# Ch. 1 Review Questions:

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2 6. List and describe the two types of coordinate systems commonly used for planar geometry. The two types of coordinate systems commonly used for planar geometry are the Cartesian coordinate system and the Polar coordinate system. 7. Which key do you use to quickly cancel a command? The [Esc] key can be used to quickly cancel a command. 8. When you use the Pan command, does the coordinates of objects get changed? The Pan command enables us to move the screen view to a different position. This function acts as if you are using a video camera. But it does not change the coordinates of objects. 9. Find information on how to draw ellipses in AutoCAD through the InfoCenter and create the following arc. If it is desired to position the center of the ellipse to a specific location, which ellipse commands is more suitable? The Center Ellipse command can be used to position the center of the ellipse to a specific location. 10. Find information on how to draw arcs in AutoCAD through the InfoCenter and create the following arc. List and describe two methods to create arcs in AutoCAD. To create an arc, we can specify combinations of center, endpoint, start point, radius, angle, chord length, and direction values. 3 points arc: Draws an arc using three specified points on the arc's circumference. The first point is the start point. The third point is the endpoint. The second point is a point on the circumference of the arc. Center, Start, End arc: Draws an arc using three specified points; the first point is the Center point, the second point is the start point and the third point is the endpoint.

3 Ch. 2 Review Questions: 1. Describe the procedure to activate the AutoCAD Startup option. The startup dialog box can be activated through the use of the STARTUP system variable. The STARTUP system variable can be set to either 0 or 1: 1: displays the Create New Drawing dialog box. 0: displays the Select Template dialog box (default). 2. List and describe three options in the AutoCAD Object Snap toolbar. The Snap to Endpoint option allows us to snap to the endpoint of an existing line or arc. The Snap to Tangent option allows us to snap to the point on a circle or arc that, when connected to the last point, forms a line tangent to that object. The Snap to Center option allows us to snap to the center point of an existing circle or arc. 3. Which AutoCAD command can we use to remove a portion of an existing entity? The AutoCAD Trim command allows us to remove a portion of an existing entity. 4. Describe the difference between the circumscribed and inscribed options when using the AutoCAD Polygon command. Inscribed in Circle: Specifies the radius of a circle on which all vertices of the polygon lie. Circumscribed about Circle: Specifies the distance from the center of the polygon to the midpoints of the edges of the polygon. 5. Create the following triangle and fill in the blanks: Length = _5.315_, Angle = _41º. (Dimensions are in inches.)

4 6. Create the following drawing; line AB is tangent to both circles. Fill in the blanks: Length = _3.873_, Angle = 14º_. (Dimensions are in inches.)

5 Ch. 3 Review Questions: 1. Describe when and why you would use the AutoCAD ORTHO option. The ORTHO option constrains cursor movement to the horizontal or vertical directions, relative to the current coordinate system. 2. What is the difference between a line and a polyline in AutoCAD? The AutoCAD polyline is a 2D line of adjustable width composed of line and arc segments. A polyline is treated as a single object with definable options. 3. Which AutoCAD command can we use to break a compound object, such as a polyline, into its component objects? The AutoCAD Explode command breaks a compound object, such as a polyline, into its component objects. 4. Which AutoCAD command can we use to quickly calculate the area and perimeter of a closed region defined by a polyline? The Area Inquiry Tool can be used to quickly calculate the area and perimeter of a closed region defined by a polyline. 5. Describe the procedure to calculate the area and perimeter of a closed region defined by a polyline? In the Ribbon tabs area, left-mouse-click once on the Tools tab as shown. In the Inquiry toolbar, click on the Area icon to activate the Calculates the area and perimeter of selected objects command. Activate the Object option by right-mouse-click once inside the graphics window and select the option Select the polyline to calculate the associated area and perimeter information. 6. What does the Offset command allow us to do? The Offset command creates a new object at a specified distance from an existing object or through a specified point.

6 7. Create the following triangle and measure the area and perimeter of the triangle. Area = , Perimeter = Create the following triangle and measure the area and perimeter of the triangle. Also find the angle Θ. Area = , Perimeter = Angle Θ= 58.6º

7 Ch. 4 Review Questions: 1. List some of the advantages of using layers. Using layers, we can choose to display or hide sub-systems for clarity; we can also change object properties, such as colors and linetypes, quickly and easily. 2. List two methods to control the layer visibility in AutoCAD The layer visibility can be controlled through the Layer Properties Manager dialog box or the Layer control box available in the ribbon toolbar. 3. Describe the procedure to move objects from one layer to another. Pre-select the objects to move. Select the target layer name in the Layer Control box. 4. When and why should you use the Multiline command? The Multiline command in AutoCAD 2015 is used to create multiple parallel lines. This command is very useful for creating designs that contain multiple parallel lines, such as walls for architectural designs and for highway designs in civil engineering. The Multiline command creates a set of parallel lines (up to 16 lines) and all line segments are grouped together to form a single multiline object, which can be modified using Multiline Edit and Explode commands. 5. Is there a limitation to how many layers we can set up in AutoCAD? AutoCAD can work with virtually unlimited number of layers; we can have tens of thousands layers in a single drawing. 6. List and describe the two options available in AutoCAD to create ellipses. The shape of an ellipse is determined by two axes that define its length and width. The longer axis is called the major axis, and the shorter one is the minor axis. The Center Ellipse command: Creates an ellipse using a center point, the endpoint of the first axis, and the length of the second axis. The Axis, Endpoint Ellipse command: Defines the first axis by its two endpoints. The angle of the first axis determines the angle of the ellipse. The first axis can define either the major or the minor axis of the ellipse. 7. Is there a limitation to how many parallel lines we can set up when using AutoCAD Multiline objects? The Multiline command creates a set of parallel lines, up to 16 lines. 8. What is the name of the layer that AutoCAD creates as the default layer (the layer that we cannot rename or delete)? AutoCAD creates a default layer, layer 0, which cannot be renamed or deleted. Layer 0 has several special properties which are used by the system.

8 9. An object can have a lot of properties and sometimes you want one object to have the same properties as another object. AutoCAD provides 3 tools that you can use to get the job done quickly. The Match Properties command has been around a long time and lets you easily copy properties from one object to another. If you want to match a layer and nothing else, you can use the Match Layer Properties command. The 3 rd option is to use the Add Selected command, which creates a new object with the same properties as an existing one. 10. A chamfer connects two objects with an angled line. A chamfer is usually used to represent a beveled edge on a corner. Construct the following corners by using the Chamfer command. 11. List the commands you would use to create the following multilines in a drawing. Closed Cross Open Tee Open Cross

9 Ch. 5 Review Questions: 1. Explain what an orthographic view is and why it is important to engineering graphics. Multiview drawings usually require several orthographic views to define the shape of a three-dimensional object. Each orthographic view is a two-dimensional drawing showing only two of the three dimensions of the three-dimensional object. Consequently, no individual view contains sufficient information to completely define the shape of the three-dimensional object. All orthographic views must be looked at together to comprehend the shape of the three-dimensional object. 2. What does the Running Object Snaps option allow us to do? The Running Object Snaps option sets object snaps active until we turn them off. The Running Object Snaps option allows us to actively control the placing of the cursor to points on existing objects such as endpoints, midpoints, centers, and intersections. 3. Explain how a miter line can assist us in creating orthographic views. The 45 miter line is a simple and straightforward procedure to transfer measurements in between the top view and the side view. 4. Describe the AutoCAD AutoSnap and AutoTrack options. AutoCAD s AutoSnap and AutoTrack provide visual aids when the Object Snap options are switched on. The main advantages of AutoSnap and AutoTrack are as follows: Symbols: Automatically displays the Object Snap type at the object snap location. Tooltips: Automatically displays the Object Snap type below the cursor. Magnet: Locks the cursor onto a snap point when the cursor is near the point. With Object Snap Tracking, the cursor can track along alignment paths based on other object snap points when specifying points in a command. To use Object Snap Tracking, one or more object snaps must be switched on. The basic rules of using the Object Snap Tracking option are as follows: To track from a Running Object Snap point, pause over the point while in a command. A tracking vector appears when we move the cursor. To stop tracking, pause over the point again. When multiple Running Object Snaps are on, press the [TAB] key to cycle through available snap points when the object snap aperture box is on an object. 5. List and describe two AutoCAD commands that can be used to get geometric information about constructed objects. AutoCAD provides several tools that will allow us to get information about constructed geometric objects. The List command can be used to show detailed information about geometric objects.

10 AutoCAD also provides tools that allow us to display and change properties of constructed geometric objects. The Properties command not only provides the detailed information about geometric objects, modifications can also be done very quickly. 6. List and describe two options you could use to quickly create a 2-inch line attached to a 2-inch circle, as shown in the below figure. Method 1: a. Setup the Grid and Snap increments to 1-inch intervals. b. Create the 2-inch circle with the circle command. c. Create a line by placing the first endpoint directly below the center point and use the relative coordinate input method to crate the 2-inch line. Method 2: a. Create the 2-inch circle with the circle command. b. Display the Object Snap Toolbar. c. Activate the Line command. d. Use the Snap to Quadrant option. e. Create a line by placing the first endpoint at the lower Quadrant point of the circle. f. Use the relative coordinate input method to crate the 2-inch line. 7. What are the length and angle of the inclined line, highlighted in the figure below, in the top view of the Locator design? Length = _1.7678_ Angle = 8º_.

11 Ch. 6 Review Questions: (Time: 25 minutes) 1. Why are dimensions and notes important to a technical drawing? In order to manufacture a finalized design, the complete shape and size description must be shown on the drawings of the design. The tools of size description are known as dimensions and notes. 2. List and describe some of the general-dimensioning practices. a. Always dimension features, not individual geometric entity. Consider the dimensions related to the sizes and locations of each feature. This is also known as the Contour Rule. b. Place the dimensions next to the features being described; this is also known as the Proximity Rule. c. Dimensions should be placed outside the view if possible; only place dimensions on the inside if they add clarity, simplicity, and ease of reading. d. Dimensions common to two views are generally placed in between the views. e. Dimensions should be applied to one view only. When dimensions are placed between views, the extension lines should be drawn from one view, not from both views. f. Dimensions should be placed only on the view that shows the measurement in its true length. g. Center lines may also be used as extension lines; therefore there should be no gap in between an extension line and a center line. h. Center lines are also used to indicate the symmetry of shapes, and frequently eliminate the need for a positioning dimension. They should extend about 6 mm (0.25 in.) beyond the shape for which they indicate symmetry unless they are carried further to serve as extension lines. Center lines should not be continued between views. 3. Describe the procedure in setting up a new Dimension Style. a. In the Dimension toolbar, pick Dimension Style. The Dimension Style Manager dialog box appears on the screen. b. Click on the New button to create a new dimension style. c. In the Create New Dimension Style dialog box, enter the new dimension style name. d. Click on the Continue button to proceed. e. Adjust the different dimension settings. f. Click on the OK button to accept the settings and close the dialog box. g. Pick the Set Current button to make the new dimension style as the current dimension style.

12 4. What is the special way to create a diameter symbol when entering a dimension text? We can type in special characters during any text command and when entering the dimension text. The text code to create a diameter symbol is %%C. 5. What is the text code to create the Diameter symbol ( ) in AutoCAD? The text code to create a diameter symbol is %%C. 6. Which command can be used to delete layers with hidden blocks? Can we delete Layer 0? To delete layers with hidden blocks, first use the Purge command [File Drawing Utilities Purge Block] to remove the invisible blocks. (We will have to remove all visible objects prior to using this command.) The empty layer can now be deleted or purged. AutoCAD creates a default layer, layer 0, which cannot be renamed or deleted. Layer 0 has several special properties which are used by the system. 7. Which quick-key is used to display and hide the AutoCAD Text Window? Function key [F2] is the quick-key is used to display and hide the AutoCAD Text Window. 8. What are the length and angle of the inclined line, highlighted in the figure below, in the front view of the LBracket design. Length = _1.4434_ Angle = _120º 9. Construct the following drawing and measure the angle α. Angle = 42.2º

14 7. What does the ORTHO option allow us to do? The ORTHO option constrains cursor movement to the horizontal or vertical directions, relative to the current coordinate system. 8. Which AutoCAD command allows us to view and change properties of constructed geometric objects? AutoCAD provides tools that allow us to display and change properties of constructed geometric objects. The Properties command not only provides the detailed information about geometric objects, modifications can also be done very quickly. 9. What is the difference between an AutoCAD drawing file (.dwg) and an AutoCAD template file (.dwt)? The only difference between an AutoCAD template file and a regular AutoCAD drawing file is the filename extension, (.dwt) versus (.dwg). We can convert any AutoCAD drawing into an AutoCAD template file by simply changing the filename extension to.dwt. It is recommended that you keep a second copy of any template files on a separate floppy disk as a backup. 10. What does the Divide command allow us to do? The Divide command allows us to divide a selected object into a specified number of equal lengths. We can create points or insert blocks on an object at a specific number of equal intervals. This operation does not actually break an object into individual objects; it only identifies the location of the divisions so that you can use them as geometric reference points. 11. Similar to the Trim command, the Break command can also be used to remove a portion of an object. Create 3 arbitrary lines as shown and remove the middle portion of the line, defined by the two intersecting lines, using the Break command.

15 Ch. 8 Review Questions: 1. The main characteristic of parametric modeling involves the use of Constraints. What are the two types of constraints used in AutoCAD? There are two general types of constraints: Geometric constraints and Dimensional constraints. Geometric constraints are used to control the geometric relationships of objects with respect to each other; for example, a line is tangent to an arc, a line is horizontal and two lines that are collinear. Dimensional constraints are used to control the size and location of geometric entities; for example, the distance between two parallel lines, the length of a line, the angle of two lines, and radius values of arcs. 2. What is the main difference between the traditional geometric method versus the use of parametric drawing tools? The introduction of the parametric technology revolutionized the CAD industry by allowing the users to use the CAD software as true design tools. The parametric modeling approach has elevated the traditional CAD technology to the level of a very powerful design tool. Parametric modeling technique can be used to automate the design and revision procedures; and this is done through the use of parametric features. Parametric features control the model geometry by the use of design variables. 3. List and describe three Geometric Constraints commands you have used in the tutorial. Concentric constraint: Constrains two arcs, circles, or ellipses to the same center point. Horizontal constraint: Causes lines, ellipse axes, or pairs of points to lie parallel to the X-axis of the sketch coordinate system. Tangent constraint: Constrains two curves to be tangent to one another. 4. What does the Dimensional constraints commands allow us to do? Dimensional constraints are used to control the size and location of geometric entities; for example, the distance between two parallel lines, the length of a line, the angle of two lines, and radius values of arcs. Unlike the traditional dimensioning tools, the Dimensional constraints can be used to control the associated geometry. 5. Will the geometric constraints symbols be printed when we print the drawing? No, geometric constraints symbols are not printed as part of the drawing, the geometric constraints symbols are used to identify the geometry properties existed among the entities. 6. How do we turn off the display of the applied constraints? The Show Dynamic Constraints option is used as a toggle switch. When the the Show Dynamic Constraints option is activated, all applied constraints are shown on the screen

16 7. Besides using colinear constraint to align two lines, what other options can we align two lines? We can also use the parallel constraint with a linear dimension between the two lines. 8. When will AutoCAD automatically remove some of the applied constraints? Constraints are associated with the geometry, when a geometry is removed, the associate constraints are also removed. 9. Besides applying geometry constraints individually, what other option is available to constrain precisely constructed geometry in AutoCAD? The Auto Constrain command can also be used to quickly constrain precisely constructed geometry in AutoCAD. 10. Can the applied constraints be manually removed? How is this done? Yes, applied constraints can be manually removed just like any other entities. Simply click on the displayed symbol and hit the [Delete] key. 11. When a design is created or changed, a drawing will be in one of three states. What are the three states? What are the differences between the three states? When a design is created or changed, a drawing will be in one of three states: Unconstrained: No constraints are applied to the constructed geometry. Under constrained: Some constraints, but not all, are applied to the constructed geometry. Fully constrained: The necessary definitions of the design have been properly applied to the constructed geometry, which means all relevant geometric and dimensional constraints are present.

17 Ch. 9 Review Questions: 1. What is an auxiliary view and why would it be important? Many designs have features located on inclined surfaces that are not parallel to the regular planes of projection. To truly describe the feature, the true shape of the feature must be shown using an auxiliary view. An auxiliary view has a line of sight that is perpendicular to the inclined surface, as viewed looking directly at the inclined surface. An auxiliary view is a supplementary view that can be constructed from any of the regular views. 2. When is a line viewed as a point? How can a line be shown in true length? A line will show as a point view when projected onto a plane perpendicular to the line. To show a point view, choose the direction of sight parallel to the line where it is shown as true length. A line will show true length in a plane of projection which is parallel to the line. 3. What is a GRIP? What are the advantages of using the GRIPS? In AutoCAD 2015, a GRIP is a small square displayed on a pre-selected object. Grips are key control locations such as the endpoints and midpoints of lines and arcs. Different types of objects display different numbers of grips. Using grips, we can stretch, move, mirror, scale, rotate, and copy objects without entering commands or clicking toolbars. Grips reduce the keystrokes and object selection required in performing common editing commands. To edit with grips, we select the objects before issuing any commands. To remove a specific object from a selection set that displays grips, we hold down the [SHIFT] key as we select the object. To exit the grips mode and return to the command prompt, press the [ESC] key. 4. List three GRIPS editing commands you have used in the tutorial. In the tutorial, the following GRIPS editing commands were used: move, rotate, and copy. 5. What does the Polar Tracking option allow us to do? Polar tracking is a great way to aide the creation of lines, because once the right angle is set, all we need to do is to enter the length. Polar tracking causes the cursor to align to certain angles when we draw and edit objects. By default, the preferred angles are multiples of 90 degrees, but we can specify other angle increments, such as 45 or 30 degrees. Clicking the POLAR button toggles polar tracking on or off. Ortho and polar tracking are mutually exclusive turning on one mode disables the other.

18 6. Find the area A defined by the two arcs, as described in the figure below. Area = , Perimeter = Find the area A defined by the three arcs, as described in the figure below. Area = , Perimeter =

19 Ch. 10 Review Questions: 1. When and why is a section view necessary? By carefully selecting a limited number of views, the external features of most complicated designs can be fully described. However, we are frequently confronted with the necessity of showing the interiors of parts that cannot be shown clearly by means of hidden lines. We accomplish this by passing an imaginary cutting plane through the part and creating a cutaway view of the part. This type of view is known as a section view. 2. Describe the general procedure to create a section view in AutoCAD First determine the views that are necessary for the design. Identify the particulars type of section views that are suitable to display the interior features. Construct the necessary views as regular views, and then convert the particular views to section views using the Hatch and layers commands. 3. In AutoCAD 2015, can the angle and spacing of hatch patterns be altered? Yes, the angle and spacing controls of hatch patterns can be altered. The angle and spacing controls are listed under the Hatch dialog box. 4. Explain the concept of using a cutting plane line in a section view? Most section views require a cutting plane line to indicate the location on which the object is cut. 5. Can we mirror text in AutoCAD 2015? (Use the AutoCAD InfoCenter to find the answer to this question.) Yes, text can be reversed by setting the MIRRTEXT system variable to Using the Trim command, what would happen if we do not specify a boundary and just press [ENTER] at the Select Objects prompt? If we do not specify a boundary and press ENTER at the Select Objects prompt, all displayed objects become potential boundaries. 7. Which command do we use to define the region of the grid display in the current AutoCAD screen? The AutoCAD LIMITS command is used to set and control the limits of the grid display in the current Model or layout tab.

20 8. Construct the drawing shown and measure the area A. (Units: mm.) Area = , Perimeter = Construct the drawing shown and measure the length L. Show the length with two digits after the decimal point. (Units: inches.) L=3.38

21 Ch. 11 Review Questions: 1. What is an assembly drawing? What are the basic differences between an assembly drawing and a detail drawing? The term assembly drawing refers to the type of drawing in which the various parts of a design are shown in their relative positions in the finished product. Assembly drawings are used to represent the function of each part and the proper working relationships of the mating parts. Sectioning is used more extensively on assembly drawings than on detail drawings to show the relationship of various parts. Assembly drawings should not be overly detailed since precise information is provided on the detail drawings. In most cases dimensions are omitted on assembly drawings except for assembly dimensions such as important center distances, overall dimensions, and dimensions showing relationships between the parts. For the purpose of clarity, subassembly drawings are often made to give the information needed for the smaller units of a larger assembly. 2. What is a block? List some the advantages of using blocks in AutoCAD. In AutoCAD 2015, a block is a collection of objects that is identified by a unique name and essentially behaves as if it is a single object. Using blocks can help us organize our design by associating the related objects into smaller units. We can insert, scale, and rotate multiple objects that belong to the same block with a single selection. We can insert the same block numerous times instead of re-creating the individual geometric objects each time. We can also import a block from a CAD file outside the current drawing. We can use blocks to build a standard library of frequently used symbols, components, or standard parts; the blocks can then be inserted into other drawings. Using blocks also helps us save disk space by storing all references to the same block as one block definition in the database. We can explode a block to separate its component objects, modify them, and redefine the block. AutoCAD 2015 updates all instances of that block based on the block definition. Blocks can also be nested, so that one block is a part of another block. Using blocks greatly reduces repetitious work. 3. What are the differences between Copying and pasting with the Windows Clipboard and Copying with GRIPS? The main advantage of the Windows Clipboard option is that it allows us to copy and paste selected items from one drawing to another. The Copying with GRIPS option requires the selection of a reference location and the pasting is within the same drawing. 4. Which command allows us to separate a block into its component objects? The explode command can be used to separate a block into its component objects. 5. Describe the differences between PASTE and PASTE AS A BLOCK. The PASTE AS A BLOCK option will automatically create a BLOCK object, using a random name, when the selected objects are pasted.

22 6. Which command do we use to set the style of leaders? The Multileader Style command can be used to set the style of leaders. 7. Which command did we use to set up the style of Parts_List for the Shaft Support assembly? The Table Style command was used to set the style of Parts_List for the Shaft Support assembly. 8. Which multileader type did we use to set up the balloon callouts for the Shaft Support assembly? The Block multileader type was used to set up the balloon callouts for the Shaft Support assembly 9. Construct the drawing shown and measure the length L. Show the length with three digits after the decimal point. (Units: inches.) L=2.736

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