# The Facts About Harmonics and Power Factor. Power Quality: Harmonics & Power Factor Correction

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1 The Facts About Harmonics and Power Factor Power Quality: Harmonics & Power Factor Correction 1

2 Agenda I. Harmonic Basics II. Harmonic Mitigation Methods III. Active Harmonic Filters IV. Applications V. Specification Recommendations VI. Summary Division - Name - Date - Language 2

3 Harmonic Basics 3 rd Harmonic Fundamental 5 t1h Harmonic 7 th Harmonic Harmonic Frequency Sequence 1 60Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz Hz + : : : Hz + What are harmonics? Proliferated by power semiconductor devices Converts power (AC to DC) A harmonic is a component of a periodic wave having a frequency that is an integer multiple of the fundamental power line frequency Characteristic harmonics are the predominate harmonics seen by the power distribution system Predicted by the following equation: h C = characteristic harmonics to be expected n = an integer from 1,2,3,4,5, etc. p = number of pulses or rectifiers in circuit H c = np +/- 1 Division - Name - Date - Language 3

4 Multi-pulse Converters H n = np +/- 1 H n = characteristic harmonic order present n = an integer p = number of pulses Harmonic Orders Present Harmonics present by rectifier design Type of rectifier Hn 1 phase 4-pulse 2 phase 4-pulse 3 phase 6-pulse 3 phase 12-pulse 3 phase 18-pulse 3 x x 5 x x x 7 x x x 9 x x 11 x x x x 13 x x x x 15 x x 17 x x x x 19 x x x x 21 x x 23 x x x x 25 x x x x 27 x x 29 x x x 31 x x x 33 x x 35 x x x x x 37 x x x x x 39 x x 41 x x x 43 x x x 45 x x 47 x x x x 49 x x x x Division - Name - Date - Language 4

5 Harmonic Basics Nonlinear loads draw harmonic current from source Example: 6-Pulse VFD Converter Inverter DC bus M A B C Division - Name - Date - Language 5

6 Harmonic Basics I h Loads V h = I h x Z h Why a concern? Current distortion Added heating, reduced capacity Transformers Conductors and cables Nuisance tripping of electronic circuit breakers (thermal overload) Voltage distortion Interference with other electronic loads AC Motor winding & bearing failures Potential resonance condition (PF caps) Excessive voltage Overheating of PF correction capacitors Tripping of PF protection equipment Shutdown / damage to electronic equipment Division - Name - Date - Language 6

7 Total Power Factor TPF = (DPF) x (Distortion factor) DPF = KW KVA f = Cos φ Distortion Factor = THD(I) 2 = Cos δ TPF = Total or true power factor DPF = Displacement power factor Distortion Factor = Harmonic power factor Division - Name - Date - Language 7

8 Total Power Factor Example Variable frequency drive (PWM type) DPF =.95 THD(I) = 90% (no DC choke & no input line reactor) Distortion Factor = =.7433 TPF =.95 x.7433 =.7061 Division - Name - Date - Language 8

9 Harmonic Mitigation Methods Typically applied per device Line reactors/dc bus chokes/isolation transformers 5 th harmonic filters (trap filters) Broadband filters Multi-pulse transformers/converters Active front end (AFE) converter System solution Active harmonic filter Division - Name - Date - Language 9

10 Harmonic mitigation methods (Applied per VFD) Solution Advantage Disadvantage Typical % TDD Typical Price Multiplier* Increase short circuit capacity Reduces THD(V) Increases TDD Not likely to occur** Dependent upon SCR*** Cost of transformer and installation change out C-Less Technology Lower TDD Simplified design Less cost Compliance is limited Application limited Size limited 30-50% TDD Impedance (3% LR or 5% DC choke) Low cost adder Simple Compliance difficult 30-40% TDD th Harmonic filter Reduces 5th & total TDD Does not meet harmonic levels at higher orders^ 18-22% TDD Broadband filter Reduces TDD (thru 13th) Large heat losses Application limited 8-15% TDD pulse rectifiers Reduces TDD Reliable Large footprint/heavy Good for >100 HP 8-15 % TDD pulse rectifiers Reduces TDD Reliable Large footprint/heavy Good for >100 HP 5-8% TDD Active front end converter Very good TDD Regeneration possible Large footprint/heavy Very high cost per unit High heat losses < 5% TDD * Price compared to a standard 6-pulse VFD. ** Utilities and users are not likely to change their distribution systems. *** Increasing short circuit capacity (lower impedance source or larger KVA capacity) raises TDD but lowers THD(V). ^ Can be said for all methods listed. Division - Name - Date - Language 1 0

11 Inductors/Transformers/DC Bus Chokes Description: Converter-applied inductors, DC bus chokes, or isolation transformers Pros: Inexpensive & reliable Transient protection for loads 1st Z yields big TDD reduction (90% to 35% w/3% Z) Cons: Limited reduction of TDD at equipment terminals after 1st Z Reduction dependent on source Z Division - Name - Date - Language 1 1

12 5th Harmonic Filter (Trap Filter) Inductor (L p ) and Capacitor (C) provide low impedance source for a single frequency (5 th ) Must add more tuned filters to filter more frequencies Z s L s Inductor L s required to detune filter from electrical system and other filters V s L p C Load If L s not present, filter is sink for all 5 th harmonics in system If L s not present, resonance with other tuned filters possible Injects leading reactive current (KVAR) at all times may not need Division - Name - Date - Language 1 2

13 Broadband Filters ~ L L Mitigates up to 13 th order or higher Each inductor (L) > 8% impedance V drops ~ 16% at load Trapezoidal voltage to load Can only be used on diode converters Prevents fast current changes (only good for centrifugal loads) When generators are present, re-tuning may be required Load Source L p C Capacitor (C) designed to boost V at load to proper level (injects leading VARs) Physically large High heat losses (>5%) Series device Division - Name - Date - Language 1 3

14 Multi-Pulse Drives Description: Drives/UPS with two (12 pulse) or three (18 pulse) input bridges fed by a transformer with two or three phase shifted output windings. Pros: Reduces TDD to 10% (12 pulse) & 5% (18 pulse) at loads Reliable Cons: High installation cost with external transformer Large footprint (even w/autotransformer) Series solution with reduction in efficiency One required for each product Cannot retrofit Division - Name - Date - Language 1 4

15 Harmonic mitigation methods VFD mitigation topologies 6-Pulse converter 12-Pulse converter 18-Pulse converter DC Link Reactor + DC Bus Load A Line Reactor 9 1 Multipulse Transformer A 2 Rectifier Assembly DC+ M AC Line Wye - B C C B Delta DC- Delta Transformer Tertiary C-less or 3% reactance min (if included); small footprint, simplified cabling Externally mounted 3 winding transformer; more wire and cabling; complicated Large footprint, more steel & copper (losses) A A A pulse 12 pulse 18 pulse Current waveform distorted TDD 30% to 40% with 3% reactor (depending on network impedance) Current slightly distorted TDD 8% to 15% (depending on network impedance) 0.0s 0.02s Current wave form good TDD 5% to 7% (depending on network impedance) Division - Name - Date - Language 1 5

16 AFE Converters Used in UPS and VFD Replaces diode converter with IGBT converter THE HYPE Permits current smoothing on AC lines (< 5% TDD) Permits 4-quadrant operation of VFD Maintains unity TOTAL PF Division - Name - Date - Language 1 6

17 Active Front End Converter A C IGBT AFE VFD DC Bus IGBT S o u r c e Filter Converter Inverter AC Motor Required to limit THDv on mains to <=5% Losses - ~5% of rated Losses 1.5 to 2% of rated Division - Name - Date - Language 1 7

18 AFE Converters Significant harmonics above 50 th order American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) requires examination to 100 th order when AFE applied Higher frequencies yield higher heating of current path & potential resonance with capacitors Division - Name - Date - Language 1 8

19 AFE Converters PCC EMC Filter Mains Choke Reactance, 4% Mains Filter Mains Filter Reactance, 12% Mains Pulse Converter, IGBT DC Bus Motor Pulse Inverter, IGBT M Motor Division - Name - Date - Language 1 9

20 AFE THDv < 50 th (Measurements on vessel) Division - Name - Date - Language 2 0

21 AFE THDv > 50 th (Measurements on vessel) The result is a Vthd >50Hz of around 3.25%; almost as much as below! Total Vthd is ~ 4.65%! Division - Name - Date - Language 2 1

22 AFE Converters 200 KVA rated AFE VFD 100 KVA rated PWM VFD DC Drive PF caps Cons Larger & more expensive than 6 pulse drives Approximately twice the size & price Larger & more expensive than 18-p VFD High heat losses (~8%) per VFD Mains voltage must be free of imbalance and voltage harmonics Generates more harmonics Without mains filter THD(V) can reach 40% Requires short circuit ratio > 40 at PCC Switched mode power supplies prohibited Capacitors prohibited on mains IGBT & SCR rectifiers prohibited on same mains No other nonlinear loads permitted Cause high DC bus ripple & pumps up the DC voltage at low loads to trip unit Division - Name - Date - Language 2 2

23 System Solution Active Harmonic Filter Applied to one or many nonlinear loads VFD, UPS, UV, DC drives, DC power supplies Provides DPF correction More cost effective for multiple loads Saves space Lower heat losses Not critical to operation Division - Name - Date - Language 2 3

24 Active Harmonic Filter ~ I s CT I l Source I a L AHF Parallel connected AHF Load I s + I a = I l Ia includes 2 nd to 25/50 th harmonic current I s <5% TDD Division - Name - Date - Language 2 4

25 Active Harmonic Filters Advantages Highly effective (2 nd to 25/50 th orders cancelled) Parallel connected not critical for equipment operation Scalable Parallel units as needed Universal solution Handles many loads Many types of loads at same time Can be installed as convenient Best cost for multiple loads Smallest footprint with std VFD/UPS Lowest system heat losses Disadvantages Heat from high speed switching of IGBT Cost issues possible for single load Considerations Load must have input impedance (3%) Protects load Limits size of AHF Need branch circuit protection Division - Name - Date - Language 2 5

26 System Solution AHF Sizing Example A 125 HP variable torque 6-pulse VFD with 3% LR Required AHF filtering capability = 47.5 amperes Two 125 HP VT 6-pulse VFD w/3% LR Required AHF size = 84.4 amps Three 125 HP VT 6-pulse VFD w/3% LR Required AHF size = amps Six 125 HP VT VFD w/3% LR Required AHF size = amps (not 6 x 47.5 = 285 amps) Division - Name - Date - Language 2 6

27 ANSI Standard IEEE Chapter 11 Addresses THD(V) delivered by utility to user THD(V) must be < 5% [< 69 KV systems] Chapter 10 Defines the amount of TDD a user can cause Based upon size of user in relation to power source Table 10.3 for systems < 69 kv Defines limits for voltage notches caused by SCR rectifiers Table 10.2 Defines PCC (point of common coupling) Division - Name - Date - Language 2 7

28 IEEE Table 10.2 Limits on Commutation Notches (Applies to SCR rectifiers only) Table 10.2 Low-Voltage System Classification and Distortion Limits *Special Applications General System **Dedicated System Notch Depth 10% 20% 50% THD (Voltage) 3% 5% 10% Notch Area, μvs 16,400 22,800 36,500 Note: Notch area for other than 480 V systems should be multiplied by V / 480. *Special Applications Airports, Hospitals ** Dedicated System Dedicated exclusive to converter loads Division - Name - Date - Language 2 8

29 IEEE Defines current distortion as TDD Total Demand Distortion Largest amplitude of harmonic current occurs at maximum load of nonlinear device if electrical system can handle this it can handle all lower amplitudes Always referenced to full load current Effective meaning of current distortion Defines voltage distortion as THD Total harmonic voltage distortion Does not use THD(I) Total harmonic current distortion Instrument measurement (instantaneous values) Uses measured load current to calculate THD(I) Division - Name - Date - Language 2 9

30 As load decreases, TDD decreases while THD(I) increases. IEEE TDD and THD(I) are not the same except at 100% load Example: with AHF operating Measured Total I, rms Fund I, rms Harm I, rms THD(I) TDD Full load % 3.8% % 3.7% % 3.4% % 2.9% % 2.3% % 1.8% % 1.4% Division - Name - Date - Language 3 0

31 IEEE Table 10.3 Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution Systems (<69 kv) Isc/Iload <11 11<=h<17 17<=h<23 23<=h<35 h>=35 TDD <20 4.0% 2.0% 1.5% 0.6% 0.3% 5.0% 20<50 7.0% 3.5% 2.5% 1.0% 0.5% 8.0% 50< % 4.5% 4.0% 1.5% 0.7% 12.0% 100< % 5.5% 5.0% 0.2% 1.0% 15.0% > % 7.0% 6.0% 2.5% 1.4% 20.0% Isc = short circuit current capacity of source Iload = demand load current (fundamental) TDD = Total Demand Distortion (TDD = Total harmonic current distortion measured against fundamental current at demand load.) Division - Name - Date - Language 3 1

32 Harmonic Standards Most harmonic problems are not at PCC with utility Occurs with generators & UPS Occurs where nonlinear loads are concentrated Occurs inside the plant Need to protect the user from self by moving the harmonic mitigation requirements to where harmonic loads are located Division - Name - Date - Language 3 2

33 AHF Harmonic Performance AHF injection At VFD Terminals Source current AS off AS on Order % I fund % I fund Fund % % % 0.478% % 0.674% % 0.679% % 0.297% % 0.710% % 0.521% % 0.052% % 0.464% % 0.639% % 0.263% % 0.409% % 0.489% % 0.170% % 0.397% % 0.243% % 0.325% % 0.279% % 0.815% % 0.240% % 0.120% % 0.337% % 0.347% % 0.769% % 0.590% % THD(I) 35.28% 2.67% Division - Name - Date - Language 3 3

34 Active Harmonic Filter Dual Mode Operation I as = I h2 + I r 2 I as = rms output current of AHF PCS I h = rms harmonic current I r = rms reactive current Examples Ias Ih Ir Division - Name - Date - Language 3 4

35 Typical W/WW Applications Pumping Stations Potable Wastewater Wastewater Plants Water Purification (potable) Division - Name - Date - Language 3 5

36 Typical W/WW Applications Pumping Stations Applications VFD for pump control Simple/repeatable control Remote control made easy Energy savings over discharge, on/off, & inlet flow control Division - Name - Date - Language 3 6

37 Typical W/WW Applications Wastewater Plants Many pumps for fluid movement (VFD) VT Centrifugal pumps CT Progressive cavity pumps (semi-solids) Solids handling (VFD) Conveyors Aeration blowers (VFD) CT & VT types Disinfectant UV systems (ultraviolet) Electronic ballasts 3Φ Ozone generators (SCR power supplies) HVAC Division - Name - Date - Language 3 7

38 Typical W/WW Applications Water Purification Many pumps (VFD) UV systems (electronic ballasts) Reverse osmosis Centrifugal pumps (VFD) Ozone generators Division - Name - Date - Language 3 8

39 Specification Recommendations for System Solution Write TDD specs not THD(I) Separate harmonic spec from nonlinear load spec Place AHF spec in Section 16 by itself Write standard nonlinear load specification Eliminates vendor hassles Need 3% impedance on each nonlinear load Universal solution Good for all nonlinear loads Apply AHF per electrical bus (best economics) Can attain 5% TDD per load or bus inside the plant Guarantees elimination of harmonic problems both TDD and THD(V) Division - Name - Date - Language 3 9

40 Summary Know the solution What does it accomplish harmonically Know the benefits and cautions Every device requires different considerations Make comparisons First cost Floor space required Heat losses/cooling requirements Cost of operating Select what you really need All 6-p rectifiers should have at least a 3% line reactor Reduces TDD to ~1/3 Protects diode rectifiers from transients Reduces voltage notch of SCR rectifiers Write the specification required Meet the standard at utility Protect the user from self Division - Name - Date - Language 4 0

41 Thank You Questions? 4 1

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