Application Note # MS-14 Fast On-site Identification of Drugs with the mobile GC/MS system E²M

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1 Bruker Daltonics Application Note # MS- Fast n-site Identification of Drugs with the mobile GC/MS system E²M For the detection of drugs a couple of quick tests are available which were used by the police departments and the State ffices of Criminal Investigations. These tests are limited to substance specific reactions and do not give any information about different drug compositions (thin down compounds, by-products, precursors, impurities etc.) which were necessary for criminal investigations. For a clear identification of complex mixtures GC/MS is still the method of choice. With the mobile GC/MS system E²M a fast and inexpensive detection and identification of drugs can be accomplished directly at the scene of crime. This application note demonstrates the time saving determination of different drugs/drug compositions with the E²M in the GC mode and by direct measurements with the Air/Surface probe. Sampling preparation For this application note the following solutions were prepared by dissolving the raw material in methanol (hashish:.7 mg/ml, marihuana:. mg/ml, morphine:.8 mg/ml, cocaine:. mg/ml, heroin:.6 mg/ml). For the identification on-site (not quantification) where a microbalance may not be present this can be done by transferring the amount of one micro-spatula tip ( 5 mg) into a vial filled with ml methanol. Figure : pium poppy yields the raw material for morphine and heroin production..

2 Chromatogram and appropriate mass spectra from a morphine sample x 6 x M S, Disse ct, s # ( ) Time [s] Nist: Ethylmorphine; Q EI +MS (P : 79, F: 86, R : 89, M : ) 8.. Analytical conditions E²M with mounted GC in injector mode:.5 m HP5-ms,. mm ID, µm film. injector temperature:, hold-time: s, charging time: s, pressure during charging: 6 mbar, GC temperature program: to at 5 /min (hold: 6s), carrier gas: ambient air at.5 ml/min, MS Scan: 6 5 u, integration time: 5 ms/mass; injected volume: µl. E²M with mounted Air/Surface probe: probe head temperature:, probe line temperature:, sampling pump pressure; 85 mbar. MS Scan: 6 5 u, integration time: 5ms/mass; sampling: µl with probe (pressing probe head on the sample). 7 5 H 5 5 x M S, Disse ct, s # ( ) N N ist: M o rp h in e ; Q E I + M S (P : 7 9, F: 8 8, R : 9 6, M : ) H N H m /z Figure : GC run; Injection: µl morphine solution (.8 mg/ml): Beside morphine the derivate ethyl morphine was identified. Identified substances morphine sample Ethylmorphine Nist Morphine Nist

3 Chromatogram and appropriate mass spectra from a cocaine sample In te ns. x MS, s # ( - ) Time [s]. + MS, s # ( - ) Figure : Direct sampling of µl cocaine solution (. mg/ml) from a surface with E²M Air/Surface probe; Analytical conditions: see E²M with mounted Air/Surface probe. Identified substances cocaine sample Cocaine Nist Chromatogram and appropriate mass spectra from a hashish sample x M S, Disse ct, s # ( 79-9 ) In t en s. x Nist: 6H-Dibenzo,D]pyran,a-tetrahydro. [b - -ol, 6a,7,8-6,6,9 -trimethyl- -pentyl -; Q EI +MS (P : 87, F: 9, R: 9, M : ) H T im e [s] x 5. + M S, Disse ct, s # ( 8-9 ) Ni st: Ca. n n a b i n o l ; Q E I +M S (P : 9 9, F: 9 5, R: 9 8, M : ) 9 5. H m /z Figure : GC run; Injection: µl hashish solution (.7 mg/ml): two typical components of hashish / marihuana identified: Cannabinol, THC; Analytical conditions: see E²M with mounted GC in injector mode.

4 Identified substances hashish sample Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Nist Cannabinol Nist Chromatogram and appropriate mass spectra from a heroin sample Inte n s. x Figure 5: Asian heroin. 6 8 T im e [s] TIC + Dissect:, Cm pd, 8. s Dissect:, Cm pd, 5.5 s Dissect:, Cm pd, 56.5 s x M S, Dissect, s # (87-) N i st: Di a ce tylm o rp h i n e ; Q E I + M S (P : 8 8, F: 9 5, R : 9, M : ) N m /z Figure 6: GC run; Injection: µl heroin solution (.6 mg/ml): Beside diacetylmorphine (heroin) the compounds acetylcodein and novocaine were identified which are typical thin down compounds of heroin; Analytical conditions: see E²M with mounted GC in injector mode. Identified substances heroin sample Novocaine Nist Acetylcodein Nist Diacetylmorphine (Heroin) Nist

5 Chromatogram and appropriate mass spectra from an unknown sample x 6 Figure 7: Unknown sample confiscated by the police and suspected of being a drug T im e [s] In te ns. x 5. +M S, Dissect, s #(-9 ) N ist: A sp i ri n ; Q E I + M S (P : 9 5, F : 96, R: 96, M : ) H m /z Figure 8: GC run; Injection: µl unknown solution (. mg/ml): Results show that no drug is present; sample is just rotten Aspirin (Aspirin + salicylic acid) with some caffeine; Analytical conditions: see E²M with mounted GC in injector mode. Identified substances unknown sample Salicylic Acid Nist Aspirin Nist Caffeine Nist

6 Bruker Daltonics is continually improving its products and reserves the right to change specifications without notice. Bruker Daltonics 9-8, MS- Conclusions With the mobile GC/MS system E²M drugs (here: hashish, marihuana, morphine, cocaine, heroin) can be identified directly on the scene of crime within 5 min. The operation of the system is reduced to the lowest possible level so that non-chemists are able to run the system. In comparison to classical investigations (laboratory measurements), which are time consuming, and expensive identification of drugs can be carried out quickly and at low cost. Therefore the GC/MS system E²M is a powerful analytical tool to save time and money. Author Dr. Thomas Ludwig, Application CBRNE, Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Keywords: nsite Analysis Mobile GC/MS Fast drug detection Instrumentation & Software Mobile GC/MS System E²M E²M Software Package For research use only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Figure 9: Mobile GC/MS system E²M Bruker Daltonik GmbH Bremen Germany Phone +9 () 5- Fax +9 () 5- Bruker Daltonics Inc. Billerica, MA USA Phone + (978) Fax + (978)

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