1 Characteristics of Motorcycle Crashes in the U.S. Jeya Padmanaban, M.S. JP Research Inc., USA. 7 West El Camino Real, Suite 2 Mountain View, CA, 944 Vitaly Eyges, PhD., JP Research, Inc., USA Abstract While total traffic deaths in the United States increased by only 2 percent (2%) over a recent 1- year period (from 1996 to 26), motorcycle deaths in the same period more than doubled compared to Per vehicle miles travelled, motorcyclists are about 35 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash. This study examined data from the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) to identify characteristics of motorcycle crashes resulting in fatality and reviewed the consumer complaint database maintained by the Office for Defects Investigation to identify the complaints related to motorcycles. Fatal crashes were identified by motorcycle type, crash type, accident location, roadway profile, and other vehicle and driver factors. Exposure data on registered motorcycles was used to put the fatality risk in perspective. Factors including helmet use, alcohol involvement, driver age, and speed were examined to determine key contributing factors influencing motorcycle rider fatalities in the U.S. for the study period. The results show that speeding, alcohol use, age, and lack of helmet use are primary factors influencing motorcycle rider fatality. Results also show that more fatalities now occur on rural roads, reversing a trend that existed in the early 199s. Finally, motorcycles with larger engines (e.g., Touring bikes over 1 cc) are shown to have much lower fatality rates per registered motorcycle compared to Sport motorcycles with smaller engines. Introduction In the United States (U.S.), motorcycles have been steadily gaining in popularity in recent years, with large gains seen in motorcycle ownership and ridership. In 26, over six-and-a-half million motorcycles were registered for street use in the U.S., accounting for about 3% of all registered vehicles in the U.S.. The Motorcycle Industry Council, a nonprofit trade organization, likewise estimates there were 6,39, on-highway motorcycles in use in 23, compared to 3,65, in 199. The increase in the numbers of motorcycles on U.S. roads is not the only change in motorcycle use; there have also been significant changes in the types of motorcycles (particularly by engine size) in use and in the demographics of their owner/riders. [The following terms are used in this paper to define motorcycle occupants: riders are motorcycle operators (drivers) only; motorcyclists include both motorcycle riders and passengers.] Over 76% of the motorcycles in 23 had an engine displacement of over 749 cc, compared to 4% in 199. And survey data from the Motorcycle Industry Council for the period reveals a shift towards older owners. The median age of owners increased from 27.1 years old in 1985 to 41 years old in 23.
2 The mean age of a motorcycle owner in 23 was 4.2 years, compared to 38.1 in In 23,.1% of motorcycle owners were age 5 and over, compared to 19.1% in 1998 and 1.1% in 199. Similar increases were seen for the 4-to-49 age group. Correspondingly, ownership in the under-18, -to-29, and 3-to-34 age groups showed significant decreases. Along with the increase in motorcycle use, motorcycle fatalities in the U.S. have also been rapidly increasing in recent years. In 27, 5,154 motorcyclists died in vehicle crashes (and 13, were injured), an increase of 7% over the 4,837 motorcycle fatalities in 26 and an increase of 144% over the 2,116 motorcycle fatalities just 1 years earlier, in 1997 [NHTSA, 28]. In 26, the fatality rate for motorcyclists was 39 fatalities per 1 million vehicle miles travelled; the corresponding rate for passenger car occupants was 1.11 fatalities. Hence, per vehicle miles travelled, motorcyclists are about 35 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a traffic crash. In 27, motorcycle fatalities accounted for 13% of total traffic fatalities and 14% of all occupant fatalities [NHTSA, 28]. In addition, one out of four motorcycle riders (a full %) in fatal crashes in 27 were operating their vehicle with an invalid license. Given the significant increase in use, changes in driver demographics/engine sizes, and increase in fatal injury rates for motorcycle riders in the 1-year period from , it is important to identify the accident, vehicle, rider, and environmental factors associated with motorcycle occupant safety. Hence this study. Data Used To understand the factors associated with motorcycle crash injuries, field data collected by U.S. federal and state agencies were examined. The fatality risk was examined using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for the years FARS is a census of all motor vehicle crashes occurring on public roadways and resulting in fatality within 3 days of the crash. The FARS database is maintained by NHTSA (the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) and is widely used to assess vehicle safety standards and rulemaking activities in the U.S.. The motorcycle registration data was obtained from R.L. Polk & Company, which collects motor vehicle registration data from state Department of Motor Vehicle files for the entire nation. The annual miles travelled were obtained from estimates derived by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) using state survey data and the Census of Transportation, Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey. NHTSA s National Automotive Sampling System/General Estimates System (NASS/GES, ), a nationally representative sample of over 3, police-reported crashes, was used to derive national estimates of injuries, types of crashes, and other factors. In addition, the consumer complaint database maintained by NHTSA s Office for Defects Investigation (ODI) was reviewed to identify the complaints related to motorcycles. Results U.S. Motorcycle Population Figure 1 presents the number of vehicles, grouped by vehicle type, registered in the U.S in 26. Figure 1A presents the number of registered motorcycles, by year, for the period As seen in Figure 1A, there has been a significant increase in the number of motorcycles registered in the last decade (a % increase from 1997 to 26). Sales of new street-legal 1 motorcycles grew even more sharply over the same period, from 26, in 1997 to 892, in 26 (a 243% increase) [Morris, 29]. 1 According to NHTSA, street-legal motorcycles include sport, sport-touring, super sport, touring, dualpurpose, and traditional bikes; cruisers; mopeds, scooters, and motorized bicycles; trikes and reverse trikes.
3 Figure 1. Vehicle Population by Type of Registered Vehicle in the U.S. (Calendar Year 26) 15,, 135,399,945 Number of Registered Vehicles 1,, 5,, 99,124,7 Passenger Cars Other 2-Axle 4-Tire Vehicles* 6,678,958 6,649,337 Motorcycles Single Unit 2- Axle 6-Tire or More Trucks** 2,169,67 821,959 Combnation Trucks Buses Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). *Other 2-axle, 4-tire vehicles include vans, pickup trucks, and SUVs that are not passenger cars. **Single-unit, 2-axle, 6(or more)-tire trucks on a single frame with at least two axles and six tires. 1,, Figure 1A. Registered Number of Motorcycles by Year in the U.S. (Calendar Years ) Number of Registered Motorcycles 8,, 6,, 4,, 2,, 3,826,373 3,879,45 4,152,433 4,346,68 4,93,56 5,4,156 5,37,35 5,767,934 6,227,146 6,686, Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; Traffic Safety Facts - Motorcycles, 27.
4 Figure 2 presents the 11 states with the highest volumes of motorcycle registrations in 26. These 11 states account for 56% of total motorcycle registrations in 26 for the entire nation. 1,, Figure 2. Motorcycle Registration by State in 26 Number of Registered Motorcycles, 5,, 79, ,74 352,32 331, , 293,11 27, ,54 215,316 22, ,94 California Florida Texas Ohio Pennsylvania Illinois Wisconsin Michigan Minnesota New York Washington Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Motorcycle Crashes by Crash Type and Location NASS/GES data was examined for the years to identify the crash type and location for motorcycle crashes occurring in the U.S.. Of the approximately 42, motorcycle crashes that occurred each year in the U.S. (on average) during this period, about 59% were frontal crashes, about 29% were side impact crashes, about 1% were rear impact crashes, and about 2% were rollovers. About 28% of all motorcycle crashes occurred on grade/hill roadways and 71% occurred on level roadways. These percentages are consistent between and calendar years. Fatal motorcycle crashes were examined using FARS data for the years There were about 1,7-2, fatal motorcycle crashes each year between 199 and 2, and about 4, fatal crashes each year between 2 and 27. On average, about 79% of these fatal crashes were frontals, 17% were side impacts, 3% were rear impacts, and about 1% were rollovers. Of all fatal motorcycle crashes, about 3% occurred on grade/hill roadways. In addition, the data shows that more fatalities (about 5.3%) occurred on rural roads in 21-27, reversing a trend that existed in the early 199s (about 44.7% fatalities occurred on rural roads in ). Risk of Fatality The growth in motorcycle sales and registrations has been accompanied by an increase in accidents, injuries, and fatalities involving motorcycles in the U.S.. One of the primary reasons for injuries and fatalities is the lack of helmet use. Currently in the U.S., only 22 states require
5 helmet use for all riders. NHTSA studies show that an unhelmeted motorcyclist is 4% more likely to incur a fatal head injury than a helmeted motorcyclist when involved in a crash. Another emerging trend is the growing popularity of racing-style motorcycles known as Super Sports, which have high power-to-weight ratios and are capable of extreme acceleration and speed (16+ mph). Super Sports have become extremely popular among young riders. The risk of fatality is significantly different among different types of motorcycles due to the differences in rider demographics and helmet use. Figure 3 presents the fatal rider rate per 1, registered motorcycles by the basic motorcycle types: Touring, Cruiser and Sport. Touring bikes are a type of motorcycle designed for longdistance touring and heavy commuting. Sport/Super Sport bikes are capable of high acceleration and speeds, are lighter, and allow for agile cornering. Cruiser-style bikes reflect the classic design style of American motorcycles from the 193s to the early 196s. As Figure 3 shows, the fatal rate for Sport motorcycles is 3 times greater than the fatal rates for other types. Figure 4 shows significant differences in driver and environmental factors among these motorcycle types. Sport motorcycles have a higher percentage of young male riders (ages 16-), a higher percentage of risky driver behaviour 2, and a higher percentage of high speed (travel speed = 65+ mph) crashes. 1 Figure 3. Fatal Rate Per 1, Registered Motorcycles (Riders in All Crashes, by Motorcycle Type) Fatal Rate Sport Touring Cruiser Rate per 1, Registered Vehicle Years Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), Model Years Sport Motorcycles include Dual Sport and Street Sport. 2 Risky driving includes: reckless driving, speeding, unsafe/careless driving, and driving too fast for conditions.
6 Figure 4. Factors Associated with Fatal Crashes, by Motorcycle Type 1 67 Sport Cruiser Touring Percent Fatal Young Male Risky Driving Speeding (65+ mph) Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), Model Years Sport Motorcycles include Dual Sport and Street Sport. There were also significant differences in fatal rates among different engine sizes for the Sport motorcycles (Figure 5). Sport motorcycles with engine sizes cc or greater had significantly higher rates compared to Sport motorcycles with engine sizes less than cc. Figure 5. Fatal Rates per 1, Registered Motorcycles, by Engine Size (Riders in All Crashes, Sport Motorcycles) 1 Fatal Rate to 749 cc to 999 cc 1 to 1499 cc Rate per 1, Registered Vehicle Years Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), Model Years Sport Motorcycles include Dual Sport and Street Sport.
7 Figure 6 shows the percentage of young male riders by engine size for Sport motorcycles in fatal crashes. As seen in Figure 6, about 46% of fatally injured riders of Sport motorcycles with small engines (engine sizes less than cc) were young males. The lower fatal rate for young males (Figure 5) could be due to the survivability of young riders in a severe crash despite their aggressive driving behaviour. Figure 6. Percent of Young Male Riders in Fatal Crashes, by Engine Size (Sport Motorcycles) 1 Percent Fatal to 749 cc to 999 cc 1 to 1499 cc Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), Model Years Sport Motorcycles include Dual Sport and Street Sport. Helmet Use and Alcohol FARS data for the years 2-27 shows that about 3% of fatally injured riders were alcohol impaired, and about 44% of fatally injured riders were not wearing helmets. From 1984 through 1997, NHTSA estimates that helmets saved the lives of 8,474 motorcyclists [NHTSA, 29]. The Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES) study found that motorcycle helmets are 67% effective in preventing brain injuries. A study conducted by the University of Southern California analyzed 3,6 motorcycle crashes and concluded that helmet use was the single most important factor governing survival in motorcycle crashes [NHTSA, 29]. Currently, 22 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico require helmet use for all operators and passengers. In another states, only persons under a specific age, usually 18, are required to wear helmets. Three states have no laws requiring helmet use. NHTSA s studies also showed a 2% increase in fatalities in states that repealed helmet use laws. The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) is engaged in a comprehensive effort that is expected to mandate improvements to braking systems and use of anti-lock braking technology, increase helmet use, and provide tougher penalties for driving while alcohol impaired. In addition, the DOT is addressing rider training programs, appropriate licensing procedures, and means of increasing awareness of the growing numbers of motorcyclists who share the roads.
8 Run Off Road Crashes Another important factor associated with fatal motorcycle crashes is the run off the road 3 crash mode. FARS data for the years was examined to identify all and single-vehicle fatal crashes that were run off road type crashes. Of all fatal crashes, about 4% were run off road crashes; of all single-vehicle fatal crashes, about 8% were run off road crashes. This type of crash is associated with young male riders, night/dark hours (8 P.M.-8 A.M.), and higher speeds (55 mph or greater). Office of Defects Investigation Analysis The consumer complaint database maintained by NHTSA s Office of Defects Investigation (ODI) (199-27) was reviewed to identify the consumer complaints related to motorcycles. About 8% of the complaints include problems with the power train, engine, electrical system, fuel system, suspension, brakes, tires, wheels, and steering. The comparison of the complaint frequencies in and by motorcycle components is shown in Figure 7. There was an increase in power train and engine-related complaints in compared to 199-2, while complaints related to electrical system, fuel system, suspension, brakes, and steering were more frequent in than in Figure 7. Percent of ODI Complaint Records for Motorcycles by Component Type Percent of Complaints Power Train Engine and Engine Cooling Electrical System Fuel System Suspension Service Brakes Tires and Wheels Source: Office of Defects Investigation (ODI), Model Years Steering Conclusions A study was conducted to examine the motorcycle crashes and injuries occurring in the U.S. for the last 2 years. Field data collected by federal and state patrol agencies were examined to address the nature of motorcycle crashes by motorcycle type, accident location and rider factors. The main conclusions of this study are that: 1. While the fatal rate per million miles travelled is higher for motorcycles compared to other motor vehicles, there are significant differences among different types of motorcycles. Sport 3 Run off road crashes include first harmful event = ran off the road to the left or right.
9 motorcycles have a fatal rate that is 3 times higher than the corresponding rates for Cruisers or Touring bikes. 2. The primary factors influencing motorcycle rider fatality are lack of helmet use, speeding, alcohol use, and rider age. 3. Fatal crashes for sport motorcycles are associated with young riders and risky driving behaviour, including speeding. 4. In a reversal from the early 199s, motorcycle fatalities are more likely to occur on rural (vs. urban) roads. 5. In recent years (2-27), there has been an increase in consumer complaints relating to engine and power train systems. The U.S., based on results of a comprehensive DOT study now underway, is expected to mandate regulatory changes to increase helmet use and safety and provide tougher penalties for driving while alcohol impaired. In addition, nationwide and statewide rider training programs are underway to educate motorcycle riders on ways to safely share the road with other modes of transportation. Efforts are being made to collect accurate and complete data on vehicle miles travelled for motorcycle riders to put the risk in perspective. References Morris, Craig C (29). Special Report, Motorcycle Trends in the United States, U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, May 29. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (28). Traffic Safety Facts, Motorcycles, 27 Data, NHTSA, NCSA, Report No. DOT HS 81 99, 28. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (29). State Legislative Fact Sheets, Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws, NHTSA, 29.
Montana Traffic Safety Problem Identification FFY 2011 2009 Data State Highway Traffic Safety Office Montana Department of Transportation 2701 Prospect Avenue Helena, Montana 59620-1001 http://www.mdt.mt.gov/safety/safetyprg.shtml
DOT HS 811 526 October 2011 Incidence Rates of Pedestrian And Bicyclist Crashes by Hybrid Electric Passenger Vehicles: An Update DISCLAIMER This publication is distributed by the U.S. Department of Transportation,
DOT HS 810 968 June 2008 National Pedestrian Crash Report This document is available to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161 This publication is distributed
Bicyclist Fatalities and Serious Injuries in New York City 1996-2005 A Joint Report from the New York City Departments of Health and Mental Hygiene, Parks and Recreation, Transportation, and the New York
Motorcycle Crash Patterns for Riders aged 17-25 in NSW Christie, R., RCSC Services Pty Ltd, & Harrison, W., Eastern Professional Services Pty Ltd Abstract The Motor Accidents Authority of NSW (MAA) funded
On Road Bicycle Facilities and Cyclist Injury in Bicycle Motor Vehicle Crashes in Chicago BY CHRISTOPHER MICHAEL QUINN BA, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2008 THESIS Submitted as partial fulfillment
Part I. An Overview of the Bicycle Study Gregory B. Rodgers, Ph.D. Bicycle Project Manager, Directorate for Economic Analysis Background Bicycle riding is one of the most popular recreational activities
DOT HS 811 208 October 2009 Motorcycle Helmet Use and Head and Facial Injuries Crash Outcomes in CODES-Linked Data This document is available to the public from the National Technical Information Service,
MICHIGAN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Data Analysis: 2005-2010 FINAL REPORT Prepared by: T.Y. Lin International and Western Michigan University 4/3/2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS List
ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006 Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes ATSB ROAD SAFETY REPORT July 2006 Deaths of cyclists due to road crashes Published by: Australian Transport Safety Bureau Postal
Kentucky Transportation Center Research Report KTC-12-13/KSP2-11-1F ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CRASH DATA IN KENTUCKY (2007-2011) Our Mission We provide services to the transportation community through research,
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2012 Data DOT HS 812 018 April 2014 Bicyclists and Other Cyclists In 2012, 726 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 49,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Pedalcyclist
TRAFFIC SAFETY FACTS 2011 Data DOT HS 811 743 April 2013 Bicyclists and Other Cyclists In 2011, 677 pedalcyclists were killed and an additional 48,000 were injured in motor vehicle traffic crashes. Pedalcyclist
The Effect of Sight Distance Training on the Visual Scanning Of Motorcycle Riders: A Preliminary Look DISCLAIMER This publication is distributed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway
LBNL-3143E Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation Final Report prepared for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable
Proactive Use of Highway Recorded Data via an Event Data Recorder (EDR) to Achieve Nationwide Seat Belt Usage in the 90 th Percentile by 2002 Thomas Michael Kowalick President of Click, Inc. Transportation
Cycling injuries in Australia: Road safety s blind spot? by J Garrard*, S Greaves** and A Ellison** *School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Melbourne **Institute of Transport and Logistics
Investigation of the Use of Mobile Phones While Driving Prepared by Alasdair Cain Mark Burris Center for Urban Transportation Research College of Engineering, University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler
U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration DOT HS 809 540 March 2003 Technical Report DRIVER ATTRIBUTES AND REAR-END CRASH INVOLVEMENT PROPENSITY Published By: National
Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The
Summary Report of Rollover Crashes Kennerly H. Digges June 2002 INTRODUCTION Rollover continues to be a serious highway threat. Each year in the US, about 220,000 light vehicles are involved in rollovers.
Occasional Papers What to Expect from California s New Hands-Free Law Jed Kolko May 2008 The Public Policy Institute of California is dedicated to informing and improving public policy in California through
Reported Road Casualties Great Britain: 2013 Annual Report Focus on pedal cyclists Key findings The key findings from this article include: Pedal cyclist deaths have seen a long-term fall, but have fluctuated
Bicycle crashes in South Australia Hutchinson, T. P. 1, Kloeden, C. N. 1, Long, A. D. 1 1 Centre for Automotive Safety Research, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 email: email@example.com
U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs 5HYLVHG WK Bureau of Justice Statistics Alcohol and Crime An Analysis of National Data on the Prevalence of Alcohol Involvement in Crime 2Q DQ DYHUDJH