Dinosaurs and Fossils

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1 Dinosaurs and Fossils T ABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT DELTA SCIENCE MODULES Program Introduction iii Teacher s Guide iv Delta Science Readers vi Equipment and Materials Kit vii Scope and Sequence viii Assessment Features ix Process Skills x Communicating About Science xi Integrating the Curriculum xii Meeting the Standards xiii What We Believe xiv DINOSAURS AND FOSSILS OVERVIEW About Dinosaurs and Fossils Overview Charts Hands-on Activities Delta Science Reader Science Background Materials List HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES Activity Summary Schedule Preparing for the Activities Classroom Management Advance Preparation Materials Management Activities 1. Dinosaurs in Time Making Fossils Bone Detectives How Big Is Big? Shoe Prints Stride and Height Dinosaur Strides How Dinosaurs Lived Classification Classifying Dinosaurs On Your Toes What s in a Name? Assessment Activities Glossary DELTA SCIENCE READER Overview Before Reading Guide the Reading After Reading TEACHER RESOURCES Unit Test: Teacher Information References and Resources Science Safety Standards Correlations COPYMASTERS Student Activity Sheets Assessment Activity Sheets Assessment Summary Chart School-Home Connection Unit Test i

2 About Dinosaurs and Fossils DeltaScienceModules, THIRD EDITION Students explore prehistoric life by simulating the way real scientists learn about dinosaurs by examining their fossils and their footprints. After spanning the millennia with a geological time line, students create, bury, and unearth imitation fossils, the backbone of dinosaur research. They try to reconstruct dinosaur skeleton models and speculate about the animals appearance and behavior, based on their bones. They investigate dinosaur footprints and make inferences about size, speed, and stride. Using dinosaur models, students become familiar with various dinosaurs physical features. They develop a classification system and learn the meanings of dinosaur names. In the Delta Science Reader Dinosaurs and Fossils, students discover what dinosaurs were, when they lived, what they were like, and how they may have become extinct. They read about fossils. They find out how different kinds of fossils form and what scientists can learn from fossils. Students learn the two main classifications of dinosaurs and meet examples of each type in a field guide. They also read about paleontologists scientists who study the history of life on Earth and the work they do. Finally, students learn about Sue, the largest and most complete Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton ever found. Dinosaurs and Fossils 1

3 Overview Chart for Hands-on Activities 1 Hands-on Activity Dinosaurs in Time page 13 2 Making Fossils page 21 3 Bone Detectives page 29 4 How Big Is Big? page Shoe Prints page 41 Stride and Height page 47 Dinosaur Strides page 55 8 How Dinosaurs Lived page 61 Classification page Classifying Dinosaurs page 75 On Your Toes page What s in a Name? page 91 Assessment page 97 Student Objectives construct a time line of life on Earth compare the amount of time dinosaurs existed with the time that other animal species, including humans, have existed define fossil make imitation fossil rocks excavate and identify fossils their classmates have made construct model dinosaur skeletons predict the appearance of the animals represented by the skeletons examine dinosaur models to compare their conclusions with those of scientists investigate the concept of scale make predictions about the actual sizes of dinosaurs compare the relative sizes of several dinosaurs observe and compare the unique characteristics of shoe prints examine mystery shoe prints make inferences about the creators of mystery shoe prints measure the stride length of classmates graph the relationship between stride length and height measure the stride length and height of the dinosaur models graph the relationship between stride length and height make inferences about a mystery dinosaur s height, based on its stride observe physical characteristics of dinosaurs interpret evidence to make inferences about dinosaur habitat and behavior compare their inferences with printed materials observe the physical characteristics of familiar objects classify familiar objects according to their characteristics organize and record data using a classification system they have devised study and record the characteristics of dinosaurs organize their data into a binary classification system interpret data in the classification system to learn more about what defines a dinosaur classify dinosaurs according to their feet make molds of dinosaur feet infer the identity of dinosaurs from their footprints learn the meanings of many dinosaur names design imaginary dinosaurs and use Greek and Latin terms to name them translate the names of other students imaginary dinosaurs See page delta science modules

4 Dinosaurs and Fossils Process Skills collect, record, display, or interpret data; compare; use numbers Vocabulary extinct, invertebrate, time line, trilobite Delta Science Reader pages 2 3, 12 define based on observations; make and use models; collect, record, display, or interpret data make and use models, predict, compare, infer fossil skeleton pages 4 5, 13, pages 4 5, observe, predict, compare, make and use models, measure scale observe, compare, infer imprint pages 4 5 measure; use numbers; collect, record, display, or interpret data measure; use numbers; collect, record, display, or interpret data; infer observe, infer, compare graph, stride, x-axis, y-axis adaptation, inference pages 6 7 observe; classify; collect, record, display, or interpret data binary, binary classification, classification define based on observations, classify, infer Age of Reptiles, dinosaur, reptile, sprawl pages 2 3 classify; collect, record, display, or interpret data; observe; infer trackway, 13 communicate scientific name, 13 See the following page for the Delta Science Reader Overview Chart. Dinosaurs and Fossils 3

5 Overview Chart for Delta Science Reader Dinosaurs and Fossils Selections Think About... What Is a Dinosaur? page 2 What Is a Fossil? page 4 What Were Dinosaurs Like? page 6 Saurischia page 8 Tyrannosaurus rex page 8 Oviraptor page 8 Brachiosaurus page 9 Argentinosaurus page 9 Ornithischia page 10 Triceratops page 10 Stegosaurus page 10 Ankylosaurus page 11 Parasaurolophus page 11 Why Did Dinosaurs Become Extinct? page 12 Vocabulary bird, classify, cold-blooded, dinosaur, extinct, invertebrate, reptile, vertebrate, warm-blooded body fossil, cast, fossil, fossil record, mineral, mold, petrified, sediments, sedimentary rock, trace fossil adaptation, carnivore, herbivore, life cycle, omnivore, predator, prey, scavenger Related Activity Activities 1, 10 Activities 2, 3, 5 Activity 8 Activities 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12 Activities 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12 Activity 1 People in Science Paleontologists page 13 paleontologist Activities 2, 12 Did You Know? About Sue page 14 Activities 2, 3 See pages s for teaching suggestions for the Delta Science Reader. 4 delta science modules

6 MATERIALS LIST Dinosaurs and Fossils Quantity Description Quantity Description bags, plastic, reclosable, 15 cm 15 cm chart, Class Stride vs. Height Data* chart, Dinosaur Stride vs. Height Data* charts, Classification* clay, modeling, 0.25 lb cups, paper dinosaur models graph, Class Stride vs. Height* graph, Dinosaur Stride vs. Height* index cards, p/100* paper plates* paper, shelf* petroleum jelly, 1 oz* plaster of paris, 5 lb* plesiosaur model posters, dinosaur Pteranodon model sand, 2 lb* skeleton models, Brachiosaurus skeleton models, Stegosaurus skeleton models, Triceratops skeleton models, Tyrannosaurus tape, masking* Time Line Sheet A Time Line Sheet B Time Line Sheet C Time Line Sheet D toothbrushes toothpicks, box* transparency, Centrosaurus transparency, Crocodile transparency, Dinosaur Tracks transparency, Heterodontosaurus transparency, Tyrannosaurus waxed paper* Teacher s Guide Delta Science Readers TEACHER-PROVIDED ITEMS calculator containers, mixing items to fossilize* knives, blunt markers, colored meter sticks newspaper* overhead projector on wheeled cart paintbrushes paint, tempera (optional)* paper, white* pencils reference books rolling pin(s) rulers, metric scissors shoe spoon, mixing water, tap* * = consumable item = in separate box To order consumable items or refill kits, please call Dinosaurs and Fossils 7

7 ACTIVITY SUMMARY In this Delta Science Module, students are introduced to animals that lived on Earth long ago and the fossil evidence they left behind. Fossil dinosaur remains have been found on every continent on Earth. These strange and often oversized animals hold great fascination for the young and old alike. ACTIVITY 1 Students explore geological time through the construction of a time line for life on Earth. As students create this time line over 15 days, they note the appearance of the first signs of life 3.1 billion years ago, and they record the appearance and extinction of many varieties of animals throughout the Earth s history. They realize that the dinosaurs were not the first animals to live on Earth or even the first to become extinct. ACTIVITY 2 Students create imitation fossil rocks by placing bones and shells in plaster of paris. Once these dry, the students exchange fossil rocks with their classmates. They then dig out the unknown fossil and try to determine its identity by examining existing records, thus simulating the experience of real scientists. ACTIVITY 3 Students attempt to assemble model dinosaur skeletons and discover the difficulties of assembling the bones properly without directions. They then make predictions about the appearance of the actual animals based on their skeletons. ACTIVITY 4 Students learn about the concept of scale and discover the actual size of three dinosaurs through life-size projections. Students learn that while some dinosaurs were huge, others were smaller, some even smaller than humans. ACTIVITY 5 Students study their own footprints and realize that it is sometimes possible to identify an animal simply from its footprint. ACTIVITY 6 Students learn about the relationship of stride to height by measuring and graphing their own strides and heights. ACTIVITY 7 Students measure the strides and heights of the dinosaur models and make inferences about the height of a mystery dinosaur using only its stride measurements. ACTIVITY 8 Students observe the dinosaur models in order to discover how different dinosaurs were adapted for life. Students look at defensive features, teeth, and body shapes to gather information about their dinosaur and infer how it lived. ACTIVITY 9 Students are introduced to binary classification and practice classifying, first, a set of objects and, then, their own shoes. They examine each other s classification systems and critique them in order to gain a deeper understanding of effective classification. ACTIVITY 10 Students are challenged to create classification systems for the dinosaur models by carefully observing them and using the classification skills they have developed. They discuss the scientific definition of a dinosaur as an introduction to scientific classification. ACTIVITY 11 Students classify the dinosaur models according to the characteristics of their feet and attempt to identify an unknown dinosaur simply by its footprint in clay. Scientists are often faced with this task when studying the many trackways of fossil dinosaur footprints found all around the world. ACTIVITY 12 Students learn about the meaning of dinosaur names. They use a list of Greek and Latin word fragments to decipher the meaning of many dinosaur names. Then they use the same list to name their own imaginary dinosaurs. Dinosaurs and Fossils 9

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