New drugs of abuse? A case study on Phenazepam & Methoxetamine

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1 New drugs of abuse? A case study on Phenazepam & Methoxetamine Presenter: Nadia Wong Co authors: Dr Yao Yi Ju & Alex Low Xuan Kai Analytical Toxicology Laboratory Clinical & Forensic Toxicology Unit Applied Sciences Group Health Sciences Authority Singapore Forensic & Clinical Toxicology Association 31 July 3 August 2011, Melbourne, Australia

2 Content Aim Intro to Phenazepam Intro to Methoxetamine Case History Specimens Analysis Conclusion

3 Aim To present a case on potential abuse of Phenazepam and Methoxetamine in Singapore.

4 Information are obtained from Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8 th ed, R.C. Baselt, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, California (2008) Intro to Phenazepam IUPAC name [7 bromo 5(2 chlorophenyl) 1,3 dihydro 2H 1,4 benzodiazepin 2one] H N Molecular Weight Molecular Formula C 15 H 10 BrClN 2 Br N Cl Half life About 60 hrs History Effect Classification Drug is currently in clinical use in Russia as a sedative hypnotic drug since Dosage is usually administered at 0.5mg 2 3 times daily Tranquilizer (class of benzodiazepine) Metabolism Br H N N Hydroxylation Br H N N H Cl Cl Drug effect Dizziness, incoordination, asthenia and somnolence

5 Intro to Methoxetamine (MXE) IUPAC name 2 (3 methoxyphenyl) 2 (ethylamine) cyclohexanone Molecular Weight HN Molecular Formula C 15 H 21 N 2 Half life Not known History Effect Classification Currently no reported medicinal use. First publicly reported in A ketamine alternative for the laboratory research. Sedative, dissociative anesthesia Metabolism Drug effect Not known Hallucination and euphoria

6 Intro to Methoxetamine Arylcyclohexylamine class of chemical Analogue of ketamine Rational drug design HN Analogue HN N N Cl HN S HN S NH NH

7 Intro to Methoxetamine Arylcyclohexylamine class of chemical Analogue of ketamine Rational drug design HN Analogue HN N N Cl Controlled Drug in Singapore Controlled Drug in Singapore HN S HN S NH NH

8 Appearance of Drugs Phenazepam Methoxetamine White crystalline powder White crystalline powder

9 Potential Drugs Abuse? Can be readily purchased through internet Information of drugs available on internet Method and dosage of consumption Sharing of experience by drug users Not controlled under the law Singapore USA UK

10 Case History

11 Clinical Case Specimens were sent to Analytical Toxicology Laboratory for drugs screening. Specimens Type: Whole Blood (heparinised) 3 ml Urine 20 ml

12 Specimens Analysis

13 Specimens Analysis

14 Basic Drugs Extraction (LLE) Instrument

15 Specimens Analysis

16 Instrumentation: GC/MS GC condition: Agilent 7890A/5975 inert GCMS Column HP 5MS(25 m x 0.20 mm i.d. x 0.33 µm film thickness) ven equilibration time Initial temperature Temperature programming Total run time 0.50 min 100 C hold 1 min 10 C/min to 300 C (hold 12 min) 33 min Injection temperature 300 C Purge time Injection volume 2 µl Injection mode Flow (constant) 0.3 min Splitless 1 ml/min (He)

17 Instrumentation: GC/MS MS condition: Agilent 7890A/5975 inert GCMS Acquisition mode EI scan Mass range 50 to 500 (m/z) Threshold 150 MS transfer line temperature 280 C Source temperature 230 C Quadrupole temperature 150 C Solvent delay 1.5 min

18 GC/MS Chromatogram of a blood extract I.S DIPHENXYLATE H N Br N Cl

19 GC/MS Chromatogram of a urine extract I.S DIPHENXYLATE Unknown Methoxetamine?

20 GC/MS Spectrum Unknown samples vs White crystal found Quality match= 97% Unknown peak NH 3 M + White crystal NH 3 M +

21 Library from Prof. Dr Hans H. Maurer entry number 8506 in 2011 Maurer/Pfleger/Weber library

22 Specimens Analysis

23 Instrumentation: LC/TF MS Chromatographic condition: Agilent HP1100 HPLC series Column 150 x 2.1 mm, Hypersil BDS column (5 µm particle size) Mobile phase A 2 mm ammonium formate & 0.2% formic acid in water Mobile phase B 2 mm ammonium formate & 0.2% formic acid in methanol Column temp. 25 C Flow rate 0.4 ml/min Volume injection 10 µl Gradient elution programme: Time (min) % B Time(min) vs % B

24 Instrumentation: LC/TF MS Agilent 6210 Times of Flight Mass Spectrometer MS TF condition: Ion polarity Positive Capillary voltage V Nebulizer pressure 40 psi Drying gas flow 13.0 L/min Drying gas temp. 350 C Mass range (m/z) Fragmentor voltage 120 V

25 LC/TF MS Chromatogram of a blood extract H N Br N Cl Phenazepam MW= Phenazepam Rt= min

26 LC/TF MS Spectrum of Phenazepam in blood extract Phenazepam Formula = C 15 H 10 BrClN 2 Measured mass = Nominal mass= Mass Accuracy (ppm) = 0.26 Characteristic isotopic pattern for compounds with Cl and Br atoms

27 LC/TF MS Chromatogram of a urine extract HN Methoxetamine MW= Methoxetamine Rt= min

28 LC/TF MS Spectrum of Methoxetamine in a urine extract Methoxetamine Formula = C 15 H 21 N 2 Measured mass = Nominal mass= Mass accuracy (ppm) = 0.42

29 Summary of findings GC/MS: Drugs Rt (min) MW Major ion Peak Phenazepam , 350, 102, 75, 89, 177 Methoxetamine , 219, 134, 176 LC/TF MS: Drugs Rt (min) MW Molecular Formula Phenazepam C 15 H 10 BrClN 2 Methoxetamine C 15 H 21 N 2

30 Final Toxicology Results 1 st Case: 2 nd Case: Blood Blood Lignocaine Phenazepam Nevirapine Phenazepam Urine Lignocaine Nevirapine Phenazepam Methoxetamine Urine Ephedrine Phenazepam Methoxetamine

31 Conclusion Methoxetamine is first time being reported in Singapore No literature being reported.

32 Acknowledgement Prof. Dr. Hans H. Maurer Department Head, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Saarland University, Germany Dr Yao Yi Ju Laboratory Director, Analytical Toxicology Laboratory, Clinical & Forensic Toxicology unit Alex Low Xuan Kai Scientist, Analytical Toxicology Laboratory, Clinical & Forensic Toxicology unit Tan Ying Ying Senior Scientist, Illicit Drug Laboratory All staff of the Analytical Toxicology Laboratory, Clinical & Forensic Toxicology unit

33 References [1] Fatality involving the ingestion of phenazepam and poppy seed tea, Journal of Analytical Toxicology (8) [2] Abuse of phenazepam--new phenomenon in Sweden. Benzodiazepine derivative from Russia caused severe intoxication, Akutkliniken, Lakartidningen (8) [3] Pharmacological Activity of Phenazepam and Flunitrazepam in Ultralow Doses, Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine (Translation of Byulleten Eksperimental'noi Biologii i Meditsiny) (1) [4] Study of bipathic effect of phenazepam, Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine (4) [5] Biokinetics of transdermal therapeutic medicinal form of phenazepam, Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine (12) [6] Species differences in phenazepam kinetics and metabolism, European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (3) [7] Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8 th ed, R.C. Baselt, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, California (2008)

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