2 1 Philippine Law School Admission Test Practice Items The following practice items and directions for each section are similar to those you will find in the test. Since the directions are part of the timed test, you should become familiar with them before you take the PhiLSAT. To get the most benefit from the practice items, try to do them just as you would in the actual test, before looking at the answers. TEST A. Communication and Language Proficiency Section 1. Identifying Sentence Errors DIRECTIONS: Read each sentence carefully but quickly, paying attention to the underlined word or phrase. Each sentence contains either a single error or no error at all. If the sentence contains an error, select the underlined word or phrase that must be changed to make the sentence correct. If the sentence is correct, select choice D. In choosing answers, follow the requirements of standard written English. 1. Her elder brother saves half of his allowance so that he can buy herself A B C a new pair of shoes. No error D 2. She's certainly fun and nice to work with. No error A B C D 3. Mario was more interested in writing stories than to attend classes. No error A B C D 4. The fog is so thick that she can t hardly see the lights. No error A B C D 5. I use to go swimming before my parents forbade my going. No error A B C D
3 2 Section 2. Sentence Completion DIRECTIONS: Choose the word or phrase that, when inserted in the sentence, best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole. 6. Paolo is excited to see his US-based relatives again. arriving next week for the grand family reunion that everyone has been looking forward to. Their There They re There re 7. I never felt so in my whole life when I opened my wallet and realized I had no money to pay for the food I had eaten. embarased embarrased embarassed embarrassed 8. The English teacher, together with her students, to watch Hamlet at the AFP Theater in Camp Aguinaldo. plan is planning are planning have planned 9. We hope that our elected leaders will not their sense of values when they begin to experience having too much power in their hands. lose loss lost loose GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
4 3 10. The robber immediately opened the car door and quickly the briefcase containing the contested legal documents. take took takes taking Section 3. Improving Sentences DIRECTIONS: Read each sentence carefully but quickly and determine whether the underlined portion is correct or whether it needs to be revised. If the sentence needs no revision, choose option D. In choosing answers, follow the requirements of standard written English. Pay attention to grammar, choice of words, sentence construction, and punctuation. Choose among the options which revision results in a sentence that is clear and precise. 11. Your car was in the garage, so I thought you were home. Your car was in the garage, I thought you were home. Seeing your car in the garage, you were home. Your car was in the garage and I thought you were home. No change 12. To enrich our knowledge of Philippine Civilization and Culture, our new History teacher plans to bring us to the museums and historical places. Philippine Civilization and Culture, our new history teacher plans to bring us to the museums and historical places. Philippine civilization and culture, our new History teacher plans to bring us to the museums and historical places. Philippine civilization and culture, our new history teacher plans to bring us to the museums and historical places. No change
5 4 13. Father promised to give me a car when I become a full fledged doctor. full pledged doctor. a fullfledged doctor. full-fledged doctor. No change 14. She was shopping in Divisoria for school supplies, Mrs. San Jose developed a bad headache. Having shopped in Divisoria for school supplies, As she was shopping in Divisoria for school supplies, Shopped in Divisoria for school supplies, No change 15. The publisher was not only compelled to agree to replace the defective books but also to deliver them in time for school opening. compelled to agree not only to replace the defective books but also to deliver them compelled not only to agree to replace the defective books but also to deliver them compelled to agree to replace not only the defective books but also to deliver them No change GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
6 5 Test B. Critical Thinking Section 1. Logical Reasoning DIRECTIONS: In this section, brief conversations or short passages are given followed by one or two questions. These questions ask for the analysis and evaluation of the reasoning in the conversation or passage. It is conceivable that all of the four choices given for each question may be correct answers. The task is to select the best answer for each question. The best answer is the one which does not require assumptions that are irrelevant or inconsistent with the statements. An advertisement in a travel magazine: Take your family to a cozy beach holiday at Sun and Sand Resorts! For just 2,000.00, you can already avail of a floating cottage for a unique bonding experience. You can also feast on seafood fresh from the ocean. If you re feeling adventurous, you can rent a surf board and ride the waves, or get into one of our diving gears to explore wonders under the sea. So, what are you waiting for? Beat the heat this summer at Sun and Sand! 1. Based on the passage above, which of the following statements can be said as ABSOLUTELY FALSE? Sun and Sand guests are adventurous. Sun and Sand is open during summer time. Sun and Sand does not host underwater activities. Sun and Sand is a beach destination. 2. Cats are pets because they are tame. All of the following are possible meanings of the statement EXCEPT Cats are tame. All pets are tame. Tamed cats are easy to look after. Cats become pets as a result of their being tame.
7 6 In Metro Manila, there are no jumbo hotdogs priced lower than those of Tasty Food Corporation. 3. Which of the following statements is(are) NOT consistent with the above statement? I. Best Ham, Inc. has prices which are fifty percent lower than those of Tasty Food Corporation. II. Sarap Hotdog Company offers the same wholesale and retail prices as Tasty Food Corporation. III. Quality Hotdog Company has higher prices for its regular-sized hotdogs than that of Tasty Food Company. II only II and III only I, II, and III None of these Some teachers are members of the National Teachers Union. No member of the union is a foreigner. Therefore, some teachers are not foreigners. 4. Which of the following is logically most similar to the argument presented above? The Pasig River is polluted. The Pasig River is in Metro Manila. Therefore, Metro Manila is polluted. Anyone who eats rancid food will be poisoned. I do not eat rancid food. Therefore, I will not likely be poisoned. All vendors pay sales permit, but many vendors do not sell enough to pay for their sales permit. Therefore, some vendors do not earn. All boys are not admitted in the special class of a school, but some boys need the lessons. Therefore, some boys who need lessons are not allowed in the special class. Rape is intrinsically immoral, because it involves the involuntary participation of one of the parties. Since the basis of sexual encounter is contractual, it should be clear that any coercion or force renders the interaction immoral; contracts are not validly consummated if one of the parties is compelled to agree by force or fraud. 5. Which of the following is the main point of the passage? The immorality of rape Rape as a heinous crime The nature of a sexual encounter Contractual basis of the sexual act GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
8 7 Section 2. Analytical Reasoning DIRECTIONS: In this section, some sets of conditions or propositions are given. Each set is followed by questions based on the conditions or propositions. Drawing a diagram to visually establish linkages or relationships stated in the conditions may help in answering some of the questions. Select the best answer to each question from the choices given. For items 6 7, refer to the following situation: Below is the enrolment procedure followed by University XYZ: I. Aspiring students are expected to take the university entrance examination to qualify for a slot. II. The university has three colleges: College of Science, College of Arts, and College of Social Sciences. College of Science requires a mark of 700; the College of Arts requires 650; and the College of Social Sciences requires 600. III. After the student has passed the entrance examination, he or she is to obtain an enrolment form from the College of his or her choice, provided that he or she meets the qualifying mark. IV. The new student is to proceed to the Registrar s Desk for assessment of fees. V. Once the student secures the list of payables, he or she is to proceed to the University Cashier for payment. VI. The last step is to obtain the University I.D. by presenting the receipt to the Associate Dean for Student Affairs. 6. Which of the following may NOT be done prior to paying university fees? Inquire if slots are available in the desired College. Consult the Registrar for possible alterations in the enrolment form. Show the University I.D. to the guard to gain access to campus grounds. Prepare pertinent documents to gain eligibility to take the university entrance exam. 7. What most likely happens to a student who loses his or her receipt? The student will not be able to get a University I.D. The student will not be officially included in the enrolment list. The student s subjects will not be credited for succeeding enrolment. The student is not allowed to attend classes in the College of his choice.
9 8 For items 8 10, refer to the following situation: The parties in an arbitration of a tenancy dispute in a certain barangay are Pedro, the landlord, and the barangay chairman as arbiter. They are in the barangay hall and will be sitting at a round table which has ten equally spaced revolving chairs bolted to the floor. The atmosphere is rather tense Pedro and his family are being evicted from the apartment which their landlord wants torn down and replaced with a condominium. I. The chairman prefers to be seated as near as possible to the two contending parties, with the barangay secretary, who came late, to be seated at his right. II. Pedro, being slightly deaf, is accompanied by his wife. He would like to sit as near as possible to the chairman, with his wife seated next to him for easy consultation if he misses hearing something during the talk. III. The landlord, accompanied by his lawyer, prefers to sit as far away as possible from the chairman whom he hates for defeating him in the barangay election. IV. The lawyer, thinking that conciliation is better than legal confrontation in this case, prefers to sit right beside his client on the side closer to Pedro. 8. If the conditions in statements I to IV are carried out, and counting clockwise from where the chairman chooses to sit, the landlord is likely to occupy chair number Counting from where the chairman sits, which chairs should Pedro and the landlord occupy if they were to sit opposite each other and at exactly the same distance from the chairman and from each other? The third and eighth chairs The fourth and ninth chairs The third and ninth chairs The seating arrangement is not possible. 10. If the landlord sits directly opposite the chairman, which chair will his lawyer likely take? The first chair at the left of the landlord. The first chair at the right of the landlord. The second chair at the right of the landlord. The second chair at the left of the landlord. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
10 9 Test C. Verbal Reasoning DIRECTIONS: This section contains reading selections that are followed by a set of items. Answer the items according to what is stated or implied in the selection. Selection 1 When we talk today of the need for some symbol to fuse us into a great people, we seem to forget that all over the country, there lies this wealth of a "usable past" of symbols that have grown through and through the soil of the land and the marrow of its people. But the past can become "usable" only if we are willing to enter into its spirit and to carry there a reasonably hospitable mind. As long as we regard it with hatred, contempt, and indignation, it will remain hateful and closed to us. And as long as we remain estranged from it, we will remain a garish and uncouth and upstart people, without graces because without background. Towards our Spanish past, especially, it is time we become more friendly; bitterness but inhibits us. To accuse the Spanish, over and over again, of having brought us all sorts of things, mostly evil, among which we can usually remember nothing very valuable except, perhaps, religion and national unity, is equivalent to saying of a not very model mother that she has given her child nothing except life. For in the profoundest possible sense, Spain did give birth to us as a nation, as a historical people. The poetry of Housman, "Oh, why did I awake? When shall I sleep again?" expresses a resentment that underlies much of our present vengefulness towards the Spanish. It should also help to explain the sluggishness of which we have been accused, and which, along with the equally famous "fatalism" of ours, may be no more than our blood's memories of the communal tribe-house, where custom and taboo lay heavy upon life, predetermining all action, all speech even; within whose rigid circle everything being preordained, preestablished men moved as in a trance, without having to exercise their will, and therefore, without creating history. The dreaminess thick in our nature, our incapacity for decisive thought or action may, if analyzed, be found to derive from our failure so far to break loose completely from primeval carry-overs, from those submerged longings for the tight, fixed web of tribal obedience. The prime work of Christianity for us has been this awakening of the self, this release and expansion of the consciousness, a work undoubtedly still in progress, we being not yet fully awake nor perfectly conscious; immature Christians at best; Catholics but not catholic; enclosed within the Faith as within a sect; having still to realize that to open oneself to this "one of the great, conjoint, and so to term it necessary products of the
11 10 human mind... rich in the world's experience," is to let in "a great tide of that experience and to make, as it were, with a single step, a great experience of one's own, and with great consequent, increase to one's sense of color, variety, and relief, in the spectacle of men and things." Source: Nick Joaquin, La Naval de Manila 1. The selection suggests that our lives can have more meaning if we become more religious profess colonial influence accept our past with openness study our pre-spanish customs 2. The writer obviously thinks well of our pre-spanish culture our Spanish heritage the piety of the Filipino the Filipino character 3. Our defects as a people are mostly due to attitudes and superstitions from our pre-spanish past ideas taught us by the Spaniards our bitterness against Spain our refusal to face reality 4. To which did the author attribute the Spaniards poor opinion of the Filipinos in paragraph 4? Filipino genes Filipinos conformity to traditions Ancient Filipino history Subversive behavior of Filipinos 5. What is the tone of the selection? Nostalgic Sarcastic Informal Candid GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
12 Test D. Quantitative Reasoning The items in this subtest involve basic mathematical concepts and the four fundamental operations addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The items do not require difficult computations hence the use of a calculator is not needed. Some questions can be answered more quickly by reasoning and estimating. Section 1. Pattern Recognition DIRECTIONS: In this section, the stem consists of a series of numbers. In each series, discover the logical rule. Select from the five choices the number that should come next in the series (E) (E) (E) (E) (E) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
13 12 Section 2. Data Sufficiency DIRECTIONS: The data sufficiency problem consists of a question and two statements, labeled (1) and (2), in which certain data are given. Decide whether the data given in the statements are sufficient for answering the question. Using the data given in the statements, plus knowledge of mathematics and everyday facts (such as the number of days in July or the meaning of the word counterclockwise ), determine whether: Statement (I) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (II) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked. Statement (II) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (I) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked. BOTH statements (I) and (II) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question asked, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked. Statements (I) and (II) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked, and additional data specific to the problem are needed. 6. What is the area of a square garden of petunias? I. A side of the garden is 4 feet. II. The perimeter of the garden is 16 feet. (E) Statement (I) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (II) alone is not sufficient. Statement (II) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (I) alone is not sufficient. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. Statements (I) and (II) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. 7. Set B Set A I. B is the set of all whole numbers less than or equal to 10. II. A is the set of all whole numbers from 1 to 10 divisible by 2. (E) Statement (I) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (II) alone is not sufficient. Statement (II) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (I) alone is not sufficient. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. Statements (I) and (II) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
14 13 8. What is the price of one muffin? I. The total cost of ingredients amounted to 1,500. II. A dozen and a half muffins were sold at 1,800. (E) Statement (I) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (II) alone is not sufficient. Statement (II) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (I) alone is not sufficient. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. Statements (I) and (II) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient. 9. How much is Henry s income tax? I. His total annual earnings is 500,000. II. He earns a basic salary of 15,000 a month and gets a commission for each car he sells. (E) Statement (I) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (II) alone is not sufficient. Statement (II) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (I) alone is not sufficient. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. Statements (I) and (II) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient 10. How many females in an organization with 150 members are married? I. Fifty percent of the members are male. II. Fifty females are not married. (E) Statement (I) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (II) alone is not sufficient. Statement (II) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (I) alone is not sufficient. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient. Statements (I) and (II) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient
15 14 Section 3. Data Interpretation DIRECTIONS: In this test, some sets of data are given. Interpret or analyze the given data to answer the questions that refer to the data presented. Select the correct answer from the options given. The table below shows the participation of youth in the formal school system based on a survey. Age Range Level In School (Participating) Out of School (Nonparticipating) Total I. 0 6 Nursery/ 263,188 10,087,443 10,350,631 Kindergarten II Elementary 7,383, ,609 7,671,960 III Secondary 4,297, ,269 4,886,401 IV Postsecondary 1,588,719 7,252,343 8,841,062 Total 13,532,390 18,217,664 31,750, If the four age groups were arranged according to decreasing rate of participation in their respective school levels, the order would be I, II, III, IV II, III, IV, I I, IV, III, II II, IV, III, I 12. What proportion of the total youth population comprises those who are NOT attending school? 82.03% 57.38% 74.28% 42.62% 13. Based on the given data, which of the following conclusions can be made? The rate of participation in the formal school system is generally lower than the rate of nonparticipation. The major cause for nonparticipation in formal schooling at the postsecondary level is poverty. The rate of participation in each age group is lower than the rate of nonparticipation. There is a low rate of attendance in the 0 6 age group because most of these children are not yet of school age. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
16 15 BAT POPULATION IN AN ISLAND OFF PALAWAN FROM 1960 TO When was the decrease in bat population at its lowest? Approximately, what percent of the bat population in 1960 is the bat population in 1995? 17% 80% 20% 83% STOP! WAIT FOR FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS.
17 16 Philippine Law School Admission Test Practice Items Answer Key Test A. Test B. Test C. Test D 1. C 1. C 1. C 1. D 2. D 2. C 2. B 2. C 3. C 3. D 3. C 3. E 4. C 4. D 4. C 4. D 5. A 5. A 5. D 5. A 6. C 6. C 6. D 7. D 7. A 7. C 8. B 8. B 8. B 9. A 9. D 9. A 10. B 10. B 10. C 11. D 11. B 12. B 12. C 13. C 13. A 14. B 14. C 15. A 15. A