# MS1b Statistical Data Mining

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1 MS1b Statistical Data Mining Yee Whye Teh Department of Statistics Oxford

2 Outline Administrivia and Introduction Course Structure Syllabus Introduction to Data Mining Dimensionality Reduction Introduction Principal Components Analysis Singular Value Decomposition Multidimensional Scaling Isomap Clustering Introduction Hierarchical Clustering K-means Vector Quantisation Probabilistic Methods

3 Outline Administrivia and Introduction Course Structure Syllabus Introduction to Data Mining Dimensionality Reduction Introduction Principal Components Analysis Singular Value Decomposition Multidimensional Scaling Isomap Clustering Introduction Hierarchical Clustering K-means Vector Quantisation Probabilistic Methods

4 Course Structure Lectures Wednesdays , Weeks 1-8. Thursdays , Weeks 1,3,5,7. Problem Sheets 7 problem sheets: due Mondays at noon, Weeks 2-8. Part C students Practical classes: Thursdays , Weeks 2,4,6,8. Problem classes: Wednesdays time to be decided, Weeks 2-8. MSc students Miniproject: over Easter break.

5 Outline Administrivia and Introduction Course Structure Syllabus Introduction to Data Mining Dimensionality Reduction Introduction Principal Components Analysis Singular Value Decomposition Multidimensional Scaling Isomap Clustering Introduction Hierarchical Clustering K-means Vector Quantisation Probabilistic Methods

6 Syllabus I Part I: Dimensionality Reduction Principal Components Analysis Multidimensional Scaling Isomap Part II: Clustering Hierarchical clustering K-means Vector Quantization Mixture Models Probabilistic Latent Variable Models and EM algorithm Part III: Classification and Regression Empirical Risk Minimization Nearest Neighbours, Prototype Based Methods Classification and Regression Trees Linear Regression

7 Syllabus II Linear Discriminant Analysis Quadratic Discriminant Analysis Naive Bayes Bayesian Methods Logistic Regression Neural Networks Part IV: Ensemble Methods Bootstrap, Bagging Random Forests Boosting R Learning how to use R for Data Mining

8 Outline Administrivia and Introduction Course Structure Syllabus Introduction to Data Mining Dimensionality Reduction Introduction Principal Components Analysis Singular Value Decomposition Multidimensional Scaling Isomap Clustering Introduction Hierarchical Clustering K-means Vector Quantisation Probabilistic Methods

9 What is Data Mining? Traditional Problems in Applied Statistics Well formulated question that we would like to answer. Expensive to gathering data and/or expensive to do computation. Create specially designed experiments to collect high quality data. Current Situation Information Revolution - improvements in data storage devices (both larger and cheaper). - powerful data capturing devices (bioassays, microphones, cameras, satellites). lots of data with potentially valuable information available. Big Data...

10 What is Data Mining? To gain insight from data. Often working with huge datasets. Typically many variables (up to thousands or millions). Often, but not always many observations (dozens to millions). Secondary data sources possibly collected for other purposes. Uncurated data, missing data, unstructured data, multi-aspect data. Gain understanding without specific goals.

11 Applications of Data Mining Pattern Recognition - Sorting Cheques - Reading License Plates - Sorting Envelopes - Eye/ Face/ Fingerprint Recognition

12 Applications of Data Mining Business applications - Help companies intelligently find information - Credit scoring - Predict which products people are going to buy - Recommender systems - Autonomous trading Scientific applications - Predict cancer occurence/type and health of patients/personalized health - Make sense of complex physical, biological, ecological, sociological models...it is just a nice name for multivariate statistics ( minus model checking ).

13 NY Times: Data Mining in Walmart (URL)

14 NY Times: Career in Statistics (URL)

15 NY Times: R (URL)

16 Types of Data Mining Unsupervised Learning Unclassified data from which we would like to uncover hidden structure or groupings - Given detailed phone usage from many people, find interesting groups of people with similar behaviour. - Shopping habits for people using loyalty cards: find groups of similar shoppers. - Given expression measurements of 1000s of genes for 100s of patients, find groups of functionally similar genes. Goal: Hypothesis generation, visualization.

17 Types of Data Mining Supervised Learning A database of classified examples with predefined groupings - Given detailed phone usage of many users along with their historic churn, predict when/if people are going to change contracts again. - Given expression measurements of 1000s of genes for 100s of patients along with a binary variable indicating absence or presence of a specific cancer, predict if the cancer is present for a new patient. - Given expression measurements of 1000s of genes for 100s of patients along with survival length, predict survival time. Goal: Prediction.

18 Further Readings Leo Breiman: Statistical Modeling: The Two Cultures (URL) NY Times: Big Data s Impact In the World (URL) Economist: Data, Data Everywhere (URL) McKinsey: Big data: The Next Frontier for Competition (URL) Other recent news on Big Data, Data Mining, Machine Learning: New York Times: Sure, Big Data Is Great. But So Is Intuition (URL) New York Times: How Many Computers to Identify a Cat? 16,000 (URL) New York Times: Scientists See Promise in Deep-Learning Programs (URL) New Yorker: Is Deep Learning a Revolution in Artificial Intelligence? (URL)

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