Heavy Vehicle V2V Safety Communications Research

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1 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Heavy Vehicle V2V Safety Communications Research Robert Kreeb National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Washington, D.C. ITLC Philadelphia October 20, 2015

2 Agenda NHTSA Organization The Safety Challenge Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Communications Overview V2V research on heavy vehicles. 2

3 NHTSA Organization Administrator Deputy Administrator Chief Counsel Civil Rights Executive Director Governmental Affairs Policy & Operations Communications and Consumer Information Chief Information Officer Planning, Administrative and Financial Management Traffic Injury Control Research and Program Development Regional Operations And Program Delivery Rulemaking Enforcement Vehicle Safety Research National Center For Statistics And Analysis 3

4 The Connected Vehicle Program Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) wireless communications for: Crash prevention Improved mobility Environmental sustainability Focus of today s discussion is on V2V and crash prevention 4

5 Connected Vehicle Program Partners and Contractors 5

6 Motor Vehicle Safety Challenge 32,719 highway deaths in million crashes in 2013 Leading cause of death for ages 4, Vehicle-to-vehicle communications technology can address a large majority of these crashes. Key types of crashes address by V2V include: Rear-end and head-on collisions Lane change related (blind spot warning) Intersection related Turning across path (left hand turns) 6

7 Connected Vehicle Technology What is it? Dedicated Short Range Communications (Wi-Fi adapted for moving vehicles) FCC 5.9 GHz spectrum allocation How does the technology work? Basic Safety Message (BSM) transmitted at 10 times/sec by each equipped vehicle.and include position, speed, and heading. Vehicles listen for other vehicles BSMs and continuously analyze possible crash threats. Warnings are issued as needed What are the challenges of the technology? Both vehicles need to be equipped for benefits to be realized Requires security infrastructure 7

8 Benefits of V2V communications... Uses a single sensor (radio) to detect threats from all directions Compared to non-cooperative detection systems (e.g., radar, camera), V2V offers more comprehensive situational awareness 8

9 Benefits of V2V communications...continued DSRC signals go beyond line of sight systems to allow earlier warnings in challenging crash situations. BSM messages provide better information about driver intent (by transmitting path histories, turn signal, and brake and throttle status) which enhance path predictions and thus target warnings more precisely. V2V technology can also be leveraged to: Enhance the performance of radar/camera based crash avoidance systems enhance automated vehicle operations; and, provide a technology platform for a variety of high value mobility and environmental applications.... 9

10 Challenge-Need for Security Messaging requirements Trusted source / authentication Message not tampered or altered Privacy protection Defense Against Attacks Sensor spoofing Message replay Position, time or other message alterations 10

11 Safety Pilot - Ann Arbor, MI Purpose Field Test data collection to support NHTSA decisions Assets More than 2,800 vehicles Cars, commercial trucks, transit 73 miles of roadway instrumented with 29 roadsideequipment installations 11

12 What has DOT and its partners accomplished thus far? Safety Benefits Developed and Demonstrated key safety applications Robustness Completed Model Deployment to demonstrate operations at (early) real world deployment levels thus helping verify safety benefits and customer acceptance Interoperability Demonstrated compatibility of radio systems and from multiple vendors and OEMs Developed and demonstrated devices that can bring the technology to the existing vehicle fleet (VADs, ASDs, RSDs) Practicality Demonstrated feasibility for utilizing automotive grade GPS receivers and other components (economic viability) Adapted the technology for multiple vehicle platforms (cars, trucks, buses) 12

13 NHTSA Agency Decision on Light Vehicle V2V Press Release on February, 2014 U.S. Department of Transportation Announces Decision to Move Forward with Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Technology for Light Vehicles "Vehicle-to-vehicle technology represents the next generation of auto safety improvements " U.S. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx. August, 2014 : NHTSA releases ANPRM and Readiness Report on V2V technology May, 2015: Secretary Fox announces goal of accelerating the regulation with delivery of an NPRM to Office of Management & Budget by the end of this calendar year 13

14 Remaining Issues Spectrum Availability? FCC NPRM in 2013 seeking comment on sharing the DSRC band Wi-Fi industry proposals for detect and vacate and spectrum reallocation methods DOT working with FCC and NTIA to carefully examine impacts on vehicular use of the spectrum Security system: who will operate? Regulations for other modes (trucks, motorcycles) Can technology be extended to pedestrians? 14

15 15 HV focused V2V Research

16 Research Areas Leveraged from Light Vehicle V2V Interoperability Communications standards ensuring compatibility between devices Security Solution Privacy Solution Safety applications Adapted light vehicle safety applications developed by CAMP for heavy vehicle Benefits Methodology Cost Data Vehicle equipment and infrastructure SCMS 16 16

17 Heavy Vehicle V2V Research Completed Adapted technology to heavy vehicle platform (tractor-trailers) Developed and tested Safety Applications (similar to light duty intersection, rear-end, and lane-change crash scenarios) Demonstrated V2V on heavy vehicles in controlled and naturalistic environments: Driver Clinics Safety Pilot Estimated target populations, application effectiveness, and preliminary safety benefits for several applications Evaluated unique heavy vehicle issue: Tractor trailer basic safety message for articulated vehicles 17

18 Articulated Vehicles Require More Complex BSM On a straight path, a single, simple BSM adequately describes the vehicle. On a highway curve, at an intersection, and many other turning movements, the trailer and tractor footprint are not aligned. Modifications to BSM required to more accurately represent trailer position False Positive Example False positives and/or fall negatives can result 18

19 False Negative Example Actual position Communicated position with single body BSM 19

20 An articulated vehicle BSM solution has been developed Assumption: tractor knows the configuration of the trailer(s) (number, length; approximate axel locations) Position and movement of trailer is calculated and updated in real-time based on steering wheel angle, yaw rate, and speed. The BSM is modified to include position, size, heading, and speeds of each body in the consist (tractor and trailers). Demonstrated a successful solution in mid 2014 on tractortrailer Recommendations for new BSM for SAE J2735 and J

21 Heavy Vehicle V2V Current Research Articulated-Vehicle BSM - Requires information about the trailer Evaluate candidate methods for obtaining information. Determine additional costs. Finalize Safety Benefits. Evaluate V2V application on Single Unit Trucks and Buses Evaluation Retrofit System Potential 21

22 Next Steps for Heavy Vehicle V2V Program Heavy vehicle V2V research synthesis report Expected Late 2015 Continue research on key remaining issues Receive feedback from light vehicle NPRM (on overall V2V) and modify approach as required Additional heavy vehicle industry outreach planned Industry conferences Meetings with individual suppliers, OEMs, fleets, & associations Possible workshops Now is time to engage with NHTSA on this issue! 22

23 Contact Information: Robert Kreeb National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 23

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