SURVEY OF SCHOOLS: ICT IN EDUCATION COUNTRY PROFILE: BELGIUM

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1 SURVEY OF SCHOOLS: ICT IN EDUCATION COUNTRY PROFILE: BELGIUM November 2012

2 This report was prepared by the Contractor: European Schoolnet and University of Liège under contract SMART 2010/0039. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission. Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the information provided in this document. Copyright Material in this report may be freely reproduced provided the source is acknowledged. Page 2

3 Table of Contents 1. Introduction... 4 ICT in the Belgian school education system... 4 The Survey of Schools: ICT in Education ICT infrastructure... 6 Availability of computers for educational purposes... 6 Broadband... 7 Connectedness... 8 Frequency of ICT use in class... 9 Frequency of ICT use by teachers in class... 9 Students ICT use Digital confidence Teachers Students Professional development Time spent on training Engagement in training School support measures ICT coordinator Incentives : Clusters The digitally supportive school Digitally confident and supportive teachers The digitally supportive student The digitally equipped school Conclusion ANNEX Tables Notes Page 3

4 1. INTRODUCTION ICT IN THE BELGIAN SCHOOL EDUCATION SYSTEM In the three Communities are responsible for education, but there are the following exceptions: the determination of the end and the beginning of compulsory school attendance; the minimum requirements for the issuing of diplomas; and the regularisation of retirement for the employees in the educational system, all of which are in the hands of the federal state. Full-time compulsory education lasts until the age of 16, and until the age of 18 for part time compulsory school attendance. In the Flemish Community 1 the Department for Education and Training takes care of policy preparation and internal autonomous agencies are responsible for policy implementation. Educational provision, recognised, funded and inspected by the public authorities, is organised by different (public and private) school governing bodies on the basis of freedom of education. In the French Community 2 competence for education lies with the Communities, whereas training is a regional responsibility. The Federal State s powers with respect to education are very limited. Education is either organised by the French Community or subsidised by it and provided they comply with laws, decrees and orders, controlling authorities enjoy fairly extensive autonomy, particularly with regard to methods of education and assessment. All educational facilities in the German-speaking Community 3 are organised and financed by the Community or are subsidised by the Community. According to Eurydice s Key Data on Learning and Innovation through ICT at school in Europe 4, in there are national strategies covering training measures 5 for ICT in schools, e-learning, e- inclusion, digital/media literacy and e-skills development, and for digital/media literacy only in the Flemish Community. There are research projects in all of these except for e-inclusion. Central steering documents exist for most ICT learning objectives 6 at secondary education level, except for using social media (although this may be inferred in other guidance in the Flemish Community), and for using a computer, searching for information, and using multimedia, at primary education level in the Flemish Community, with reference to using mobiles and developing programming skills in guidance for secondary level only in the German-speaking Community. In primary schools ICT is taught as a general tool for other subjects/or as a tool for specific tasks in other subjects. At primary and secondary education level support is provided across the country in ICT hardware areas for computers, projectors or beamers, DVDs, videos, TV, cameras, and also for smartboards, virtual learning environments in German-speaking and Flemish Communities, and for all ICT software categories 7.support is provided. According to official steering documents, both students and teachers at both primary and secondary level are expected to use ICT in class in all subjects. There are no central recommendations on the use of ICT in student assessment. Public-private partnerships for published in 2011, specifically the following tables and associated commentaries: A6, B6, B7, C2, C3, C4, C12 and E10 5 from the following areas: ICT in schools, e-learning, e-inclusion, digital/media literacy, e-skills development. 6 i.e. knowledge of computer hardware and electronics, using a computer, using mobile devices, using office applications, searching for information, using multimedia, developing programming skills, and using social media. 7 from a range of hardware and software, i.e. computers, projectors or beamers, DVDs, videos, TV, cameras, mobile devices, e-book readers, smartboards, virtual learning environments; tutorial software, office applications, multimedia applications, digital learning games, communication software, digital resources. Page 4

5 promoting the use of ICT are encouraged for private funding for hardware and software in schools in the Flemish speaking community THE SURVEY OF SCHOOLS: ICT IN EDUCATION In 2011, the European Commission Directorate General Communications Networks, Content and Technology 8 launched the Survey of Schools: ICT in Education, the primary goal of which is to benchmark countries' performance in terms of access, use and attitudes to ICT at grades 4, 8 and 11. The Survey of Schools is one of a series within the European Union's cross-sector benchmarking activities comparing national progress to Digital Agenda for Europe (DAE) and 2020 goals. The Survey is funded by the European Commission Communications Networks, Content and Technology Directorate General and is a partnership between European Schoolnet and the Service d Approches Quantitatives des faits éducatifs in the Department of Education of the University of Liège. The survey took place between January 2011 and May 2012, with data collection in autumn 2011, and covered 31 countries (the 27, Croatia, Iceland, Norway and Turkey). In four countries (Germany, Iceland, Netherlands and the United Kingdom) the response rate was insufficient, making reliable analysis of the data impossible; therefore the findings in this report are based on data from 27 countries. This country profile should be read in conjunction with the Report of the Survey of Schools: ICT in Education (the main report ). The profile presents key indicators concerning access, use and attitudes to Information and Communication Technology in primary and secondary schools derived from responses to surveys completed by head teachers, teachers and students, showing national results against the average and, where possible, for grade 8 only. Charts for this grade are shown but not for other grades for reasons of brevity and clarity and because results at this grade tend to be indicative of all grades (i.e. having the characteristics and revealing issues found both at grade 4 and at grade 11). The text provides information about the results and rankings at other grades and a reference to the particular chart in the main report. The full report, country profiles, background information, questionnaires, tables, details of the methodology and the raw data are freely available at enhancing-digital-literacy-skills-and-inclusion. The authors may be contacted at and information about the survey is at Page 5

6 2. ICT INFRASTRUCTURE AVAILABILITY OF COMPUTERS FOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES A computer is defined as a desktop or laptop, netbook or tablet computer, whether or not connected to the internet, available for educational purposes in school. In the number of computers available to students is above the average at all grades (see main report fig. 1.1), except for grade 4 where it is close to the mean. In most countries the older the student the more the computers and this pattern is reflected in, in fact more so. Fig. 2.1 shows that at grade 8 ranks sixth on this indicator with 4 students per computer. 30 Fig. 2.1: Students per computer (Grade 8, country and level, ) SE NO ES DK CY BE EE CZ FI AT IE FR HU PT LT SK MT LV SL PL HR BG IT RO EL TR As for computers connected to the internet in schools, in there are desktop computers above the average at all grades, ranking second at grade 8 (fig. 2.2) with five students per desktop. There is below the average of laptop computers at all grades, in the lower half of the rankings. 250 Fig. 2.2: Students per internet-connected desktop and laptop computer (Grade 8, country and level, ) CY BE AT CZ EE ES FI FR PT IE LT SK LV MT HU DK PL SI SE NO BG HR IT RO EL TR Desktops Laptops Within the overall four students per computer, grade 11 general students have the use of the highest numbers of online PCs in (four students to each computer). There is a negative correlation in between levels of online desktop and laptop computers and the percentage of students from low-income families in a school, i.e. the higher the percentage of students from low-income families the fewer computers available to them. Page 6

7 BROADBAND In broadband speeds at all grades are higher than in most other countries, but nevertheless between 4 and 17% of students, depending on grade, are in schools without broadband. In, broadband speeds in most schools are considerably higher compared to other countries, most students being in schools over 5mbps, although less at grade 4 (fig 2.3). The percentages of students in schools with broadband speeds faster than 10mbps is generally higher at all grades than the mean, notably at grade 11 where it this is over 70% (fig 2.3). Fig. 2.3: Broadband speed (% students excluding 'don't know', and, ) Grade 4 17% 8% 17% 14% 21% 26% 13% 22% 14% 20% 15% 9% 4% No broadband Grade 8 6% 5% 8% 10% 14% 10% 19% 36% 28% 25% 26% 9% 2% 5% <2mbps 2-5 mbps Grade 11gen Grade 11voc 6% 6% 5% 8% 4% 6% 4% 4% 6% 18% 8% 7% 6% 15% 46% 23% 46% 21% 25% 24% 25% 13% 28% 16% 5% 10% 4% 11% 5-10 mbps mbps mbps >100 mbps Figure 2.4 shows how compares with other countries at grade 8: ranked in the lowest five for the percentage of students in schools with more than 100 mbps but with over 60% in schools with more than 10mbps. ranks higher, in the middle group of countries, at all other grades (main report fig 1.8). Fig. 2.4: Broadband speed (Grade 8, country and level, , ranked by >100mbps, ) 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% NO DK SE FI EE AT PT CZ LV LT TR BG IE SL SK CY RO ES HR HU FR EL BE IT PL MT >100mbps mbps 10-30mbps 5-10mbps 2-5mbps <2mbps No broadband There is a relationship between the population size of the school s locality and broadband speed in at grade 8, more densely populated areas having faster broadband speeds. Page 7

8 CONNECTEDNESS Percentages of students in schools that have connected characteristics, e.g. having a website or a virtual learning environment (VLE) are shown below, as well as those with none of these items. In, the percentage of students in schools with a website is higher than the mean at all grades, except grade 4 where it is lower, and at 100% at grade 8 and grade 11 vocational. The percentage of students in schools with a virtual learning environment is notably above the mean at all grades except for grade 4 where it is lower. Percentages of students in unconnected schools are generally close to or below the average depending on the grade. Fig. 2.5: Percentage of students in connected schools - website, virtual learning environment, no connectedness ( and, ) Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 11gen Grade 11voc 19% 66% 23% 79% 32% 15% 100% 73% 0% 86% 58% 10% 98% 79% 0% 92% 61% 7% 100% 89% 0% 93% 63% 6% School website VLE No connectedness ranks well above other countries as regards virtual learning environments at grade 8, as seen in fig. 2.6, in the top ten, as is the case at grade 11 general. At grade 11 vocational is ranked third but is in the bottom ten at grade 4 (main report fig. 2.10). Fig. 2.6: % of students in schools with a virtual learning environment (Grade 8; country and level, ) 100% 80% 60% 73% 61% 40% 20% 0% NO PT DK FI SE ES FR BE AT SL IE EE LV SK LT RO PL EL TR CY CZ BG MT HR IT HU In, large numbers of students are in schools with local area networks, with more than 90% having wired local area networks. Of the schools with VLEs, the majority offer external access to both teachers and students, although at grade 4 this applies mainly to teachers, almost twice the percentage compared to students (main report section 1). Page 8

9 FREQUENCY OF ICT USE IN CLASS FREQUENCY OF ICT USE BY TEACHERS IN CLASS Teachers frequency of use of ICT equipment in lessons is shown in the charts below. In use of ICT by teachers is close to the average at all grades, although lower at grade 4. There are generally fewer teachers using ICT in more than 25% of lessons, notably at grade 4, less than the average, except at grade 8 which is slightly higher. The most intense use is at grade 11 general where about one in five use ICT with their students in more than 75% of lessons (fig. 3.1). Fig. 3.1: Frequency of use of ICT equipment by teachers in lessons (in % students, and, ) Grade 4 5% 4% 3% 10% 14% 14% 18% 33% 19% 21% 21% 12% 9% 9% 7% >75% of lessons 51-75% of lessons Grade 8 7% 17% 7% 5% 15% 11% 11% 21% 16% 19% 19% 14% 14% 11% 8% 6% 25-50% of lessons 11-24% of lessons Grade 11gen 7% 14% 8% 5% 11% 15% 13% 23% 21% 17% 18% 14% 11% 10% 6% 6% 6-10% of lessons 1-5% of lessons Grade 11voc 19% 19% 13% 12% 13% 17% 21% 19% 11% 13% 15% 9% 4% 5% 7% 4% <1% of lessons Don't know There are generally lower percentages of teachers using ICT in more than 25% of lessons than the average at at all grades except grade 8 (fig 3.2). Fig. 3.2: Teachers' use of ICT in at least 25% of lessons (% students, and, ) Grade 4 13% 29% Grade 8 Grade 11gen 36% 32% 32% 32% mean Grade 11voc 46% 50% Teachers in are relatively low users of ICT in lessons: when considering percentages using ICT in more than one in four lessons, in the bottom three at grade 4. Page 9

10 Fig 3.3 shows ranks fifteenth at grade 8 and is also in the middle group of countries at grade 11 (see main report fig 2.2). 100% 80% Fig. 3.3: Teachers' use of ICT in more than 25% of lessons (Grade 8, and country level, ) 60% 40% 36% 32% 20% 0% PT IE TR EE CY SK HR SI SE DK FR MT LV CZ BE EL RO IT NO HU FI LT ES BG AT LU PL STUDENTS ICT USE Students at grade 8 and 11 were asked how frequently they used various items of ICT equipment in their lessons for learning purposes. The chart below shows their reported intensity of use of a school computer, and their own laptop or mobile phone. In student use of computers in class is at or below the mean depending on the grade. The use of students own laptops is close to, but slightly below, the mean at all grades. Mobile phone usage is above the mean at grade 8 but below at grade 11. Fig. 3.3: Percentages of students using ICT equipment in class for learning, at least once a week ( and, ) Grade 8 Grade 11voc Grade 11gen School desktop or laptop computer Own laptop Own mobile phone Page 10

11 At grade 8 students reported use of desktop computers is eighth lowest in Europe, less than half saying they use them at least once a week (fig. 3.5). Low use is also the case at grade 11 general although closer to the average a grade 11 vocational where 64% of students report using a school desktop/laptop (see main report fig. 2.5). 100 Fig. 3.5 Use of school desktop/laptop for learning purposes at least weekly (% students, grade 8, country and level, ) BG MT DK SK CY HR TR LT HU PL EL CZ NO PT SE IE ES EE RO BE LU IT LV FR AT SI FI Compared to other countries at grade 8 (fig.3.6), students in are in the middle group of countries as users of their own mobile phone, ranked tenth, with average use of their own laptop in school compared to other countries. At grade 11 there is much less use of their own mobile (around one in five students) particularly at grade 11 general with is ranked last, and also low use of their own laptop, in the bottom five at grade 11, although close to the average at grade 8 (see main report fig 2.5). 100 Fig. 3.6 Use of own mobile phone or laptop for learning purposes at least weekly (% students, grade 8, country and level, ) LT LV DK EE PT PL CY HR SE BE SK LU BG AT NO Own mobile phone CZ RO HU FI Own laptop EL IE SL FR IT ES TR MT Students report using interactive whiteboards less frequently than the average at all grades, in the bottom ten rankings, except 11 vocational where ranks seventh (see main report fig. 2.6). Concerning students ICT-based activities during lessons, is above the countries as measured by frequency of use at grade 11, but notably lower at grade 8 where it ranks third, 27% of students reporting they never or almost never use a computer in lessons during the last year (main report, fig. 3.8). Page 11

12 3. DIGITAL CONFIDENCE TEACHERS In teachers confidence in their operational skills with ICT is below to the mean at all grades (close to somewhat ), particularly at grade 4. Their confidence in social media skills is markedly lower than the mean (between a little and somewhat ) at all grades. Fig. 4.1: Teachers self-confidence in their operational and social media skills (by grade; mean score of students with 1 being 'none' and 4 being 'a lot'; and ; ) Fig. 4.1a: grade 4 Fig. 4.1b: grade 8 Social media skills Social media skills Operational skills Operational skills Fig. 4.1c: grade 11 gen. Fig. 4.1d: grade 11 voc. Social media skills Social media skills Operational skills Operational skills Page 12

13 Comparing confidence levels at grade 8, teachers confidence in their operational skills ranks second lowest (fig. 4.1e). At other grades (see main report, fig. 4.13) is ranked last at grade 4, second last at grade 11 vocational, but in the middle group of countries at grade 11 general, just below the average. 1 'None', 2 ' A little', 3 'Somewhat', 4 'a lot' Fig. 4.1e Teachers' confidence in their operational skills (Grade 8, country and level, ) LU AT PT MT IE PL SI FR SE NO DK SK CZ IT RO CY ES BG EL TR EE LV FI HU LT BE HR As regards social media confidence is in the lowest group of countries at grade 8 (fig 4.1f), second from last, and this is even more true at grade 11 vocational (ranked lowest), while also in the lowest group of countries at other grades (see main report 4.14). Fig. 4.1f Teachers' confidence in their social media skills (Grade 8, country and level, ) 1 'None', 2 ' A little', 3 'Somewhat', 4 'a lot' EE TR SE FI IE NO SK DK MT LU PT SI PL ES FR RO IT BG HR LT AT EL CZ HU CY BE LV Page 13

14 STUDENTS In students confidence in their social media and operational ICT skills is below the mean (close to somewhat ) at all grades. The mean score of Belgian students declaring confidence in their operational skills is below the average at all grades, as shown in fig 4.2. Belgian students mean score in relation to their confidence in their ability to use the internet safely and responsibly is also below the average at all grades, as is their confidence in their social media skills. Fig. 4.2: Students' self-confidence in their ICT skills (by grade; mean score of students with 1 being 'none' and 4 being 'a lot'; and ; ) Fig. 4.2a: grade 8 Fig. 4.2b: grade 11 gen. Social media skills Social media skills Operational skills Operational skills Responsible internet use Responsible internet use Safe internet use Safe internet use Fig. 4.2c: grade 11 voc. Social media skills Operational skills Responsible internet use Safe internet use Page 14

15 Confidence in operational skills is much lower than the mean amongst grade 8 students (fig. 4.2d), and is in the lowest five ranked countries at grade 11 (see main report fig. 4.18). Fig. 4.2d Students'' confidence in their operational skills (Grade 8, country and level, ) 1 'None', 2 ' A little', 3 'Somewhat', 4 'a lot' PL PT FR NO LT HU SE AT EE SK CY IT FI MT DK ES CZ LV HR BG SI RO EL IE BE TR LU is below the average in social media competencies at all grades, ranking in the bottom group of countries at grade 11 (see main report fig. 4.19). At grade 8 students are below the average in terms of confidence to use the internet safely and in bottom ten countries at other grades. In terms of confidence to use the internet responsibly is ranked one from last at grade 8, but in the middle group of countries at grade 11 vocational, although still below the average at grade 11 (see main report fig 4.16, 4.17).. Page 15

16 4. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT TIME SPENT ON TRAINING A lower percentage of grade 4 and 8 students in is taught by teachers who have invested more than 6 days in professional development activities during the past two years, compared to the average. The same is the case for grade 11 students both in general and vocational education, albeit to a much lesser extent, where the situation in is close to the average. More students are in schools where teachers have spent between 1 and 3 days on ICT professional development activities, above the mean. Those who have spent no time are above the mean at all grades, except at grade 11 vocational which is close to the average. Fig. 5.1: Time invested by teachers in professional development activities during the past two years (in % of students; excluding '4-6 days' and '< 1 day'; and ; ) Grade 11voc Grade 11gen Grade 8 Grade 4 29% 35% 14% 12% 19% 48% 13% 31% 32% 5% 16% 61% 16% 30% 35% 11% 23% 45% 10% 28% 40% 10% 21% 49% No time 1-3 days > 6 days Page 16

17 ENGAGEMENT IN TRAINING As Fig. 5.2 below shows, is above the average at grade 11 in terms of students in schools where teachers have recently undergone ICT training provided by school staff, but below at grades 4 and 8. ranks notably below the average at all grades when considering the percentage of students taught by teachers who engage in training through online communities. The situation in is much closer to, and at grade 11 vocational above, the average when considering the percentage of students in schools taught by teachers engaging in voluntary, personal learning about ICT in their own time. Fig. 5.2: Means through which teachers have engaged in ICT related professional development during the past two years (by grade; in % of students; and ; ) Fig. 5.2a: grade 4 Fig. 5.2b: grade 8 Participation in online communities 14% 25% Participation in online communities 8% 31% ICT training provided by school staff Personal learning about ICT in your own time 39% 40% 59% 70% ICT training provided by school staff Personal learning about ICT in your own time 43% 51% 74% 74% Fig. 5.2c: grade 11 gen. Fig. 5.2d: grade 11 voc. Participation in online communities 9% 28% Participation in online communities 14% 28% ICT training provided by school staff Personal learning about ICT in your own time 48% 44% 68% 72% ICT training provided by school staff Personal learning about ICT in your own time 41% 71% 48% 78% Page 17

18 Fig. 5.2e shows that at grade 8 low percentages of teachers in (ranked second lowest) have taken part in professional development in the preceding two years, notably below the average, and a low percentage also takes part in pedagogical ICT training or online communities. At all grades teachers have had much less subject-specific ICT training that the average, generally in the bottom five group of countries, although close to the average at grade 11 vocational. Students at all grades are likely to be in schools where few teachers take part in online communities than average, notably at grades 8 and 11 general where they are the lowest ranking. Apart from grade 8, students are much less likely than the mean to be in schools where teachers have taken part in pedagogical ICT training (see main report fig ). Fig. 5.2e: Participation in professional development (Grade 8, by type, country and, ) AT BE BG HR CY CZ DK EE FI FR EL HU IE IT LV LT LU MT NO PL PT RO SK SI ES SE TR 36% 14% 53% 33% 31% Pedagogical Subject Online communities In at all grades percentages of students taught by teachers for whom ICT training is compulsory are among the lowest in the (main report, fig 4.2), ranked in the lowest five countries. As regards involvement in personal learning about ICT in their own time, percentages (in the range 59-73% - see main report fig 4.4) are below the average at all grades except 11 vocational, where at 78% it is above and ranks twelfth The percentage of students taught by teachers participating in training provided by school staff is above the average at grade 11, in the middle group of countries, but below at other grades (see main report, fig 4.5). Between 10 and 29 per cent of students are taught by teachers who have not spent any time on ICTrelated professional development activities during the preceding two years (main report, fig 4.11); more than double the average at grades 8 and 4 (ranked second highest), and close to average at grade 11. Page 18

19 5. SCHOOL SUPPORT MEASURES Students in are in schools where ICT strategies are implemented (main report, fig. 5.3) are above the average at grade 8, around 33% being in such schools. At grade 11 they are above the average, and at grade 4 are below the average in the bottom group of countries for students attending schools that have ICT strategies implemented. There are low percentages, around 15%-22%, of students at all grades who go to a school where there is a specific strategy to support teacher collaboration (main report, fig. 5.7). is fifth from bottom at grade 4 regarding strategies about responsible internet and social media, and sixth from bottom at grade 11 general, but close the average at grade 8 and 11 vocational (see main report fig. 5.10). Generally average percentages of students in are in schools with change management programmes at all grades (main report, fig. 5.14), although in the bottom five at grade 4. ICT COORDINATOR In, compared to the situation at level (see Fig. 6.1), many students are in schools where ICT coordinators are provided at all grades, although slightly below the average at grade 4. Students are in schools that employ full time ICT coordinators above the mean at grade 8, close to the average at grade 11, and considerably below at grade 4. Compared to the situation at level (see fig 6.2) ICT coordinators in are more much less likely to be rewarded for their support at all grades. The percentage of students in schools where ICT coordinators also provide pedagogical support is close to the level at all grades, and considerably above at grade 4. Page 19

20 For further details please refer to Section 5 of the survey report. INCENTIVES In few students are in schools where there are incentives or rewards for using ICT, and the percentages is below the average at all grades, except for equipment and training hours at grade 8 which are above. At grade 11 the provision of additional equipment as an incentive is above the average. Fig. 6.3a: Percentages of students in schools with incentives to reward teachers using ICT in T&L (grade 4; in % of students; and ; ) Additional training hours 14% 39% Additional equipment 11% 35% 1% Competitions and prizes 17% 0% Financial incentives 17% Reduction of teaching 1% 4% Page 20

21 Additional training hours Additional equipment Competitions and prizes Financial incentives Reduction of teaching hours Fig. 6.3b: grade 8 9% 15% 2% 12% 0% 2% 46% 39% 33% 53% Fig. 6.3c: grade 11 gen. Additional training hours Additional equipment Competitions and prizes Financial incentives Reduction of teaching hours 24% 37% 10% 18% 2% 14% 2% 2% 39% 38% Fig. 6.3d: grade 11 voc. Additional training hours Additional equipment 7% Competitions and prizes Financial incentives 0% Reduction of teaching hours 18% 20% 0% 4% 38% 42% 46% 43% For further details please refer to Section 5 of the survey report. Page 21

22 7: CLUSTERS THE DIGITALLY SUPPORTIVE SCHOOL In, around 60% of students at grade 8 are in a digitally supportive school (i.e. having strong concrete support measures for teachers to use ICT in teaching and learning), a higher proportion of students in vocational education compared to the average situation (see Fig. A). The percentages of students in grade 4 and 11 general education are lower compared to the average; in addition, very high percentages (around 50%) of students at these two grades are in schools with weak policy and weak support. This situation seems to suggest a stronger policy focus at school level to integrate ICT in teaching and learning in lower secondary and vocational education, as opposed to primary and upper secondary general education. The percentage of students in this measure at grade 11 vocational is around the level. Page 22

23 At grade 8 ranks above the average considering schools with strong policy and strong support (type 1) but more than a third of students are in schools with weak support (type 3 and type 4). At grade 4 and 11 vocational ranks in the bottom ten countries on type 1, but in the middle rank of countries close at 11 general (see main report fig. 8.1). Czech_Rep Slovenia Ireland Norway Malta Lithuania Bulgaria Slovakia Denmark Estonia Turkey Austria Portugal Latvia Spain Sweden Finland Poland Hungary Romania Cyprus France Italy Greece Croatia Fig. 7.1: Digitally supportive schools (% students, grade 8, and country level, School type 1 - Strong policy & strong support School type 2 - Weak policy & strong support School type 3 - Strong policy & weak support School type 4 - Weak policy & weak support DIGITALLY CONFIDENT AND SUPPORTIVE TEACHERS Percentages of students taught by digitally supportive teachers (i.e. teachers with high confidence/attitude as well as high access to ICT and low obstacles encountered) are higher in at grade 11 general compared to the averages (see Fig. B). Conversely, at all other grades 4 the percentage of students taught by digitally positive teachers is particularly low while the percentage taught by teachers with low confidence/attitudes, low access and high obstacles is very high (approaching 70%). This seems to confirm a particularly weak situation in primary education concerning ICT use in teaching and learning, already suggested by the fact that less frequent digitally supportive schools are also encountered at this level. At grades 4 and 8, the majority of students are being taught by higher percentages of teachers with low confidence/attitude and low access to ICT and facing high obstacles in compared to the average situation (see main report fig. 8.3). Page 23

24 A low percentage of students at grade 8 compared to other countries is in schools with type 1 teachers (fig. 7.2) but at grade 11 general is among the upper group of countries, ranked seventh, in the middle group close to the average at 11 vocational, yet ranks fifth from the bottom at grade 4 (main report fig. 8.3). Fig. 7.2: Digitally supportive teachers (% students, grade 8, and country level, ) Ireland Portugal Slovenia Hungary Slovakia Spain Estonia Bulgaria Austria Poland Norway France Turkey Lithuania Italy Czech_Rep Malta Latvia Denmark Romania Croatia Sweden Finland Cyprus Greece Luxembourg Type 1 - high teachers confidence/ attitude & high access/low obstacles Type 2 - high teachers confidence/ attitude & low access/high obstacles Type 3 - low teachers confidence/ attitude & high access/low obstacles Type 4 - low teachers confidence/ attitude & low access/high obstacles THE DIGITALLY SUPPORTIVE STUDENT A digitally supportive student being defined as having high ICT access and use at school and at home, the percentages of such students in are below means as can be seen in fig C. Page 24

25 Fig.C: Percentages of students by profile in terms of ICT use at home and at school (all grades, and, ) grade 8 grade 11gen grade 11voc Student profile 1 - High access/use at school & home Student profile 2 - Low access/use at school & high access/use at home student profile 3 - Low acess at school & home On this measure, percentages of type 1 grade 8 students are among the lowest in Europe (fig. 7.3), ranked fourth from the bottom, and in the bottom five at grade 11 (main report fig. 8.5). Fig.7.3: Digitally supportive students (% students, grade 8, and country level, ) Denmark Turkey Lithuania Norway Latvia Poland Estonia Bulgaria Portugal Cyprus Slovakia Malta Hungary Czech_Rep Sweden Spain Greece Italy Romania France Croatia Slovenia Luxembourg Ireland Austria Finland Student profile 1 Student profile 2 Student profile 3 THE DIGITALLY EQUIPPED SCHOOL A digitally equipped school is well equipped, has fast broadband (above 10mbps) and is connected (i.e. has at least one of these: a website, for teachers and students, a local area network, a virtual learning environment). Analysis of the data revealed three clusters of schools according to these measures: Type 1: Highly digitally equipped schools, characterised by relatively high equipment levels, fast broadband and relatively high connectedness Type 2: Partially digitally equipped schools, with lower than type 1 equipment levels, slow (less than 10mbps) or no broadband, and some connectedness Page 25

26 Type 3: As type 2 but with no connectedness In, over half of grade 11 general students are in type 1 schools and few students (except at grade 4) are in type 3 schools. Fig. D: Digitally equipped schools (in % students, and, ) Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 11 gen Grade 11 voc Type 1: Highly digitally equipped schools Type 2: Partially digitally equipped schools Type 3: Schools with low equipment levels, slow (less than 10mbps) or no broadband, and no connectedness Fig. 7.4 shows how compares with other countries at grade 8 on this measure. No students are in type 3 schools compared to other countries and large numbers are in type 2 relative to other countries. ranks in the middle group of countries at all other grades (main report, fig. 1.13). Fig. 7.4: Digitally equipped schools (% students, grade 8, country and level, ) Finland Sweden Denmark Norway France Malta Portugal Latvia Spain Estonia Austria Ireland Lithuania Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech_Rep Greece Poland Hungary Slovenia Italy Romania Slovakia Turkey Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Page 26

27 CONCLUSION Students in enjoy above average infrastructure conditions: in computer provision (particularly at grade 11), fast broadband (although twice the percentage of grade 4 students than the average are in schools without broadband) connectedness (except at grade 4 again). Frequency patterns of teachers use of ICT equipment show a divide between grades 8 and 11 where it is around the mean and grade 4 where it is well below average. Student use is most frequent at grade 11 vocational and below average at other grades. Both student and teacher confidence levels in ICT are consistently below average, particularly with regards to use of social media. In- and out of school professional development provision and uptake appear uneven, while in-school support from an ICT coordinator appears to be more the rule in secondary than primary schools. Analysis of the findings in the Survey of Schools: ICT and education suggests a 5C approach to addressing issues identified in the survey: Capacity building, through sustained investment in teachers professional development Concrete support measures, accompanying specific policies at school level Combined policies and actions, in different policy areas within a systemic approach Country-specific support, addressing large differences and degrees of ICT provision and implementation Competences: these four actions directed at increasing effectively and dramatically young people s digital competence and the key competences described in the European framework. Page 27

28 ANNEX TABLES Note: For reasons of space, only selected country- data tables are shown here; those for allcountry charts (e.g. fig. 2.2) are available online. SE = Standard Error. Fig. 2.1 Computers per 100 students COUNTRY Grade4 SE1 Grade8 SE2 Grade11gen SE3 Grade11voc SE (1.4) 23.5 (3.3) 28.5 (3.6) 38.6 (4.2) 14.5 (0.7) 21.1 (1.2) 23.2 (7.7) 33.6 (10.6) Fig. 2.3 Broadband speed Level COUNTRY NoBroadband SE1 LessThan2 SE2 From2to5 SE3 From5to10 SE4 From10to30 SE5 1. Grade4 17.3% (7.2) 13.6% (5.0) 25.7% (6.3) 12.6% (5.9) 14.2% (5.6) 8.0% (1.3) 16.5% (2.3) 21.4% (2.4) 22.1% (2.2) 19.5% (2.2) 2. Grade8 5.5% (0.9) 7.7% (4.9) 13.5% (6.8) 9.5% (5.0) 35.7% (8.8) 5.0% (0.8) 9.6% (1.3) 19.1% (2.3) 27.7% (2.4) 24.8% (2.3) 3. Grade11gen 5.7% (4.2) 5.7% (4.1) 5.0% (3.6) 8.1% (4.7) 45.5% (8.7) 3.7% (1.3) 6.2% (0.8) 18.0% (2.8) 23.2% (3.0) 25.4% (3.9) 4. Grade11voc 4.1% (3.1) 3.8% (0.6) 6.0% (3.5) 7.6% (3.9) 45.7% (7.9) 6.5% (1.8) 6.2% (1.3) 15.2% (3.0) 21.2% (2.6) 24.2% (4.6) From30to100 SE6 MoreThan100 SE7 15.3% (5.5) 1.3% (0.2) 8.6% (1.4) 4.0% (1.3) 25.8% (7.4) 2.4% (0.4) 8.6% (1.6) 5.2% (1.2) 24.8% (7.1) 5.3% (3.8) 13.3% (2.6) 10.3% (8.0) 28.4% (6.9) 4.3% (3.1) 15.7% (7.1) 10.9% (5.3) Fig. 2.5 Connectedness Level COUNTRY SchWebsite SE1 VLE SE2 NoConnect SE3 1. Grade4 66.4% (7.5) 19.0% (4.8) 22.5% (7.0) 69.7% (3.6) 26.8% (2.0) 15.9% (2.2) Page 28

29 Level COUNTRY SchWebsite SE1 VLE SE2 NoConnect SE3 2. Grade % (0.0) 72.5% (8.7) 0.0% (0.0) 86.0% (1.6) 61.4% (3.0) 8.4% (1.2) 3. Grade11gen 97.6% (2.4) 79.1% (6.9) 0.0% (0.0) 91.7% (3.1) 61.0% (7.9) 7.0% (2.9) 4. Grade11voc 100.0% (0.0) 89.1% (4.8) 0.0% (0.0) 93.1% (1.8) 63.5% (4.7) 5.8% (1.6) Fig. 3.1 ICT equip use by teachers Level COUNTRY MoreThan75 SE1 From51to75 SE2 From25to50 SE3 From11to24 SE4 From6to10 SE5 1. Grade4 4.9% (2.5) 3.9% (2.1) 2.9% (1.8) 13.9% (4.5) 32.9% (6.8) 3.0% (0.4) 10.0% (2.4) 13.9% (1.4) 18.0% (1.8) 19.1% (2.1) 2. Grade8 16.8% (3.7) 5.2% (2.4) 11.1% (2.5) 10.9% (2.6) 15.6% (3.0) 7.4% (1.0) 6.8% (0.8) 14.7% (0.9) 20.7% (1.2) 18.9% (1.4) 3. Grade11gen 14.0% (4.2) 5.1% (2.1) 10.9% (3.3) 13.2% (3.1) 21.4% (4.7) 7.0% (1.0) 8.1% (1.4) 14.9% (1.4) 22.9% (3.8) 17.1% (1.8) 4. Grade11voc 18.8% (3.3) 12.5% (2.8) 13.0% (2.8) 21.0% (3.3) 10.8% (2.6) 19.3% (1.4) 12.1% (1.2) 16.8% (1.0) 19.3% (2.8) 13.2% (1.3) From1to5 SE6 LessThan1 SE7 DontKnow SE8 20.6% (5.8) 12.4% (5.9) 8.5% (3.6) 20.7% (2.7) 8.7% (1.4) 6.7% (1.4) 18.7% (3.2) 14.2% (3.5) 7.5% (2.7) 14.4% (1.0) 11.0% (1.0) 6.1% (0.8) 18.1% (4.9) 11.2% (4.1) 6.0% (2.7) 14.0% (1.5) 10.3% (1.4) 5.7% (0.9) 14.7% (3.2) 4.4% (1.9) 4.8% (1.8) 9.0% (1.5) 6.8% (1.1) 3.5% (0.5) Fig 3.2 Frequency of ICT use by teachers COUNTRY Grade4 SE1 Grade8 SE2 Grade11gen SE3 Grade11voc SE4 12.8% (4.1) 35.7% (4.5) 32.0% (5.7) 46.4% (4.6) 28.8% (2.6) 32.0% (1.6) 31.8% (1.8) 49.9% (2.1) Fig. 3.3 Using ICT equipment Level Country OwnMobPhone SE1 OwnLaptop SE2 SchoolComputer SE3 1. Grade (3.5) 10.4 (2.1) 47.3 (3.7) 28.0 (0.8) 11.2 (0.7) 53.3 (1.1) 2. Grade11gen 19.7 (2.3) 6.5 (2.2) 39.8 (4.5) Page 29

30 Level Country OwnMobPhone SE1 OwnLaptop SE2 SchoolComputer SE (1.3) 10.7 (1.1) 50.5 (1.5) 3. Grade11voc 36.7 (2.3) 8.1 (1.3) 63.7 (3.8) 45.6 (1.3) 15.5 (0.7) 64.3 (1.5) Fig. 4.1 Scales Teachers ICT skills Level COUNTRY SocialMediaSkills SE1 OperatSkills SE2 1. Grade (0.14) 2.55 (0.09) 2.41 (0.03) 2.98 (0.02) 2. Grade (0.08) 2.81 (0.07) 2.37 (0.04) 3.00 (0.03) 3. Grade11gen 2.09 (0.11) 2.95 (0.07) 2.38 (0.07) 3.01 (0.03) 4. Grade11voc 2.09 (0.10) 2.91 (0.06) 2.51 (0.03) 3.16 (0.02) Fig. 4.2 Scales Students ICT skills Level country SocialMediaSkills SE1 OperatSkills SE2 RespInternUse SE3 SafeInternUse SE4 1. Grade (0.04) 2.42 (0.04) 2.42 (0.04) 2.77 (0.04) 2.41 (0.02) 2.63 (0.02) 2.58 (0.02) 2.98 (0.02) 2. Grade11gen 2.59 (0.06) 2.72 (0.05) 2.82 (0.05) 3.04 (0.05) 2.78 (0.02) 2.88 (0.01) 2.93 (0.03) 3.16 (0.02) 3. Grade11voc 2.30 (0.05) 2.55 (0.05) 2.58 (0.04) 2.84 (0.05) 2.55 (0.02) 2.78 (0.02) 2.75 (0.02) 2.98 (0.02) Fig. 5.1 Time in professional development Level COUNTRY MoreThan6 SE1 From1to3 SE2 NoTime SE3 1. Grade4 14.3% (4.4) 34.8% (6.8) 29.0% (7.1) 47.5% (4.2) 19.4% (3.0) 11.9% (2.4) 2. Grade8 31.7% (4.2) 31.2% (5.0) 12.6% (3.1) 60.7% (1.6) 15.6% (1.0) 5.2% (0.5) 3. Grade11gen 34.5% (5.6) 29.5% (5.2) 15.8% (4.9) 44.7% (5.2) 23.1% (3.4) 11.0% (1.6) 4. Grade11voc 40.0% (4.5) 27.9% (3.8) 9.8% (2.9) 49.4% (3.2) 20.5% (3.0) 9.7% (1.6) Fig. 5.2 Type of training Level COUNTRY OnlineComm SE1 ICTtraining SE2 PersonalLearning SE3 Page 30

31 Level COUNTRY OnlineComm SE1 ICTtraining SE2 PersonalLearning SE3 1. Grade4 13.9% (4.4) 38.5% (6.6) 58.7% (7.0) 25.4% (2.5) 40.3% (3.2) 70.0% (2.8) 2. Grade8 7.7% (2.2) 42.9% (5.5) 73.5% (4.3) 30.8% (1.6) 50.5% (1.7) 74.2% (1.3) 3. Grade11gen 8.5% (2.4) 47.6% (6.4) 68.4% (5.4) 28.0% (2.4) 43.5% (2.2) 71.7% (2.2) 4. Grade11voc 13.7% (2.8) 47.8% (4.2) 78.1% (3.4) 28.2% (1.5) 41.4% (3.6) 70.8% (1.5) Fig. 6.1 ICT Coordinator COUNTRY Grade4 SE1 Grade8 SE2 Grade11gen SE3 Grade11voc SE4 59.3% (7.6) 87.9% (7.6) 81.3% (7.2) 93.0% (3.9) 62.0% (3.6) 79.6% (1.9) 67.7% (4.8) 69.7% (3.5) Fig. 6.2 Type of ICT coordinator Level COUNTRY AvailFullTime SE1 Rewarded SE2 ProvPedSupport SE3 1. Grade4 6.4% (3.6) 12.9% (4.8) 93.8% (3.2) 39.3% (3.0) 56.5% (3.0) 75.9% (2.3) 2. Grade8 45.4% (8.7) 32.4% (8.4) 73.6% (8.4) 34.8% (2.9) 70.6% (2.4) 72.5% (2.5) 3. Grade11gen 37.2% (8.6) 27.8% (8.0) 72.6% (8.1) 49.6% (6.9) 63.6% (7.7) 73.4% (4.2) 4. Grade11voc 51.2% (7.6) 23.0% (6.5) 77.6% (6.0) 49.7% (3.3) 63.6% (4.6) 71.5% (3.9) Fig. 6.3 Incentives Level COUNTRY TrainingHours SE1 Equipment SE2 Competitions SE3 FinancialInc SE4 ReductionHours SE5 Other SE6 1. Grade4 14.1% (4.5) 10.5% (4.1) 0.7% (0.1) 0.0% (0.0) 0.9% (0.1) 2.5% (1.5) 30.1% (4.5) 26.6% (3.8) 12.9% (2.4) 13.0% (2.1) 2.9% (0.6) 12.8% (2.3) 2. Grade8 46.2% (8.7) 52.5% (8.8) 9.4% (6.0) 2.3% (0.4) 0.0% (0.0) 19.1% (7.7) 34.1% (2.6) 33.6% (1.9) 13.3% (1.6) 10.0% (1.0) 1.5% (0.4) 14.8% (1.8) 3. Grade11gen 23.6% (7.2) 38.6% (8.1) 10.1% (5.1) 2.4% (0.4) 2.4% (0.4) 4.2% (3.4) 36.9% (9.1) 37.7% (3.5) 17.6% (4.4) 14.3% (2.8) 1.7% (0.7) 15.3% (5.0) 4. Grade11voc 38.2% (7.2) 46.4% (7.4) 6.9% (4.2) 0.0% (0.0) 0.0% (0.0) 8.3% (5.0) 41.6% (8.1) 43.4% (7.7) 17.8% (4.2) 19.4% (4.9) 4.3% (1.3) 18.7% (4.5) Fig. A Digitally supportive schools Level COUNTRY Type1 SE1 Type2 SE2 Type3 SE3 Type4 SE4 Page 31

32 Level COUNTRY Type1 SE1 Type2 SE2 Type3 SE3 Type4 SE4 1. Grade4 24 (5.54) 12 (3.62) 11 (3.86) 53 (7.08) 31 (2.70) 17 (3.17) 22 (2.53) 31 (2.98) 2. Grade8 37 (8.03) 20 (6.27) 6 (3.62) 37 (9.14) 25 (1.91) 25 (2.20) 16 (1.83) 34 (2.15) 3. Grade11gen 28 (7.24) 7 (4.24) 18 (6.21) 47 (8.28) 26 (2.28) 15 (8.69) 25 (3.74) 34 (5.30) 4. Grade11voc 21 (5.75) 8 (3.77) 34 (7.03) 37 (7.09) 25 (3.12) 7 (2.21) 34 (7.50) 34 (8.58) Fig. B Digitally supportive teachers Level COUNTRY Type1 SE1 Type2 SE2 Type3 SE3 Type4 SE4 1. Grade4 5 (2.58) 17 (4.93) 34 (6.70) 45 (7.21) 18 (2.02) 33 (2.95) 25 (2.33) 24 (2.64) 2. Grade8 18 (4.16) 11 (2.86) 32 (3.84) 39 (4.52) 23 (1.43) 31 (1.27) 24 (1.52) 22 (1.17) 3. Grade11gen 34 (5.06) 11 (3.58) 45 (4.89) 11 (3.26) 28 (2.41) 27 (2.68) 26 (1.65) 19 (1.67) 4. Grade11voc 21 (3.86) 8 (2.45) 42 (4.60) 29 (4.51) 25 (1.49) 20 (2.69) 26 (2.83) 28 (1.67) Fig. C Digitally supportive students Level COUNTRY Type1 SE1 Type2 SE2 Type3 SE3 1. Grade8 24 (2.91) 55 (2.60) 21 (1.99) 31 (1.00) 50 (0.85) 19 (0.67) 2. Grade11gen 25 (3.36) 46 (3.24) 30 (4.02) 36 (1.18) 36 (1.00) 28 (1.47) 3. Grade11voc 18 (2.21) 66 (2.44) 16 (1.75) 29 (1.60) 53 (1.03) 18 (1.37) Fig. D Digitally equipped Schools Level COUNTRY Type1 SE1 Type2 SE2 Type3 SE3 1. Grade4 39 (6.93) 40 (6.79) 22 (6.76) 37 (4.43) 48 (4.15) 15 (2.12) 2. Grade8 82 (5.33) 18 (5.33) 0 (0.0) 68 (2.87) 24 (3.31) 8 (1.16) 3. Grade11gen 53 (8.21) 47 (8.21) 0 (0.0) 55 (12.27) 39 (10.34) 5 (2.06) 4. Grade11voc 0 (0.0) 46 (7.26) 54 (7.26) Page 32

33 Level COUNTRY Type1 SE1 Type2 SE2 Type3 SE3 6 (1.88) 50 (13.83) 44 (12.07) NOTES mean. In this report, mean refers to the weighted average for the 27 countries in the survey (27 without Germany, Netherlands and the United Kingdom, Croatia, Norway and Turkey). Computer ratios. Any slight discrepancy between values in tables is explained by the slightly different method of calculation used. For further information please refer to the Technical Report. Confidence. Teachers and students were asked to rate their level of confidence in their ability to perform ICT related tasks according to a scale ranging from not at all to a lot. By subjecting the data to factorial analysis four scales emerged from the list of items. These included operational skills and social media skills and two additional scales related to students ability to use the internet safely and responsibly. For a detailed definition of these skills, please refer to section 4 of the survey report. Participation. For the Survey of Schools: ICT and Education, 300 schools in were selected at random at each of four levels (grade 4, 8, 11 general and 11 vocational) and invited to participate in the survey. Fig. 1.1 shows the percentage of those schools in which at least one survey questionnaire was submitted, the average ranging from 35 to 40 percent depending on the grade. In at all grades participation levels exceeded the 20% threshold. Participation rates (% of sampled schools with at least one questionnaire completed, all grades, /, ) Grade Grade 8 Grade 11 gen mean Grade 11 voc Page 33

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