality of the electrical

More information

ABB Fuses Competitive Advantages

ABB Fuses Competitive Advantages GPMM Tomasz Komalski 2009 ABB Fuses Competitive Advantages May 14, 2009 Slide 1 Basic comments ABB is a global manufacturer of both current limiting and expulsion (non-current limiting) fuses for medium

More information

Thermal Imaging at the Data Center

Thermal Imaging at the Data Center Thermal Imaging at the Data Center Presented by: Eric Stockton and Greg Stockton Today s Presentation Thermal Imaging at the Data Center Thanks, Part 1 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Part 2 Thermal Mapping

More information

Square D Company P. O. Box 729 Houston, Texas 77001 Business Phone: 713-222-9195

Square D Company P. O. Box 729 Houston, Texas 77001 Business Phone: 713-222-9195 JOHN A. GRISWOLD Square D Company P. O. Box 729 Houston, Texas 77001 Business Phone: 713-222-9195 Education Deer Park High School - Deer Park, Texas 1989 Graduate Professional Certifications AVO Training

More information

City of Leesburg, Florida I.T. Data Center 130551 APPENDIX A TOSHIBA UPS INFORMATION

City of Leesburg, Florida I.T. Data Center 130551 APPENDIX A TOSHIBA UPS INFORMATION City of Leesburg, Florida I.T. Data Center 130551 APPENDIX A TOSHIBA UPS INFORMATION This Appendix A includes technical documents and specifications for the Toshiba 4200 FA 30 kva Uninterruptable Power

More information

HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM

HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM Technical Note No.3 March 2000 HARMONIC DISTORTION IN THE ELECTRIC SUPPLY SYSTEM This Technical Note discusses harmonic distortion, its causes and adverse effects, what levels are unacceptable and how

More information

Transformer Basics Information Guide

Transformer Basics Information Guide Property of Motion Laboratories, Inc. Transformer Basics Information Guide 2014 Motion Laboratories, Inc. Created By: Jim Herrick / Michael Shaw Approved By: Peter Herrmann Page: 1 Transformer Definition

More information

Product Description Full Voltage Starting Electric Fire Pump Controllers FTA1000

Product Description Full Voltage Starting Electric Fire Pump Controllers FTA1000 Product Description Full Voltage Starting Electric Fire Pump Controllers FTA1000 Description Firetrol FTA1000 Full Voltage Fire Pump Controllers are intended for use with electric motor driven fi re pumps

More information

Arc Flash Mitigation. Remote Racking and Switching for Arc Flash danger mitigation in distribution class switchgear.

Arc Flash Mitigation. Remote Racking and Switching for Arc Flash danger mitigation in distribution class switchgear. Arc Flash Mitigation Remote Racking and Switching for Arc Flash danger mitigation in distribution class switchgear. Distance is Safety We will discuss through examples of actual occurrences and possible

More information

Substation Design. Detail design of substation. Consider open loop MV network as an example. source 1 source 2. NC NC or NO main MV switchboard

Substation Design. Detail design of substation. Consider open loop MV network as an example. source 1 source 2. NC NC or NO main MV switchboard Consider open loop MV network as an example source 1 source 2 NC NC NC or NO main MV switchboard A B Detail design of substation NC NC NC NO NC NC switchboard 1 switchboard 2 switchboard 3 MV MV MV LV

More information

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Power Supply Systems and Electrical Equipment for Desalination Plants - Y.M. Hamud and A.H.

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Power Supply Systems and Electrical Equipment for Desalination Plants - Y.M. Hamud and A.H. POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOR DESALINATION PLANTS Y.M. Hamud and A.H. Anwar Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority, Abu Dhabi, UAE Keywords : Electrical System, Network for Desalination,

More information

ABB ! CAUTION. Type COQ Negative Sequence Generator Relay. (50/60 Hertz) 41-161J. Instruction Leaflet

ABB ! CAUTION. Type COQ Negative Sequence Generator Relay. (50/60 Hertz) 41-161J. Instruction Leaflet ABB Instruction Leaflet 41-161J Effective: May 1997 Supersedes I.L. 41-161H Dated July 1984 ( ) Denotes Change Since Previous Issue Type COQ Negative Sequence Generator Relay (50/60 Hertz)! CAUTION Before

More information

Power Quality for Information Technology System

Power Quality for Information Technology System Power Quality for Information Technology System ITS OBVIOUS THE TOLERANCE IS DIFFRENT But What isn t Tobvious? HOW MANY OF YOU HAVE : A COMPUTER AT HOME? = Computers are not screens and Keyboards COMPUTERS

More information

The HVAC SOLUTION DELIVERING POWER...SAVING ENERGY

The HVAC SOLUTION DELIVERING POWER...SAVING ENERGY The HVAC SOLUTION DELIVERING POWER...SAVING ENERGY PowerGate - Cost effective solutions for F 1 Horsepower Rating 001 1-40 HP (208V) 075 1-75 HP (480V) Input Voltage 2V 208-240V 4V 380-480V Disconnect

More information

How to reduce exposure to arc flash hazards

How to reduce exposure to arc flash hazards GE Energy Industrial Solutions How to reduce exposure to arc flash hazards Multiple solutions for new and existing facilities imagination at work Multiple Issues Today s power system engineer must not

More information

MEDIUM VOLTAGE. Michael Mosman, PE. CCG Facilities Integration Incorporated FACILITIES INTEGRATION INCORPORATED

MEDIUM VOLTAGE. Michael Mosman, PE. CCG Facilities Integration Incorporated FACILITIES INTEGRATION INCORPORATED MEDIUM VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS for DATA CENTERS Michael Mosman, PE Chief Technical Officer CCG Facilities Integration Incorporated FACILITIES INTEGRATION INCORPORATED CCG Facilities Integration Incorporated

More information

Test & Data Management Software

Test & Data Management Software Test & Data Management Software TDMS protective relays energy meters transducers power quality CT-VT-PT transformers ground grid circuit breakers batteries surge arresters The Integrated Testing Solution

More information

GENERATOR SELECTION. a. Three phase - 120/208V, 3 phase, 4W wye; 277/408, 3 phase, 4W wye; * 120/240V 3 phase, 4W Delta

GENERATOR SELECTION. a. Three phase - 120/208V, 3 phase, 4W wye; 277/408, 3 phase, 4W wye; * 120/240V 3 phase, 4W Delta GENERATOR SELECTION Generators must be sized to handle their load based on the continuous KW, kilowatt load, and KVA, kilovoltamp load, and the worst case starting load KW + KVA. They must be derated for

More information

ABB Arc Flash Protection Portfolio - Features and Applications. Karl Smith M.S.E.E, P.E Product Application Specialist

ABB Arc Flash Protection Portfolio - Features and Applications. Karl Smith M.S.E.E, P.E Product Application Specialist ABB Arc Flash Protection Portfolio - Features and Applications Karl Smith M.S.E.E, P.E Product Application Specialist Overview Introduction to ABB arc flash products highlighting new features and innovations

More information

Mini Circuit Breakers, Fuse Blocks, and Electronic Circuit Protection

Mini Circuit Breakers, Fuse Blocks, and Electronic Circuit Protection Technical Data Mini Circuit Breakers, Fuse Blocks, and Electronic Circuit Protection Topic Page 1489-M Miniature Circuit Breakers 2 1492-SP Supplementary Protectors 15 1492-D Circuit Breakers 27 188 Regional

More information

Titelgrau belassen! Leere Vorlage

Titelgrau belassen! Leere Vorlage Titelgrau belassen! Leere Vorlage MAVOWATT 20 Energy Platform Energy and Power Analyzer MAVOWATT 20 The new Energy and Power Analyzer 2 Klaus-Peter Richter Product Management 10.3.2010 Page 2 Applications

More information

Litigation Services & Information

Litigation Services & Information Litigation Services & Information Laurence "Lo" Lehman, P.E. Lehman Engineering Company Lehman Engineering has been providing engineering, design, and consulting services for electrical power systems to

More information

MLK Low Voltage Switchboard System

MLK Low Voltage Switchboard System MLK Low Voltage Switchboard System New Switchboard MLK Wide Range of Applications The MLK switchboard is designed mainly for electrical distribution in real estate and industrial buildings, and its nominal

More information

ABB PSPS Erich Steinmann; Generator control-2013

ABB PSPS Erich Steinmann; Generator control-2013 ABB PSPS Erich Steinmann; Generator control-2013 GENERATOR CONTROL THE MODULAR SOLUTION FOR GENERATORS To make sure that power is efficiently converted into electric energy, it is necessary to supervise

More information

MTE RLW Reactors Price book

MTE RLW Reactors Price book Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS...1 STANDARD DELIVERY SCHEDULE...2 SELECTION & APPLICATION GUIDE...3 SPECIFICATION DATA...4 SERVICE FACTOR...4 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE...4 APPROVALS...4 ENCLOSURES:...4

More information

Electrical Systems. <Presenter>

Electrical Systems. <Presenter> Review Root Causes of Energy Inefficiency Roadmap to Maximize Energy Efficiency Best Practices Alternative Energy Sources Controls Take Aways Seek Professional Help. ENERGY INEFFICIENCY OF

More information

LINE AND SUBSTATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

LINE AND SUBSTATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE V.L. LINE AND SUBSTATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 1.0 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1.1 Preventive maintenance shall be performed at a level that assures that the unscheduled outage performance of Customer owned

More information

employed to ensure the continuing reliability of critical systems.

employed to ensure the continuing reliability of critical systems. 4 Regulations 1989, Regulation 4, places a duty on employers to provide safe systems for their workers: Regulation 4 of the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 Systems, work activities and protective

More information