Year 9 Year 9 Australian Science Curriculum Focus Students develop an understanding of: Inquiry questions for the unit: Year 9 Science Ecosystems -

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1 Year 9 - Science Ecosystems Year 9 Australian Science Curriculum Focus Explaining phenomena involving science and its applications. Students investigate energy flow through ecosystems and how this can be affected by both nature and humans. Students develop an understanding of: Components of ecosystems including abiotic components Interactions between organisms within ecosystems including the flow of energy through an ecosystem via the pathways of food webs The changes in ecosystems as a result of both natural and human impacts The use of scientific models to track and predict changes in ecosystems Inquiry questions for the unit: What makes an ecosystem? How do energy flows through an ecosystem maintain the sustainability of the system? What happens when components of an ecosystem are changed? Are there far reaching effects of changes in ecosystems? What kind of scale might you measure this in? How are scientific models used to track and predict these effects? Year 9 Science Ecosystems - Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

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3 Year 9 Science Unit Overview Ecosystems School name Unit title Duration of unit Unit outline Ecosystems Year 9 Australian Science Curriculum Focus Explaining phenomena involving science and its applications. Students investigate energy flow through ecosystems and how this can be affected by both nature and humans. Students develop an understanding of: Components of ecosystems including abiotic components Interactions between organisms within ecosystems including the flow of energy through an ecosystem via the pathways of food webs The changes in ecosystems as a result of both natural and human impacts The use of scientific models to track and predict changes in ecosystems Inquiry questions for the unit: What makes an ecosystem? How do energy flows through an ecosystem maintain the sustainability of the system? What happens when components of an ecosystem are changed? Are there far reaching effects of changes in ecosystems? What kind of scale might you measure this in? How are scientific models used to track and predict these effects? Approximately five weeks Year 9 Level Description Between Years 7 to 10, students develop their understanding of microscopic and atomic structures; how systems at a range of scales are shaped by flows of energy and matter and interactions due to forces, and develop the ability to quantify changes and relative amounts. In Year 9, students consider the operation of systems at a range of scales. They explore ways in which the human body, as a system, responds to its external environment and the interdependencies between biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. They are introduced to the notion of the atom as a system of protons, electrons and neutrons, and how this system can change through nuclear decay. They learn that matter can be rearranged through chemical change and that these changes play an important part in many systems. They are introduced to the concept of the conservation of matter and begin to develop a more sophisticated view of energy transfer. They begin to apply their understanding of energy and forces to global systems such as continental movement. Year 9 Achievement Standard - By the end of Year 9, students use their knowledge to pose different types of questions that can be investigated using a range of inquiry skills. They apply their knowledge of science to explain phenomena in the environment and their own lives and describe how knowledge has developed through the work of scientists. They plan experimental procedures which include the accurate control and measurement of variables. They identify inconsistencies in results and suggest reasons for uncertainty in data. They use scientific language and representations when communicating their results and ideas. Students use knowledge of body systems to explain how complex organisms respond to external change. They use knowledge of interrelationships to describe how changes affect ecosystems. They explain geological features and events in terms of geological processes and timescales. They describe the structure of atoms and explain chemical changes in terms of the behaviour of atoms. They describe a range of chemical reactions and explain their importance. They compare, in qualitative terms, how two different forms of energy can be transferred. They describe interrelationships between science and technology and give examples in developments in science that have affected society. Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

4 Teacher Notes Unit overview The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) Ecosystems Teaching Unit is a science based Year 9 unit of work. The content descriptors for this unit are from the 2011 Australian Science Curriculum ( Following the inquiry based 5Es approach to teaching science, the unit is based on the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) expectations of a minimum of two hours per week of science lessons for Year 9 students. Each lesson is of approximately one hour duration, with some lessons requiring more time to allow further depth of study or time for excursions. The nature of science investigations is to follow the line of student inquiry to promote and encourage students to think like scientists. Teachers may find that students will need or want to complete investigations other than those suggested in the teaching strategies outlined in this unit. Students are to be encouraged to follow their own line of inquiry and in the case where students do this, the teaching strategies and resources outlined in this unit may be used as a guide to supplement the student directed investigations. The overall unit or the individual lessons could be extended or shortened to cater for individual classes as deemed necessary by the class teacher. Teachers will need to allow time to prepare for the lessons prior to teaching each lesson. Aim of the unit The lessons are structured to build students knowledge of the components of ecosystems to gain an in-depth understanding of the energy flow through ecosystems and how this can be affected by both nature and humans. The health of ecosystems is vital to the overall sustainability of biodiversity around the globe. Understanding the flow of energy through ecosystems and how changes to this flow of energy can impact the biodiversity of specific ecosystems, such as the Great Barrier Reef, will build students environmental knowledge and encourage their understanding of sustainability and stewardship (for more information on ecosystems and the Great Barrier Reef see below in Ecosystems background information and also The main premise of this unit is catchment runoff, which is one of the Key Focus Areas of the Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009 (see for more information on the Outlook Report 2009). GBRMPA encourages teachers to follow the main aim of Reef Guardianship to be stewards of the environment. Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

5 Ecosystem Background Information o What is an ecosystem? An ecosystem consists of all the interacting living elements (biotic) in an area together with the non-living elements (abiotic) of their environment. The Millenium Assessment Report uses the definition "An ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal and microorganism communities and the non-living environment interacting as a functional unit." o Great Barrier Reef ecosystem The Great Barrier Reef can be compared to a great big city with lots of diverse and interesting inhabitants. The Great Barrier Reef hosts communities of creatures who all work together in such a way to make the reef a sustainable environment. As the world s largest coral reef ecosystem the Great Barrier Reef is home to approximately: 500 species of seaweed 4000 species of molluscs 400 species of coral 1500 species of fish 16 species of sea snakes 6 breeding species of turtles Over 200 species of birds (including 40 species of sea birds) Some of the largest populations of dugongs in the world There are also visitors to the Reef including many species of whales, dolphins and porpoises. While coral reef communities initially made the Great Barrier Reef famous, the area also includes: Mangroves and estuaries Sandy and coral cays Continental Islands Seagrass beds Algal and sponge gardens Sandy and muddy seabed communities Continental slopes and deep ocean trenches. o Importance of biodiversity in ecosystems Biodiversity is a term used to describe the variety of life on Earth at all its levels, from genes to ecosystems, and the ecological and evolutionary processes that sustain it. Our world relies on biodiversity; from animals, plants and fungi, to the micro-organisms too small for the eye to see. Loss of biodiversity has the potential to impact directly on the ecosystem itself, the industries that rely on a healthy ecosystem for their operations and the social values of that ecosystem. More importantly, threats to biodiversity can impact not only the ecosystem we see, use and value today, but also the ecosystem that will be seen, used and valued by future generations. Conserving biodiversity is an essential part of safe-guarding the Earth's biological life systems. All living creatures depend on these life support systems for the necessities of life, and collectively these are described as ecosystem services. Maintenance of biodiversity is critical for the provision of these ecosystem services. Therefore biodiversity is not just desirable, it is essential. By protecting biodiversity, we are protecting our future and our children s future. Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

6 Unit Lessons Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate Lesson 1: Ecosystems what are they? Lesson 2: Photosynthesis experiment Lesson 3: Energy input, energy output Lesson 4: Biotic and abiotic Lesson 5: Using models to predict change Lesson 6: What happens when things change? Lesson 7: What happens when things change continued Lesson 8: Human impacts Lesson 9: Assessment preparation Lesson 10: Assessment preparation Lesson 11: Assessment preparation Lesson 12: Assessment preparation Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

7 Identify curriculum Content descriptions to be taught Science Understandings Science as a Human Endeavour Science Inquiry Skills Biological Sciences Ecosystems consist of communities of interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment; matter and energy flow through these systems o Examining factors that affect population sizes such as seasonal changes, destruction of habitats, introduced species o Considering how energy flows into and out of an ecosystem via the pathways of food webs, and how it must be replaced to maintain the sustainability of the system o Investigating how ecosystems change as a result of events such as bushfires, drought and flooding Nature and Development of Science Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community o Investigating how models can be used to predict the changes in populations due to environmental changes, such as the impact of flooding or fire on rabbit or kangaroo populations Use and Influence of Science People can use scientific knowledge to evaluate whether they should accept claims, explanations or predictions o Considering the impacts of human activity on an ecosystem from a range of different perspectives Questioning and Predicting Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically Planning and Conducting Plan, select and use appropriate investigation methods, including field work and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data; assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these methods Select and use appropriate equipment, including digital technologies, to systematically and accurately collect and record data Processing and Analysing Data and Information Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships between variables and identifying inconsistencies Use knowledge of scientific concepts to draw conclusions that are consistent with evidence Evaluating Evaluate conclusions, including identifying sources of uncertainty and possible alternative explanations, and describe specific ways to improve the quality of the data Critically analyse the validity of information in secondary sources and evaluate the approaches used to solve problems General capabilities and cross-curriculum priorities Literacy Communicate confidently in listening, reading and viewing, writing, speaking and creating print and visual materials Critical and Creative Thinking Observe, question, make predictions and think creatively to solve problems during investigations Ethical Behaviour Consider human impacts on the environment and other living organisms and evaluate their own and other people s actions Personal and Social Competence Follow procedures and work both within a group and independently to share and discuss ideas Sustainability Investigate human impacts on ecosystems and the role we all play in maintaining the health of different ecosystems Communicating Communicate scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

8 Relevant prior curriculum Year 8 of the Australian Science Curriculum outlines that by the end of Year 8, students investigate questions to reach conclusions consistent with scientific knowledge. They describe how science inquiry contributes to an understanding of the world. Students measure and control variables, present data and findings that support their conclusions and describe how improvements to methods could improve the quality of their results. Students describe the structure and function of two different types of cells and describe the functioning of a major system in a multi-cellular organism. They compare physical and chemical changes and describe differences between substances using the particle theory. They describe examples of how different forms of energy cause change in simple systems. They describe a situation where scientific knowledge has been used to solve a real-world problem and demonstrate an awareness of how the application of science can affect people in different ways. Curriculum working towards In Year 10, students explore systems at different scales and connect microscopic and macroscopic properties to explain phenomena. Students explore the biological, chemical, geological and physical evidence for different theories, such as theories of natural selection and the Big Bang. Atomic theory is developed to understand relationships within the periodic table. Understanding motion and forces are related by applying physical laws. Relationships between aspects of the living, physical and chemical world are applied to systems on a local and global scale and this enables students to predict how changes will affect equilibrium within these systems. Links to other learning areas QSA Year 9 Literacy Indicators (2009) Speaking and Listening SL9 iv. Contribute to conversations and discussions by: o using agreed protocols o responding to appropriate interruptions o negotiating with others o justifying and evaluating opinions and developing arguments. Reading and Viewing RV9 vi. Automatically read and understand a wide range of words, including technical and literary language in subject-specific contexts Writing and Designing WD9 i. Identify purpose, audience and writing task and consider topic, subject matter, text structure and writer-reader relationships for a variety of complex writing/designing tasks, including multi-modal and hybrid texts WD9 iv. Write and design texts using a range of strategies to plan, including: o generating a range of ideas and selecting the most appropriate one o gathering information from personal knowledge and learning experiences, and from a range of reliable sources Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

9 o completing in a reasonable timeframe o organising information using strategies such as hypotheses and research notes o determining relevance and adequacy of information for the purpose. WD9 vi. Write cohesive, well structured paragraphs that have clearly defined purposes and that support a particular stance, or strengthen a particular position. WD x. Select technical and literary language that portrays subject matter from particular positions, intensifies meaning and relationships in the text and maintains these using subject-specific terms and related words School Specific Links to Other Learning Areas (schools should insert their own links to other learning areas as necessary) Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

10 Assessment Make judgements Describe the assessment Assessment date Student task sheet, links to QSA Literacy Summative Assessment Indicators (2009) and guide to making judgements can be found in the resource section of the unit. The assessment will include two parts: Part A. Students will make a 2D or 3D model showing the impacts of an extreme weather event on the local environment. Students will choose both the extreme weather event and the environment that has been impacted. Part B Students will provide a written report outlining the impacts of the extreme weather event on the local environment with reference to their model. Their report will include: An explanation of the local environment and its features (food webs, habitats, animals found there, energy flows in the environment). An explanation of the extreme weather event (how it formed, environmental factors that led to it happening, weather patterns). An explanation of how the extreme weather event impacted the local environment (long term and short term - animal populations, changes in the structure of the environment, changes in energy flows through the environment). Students will need to make reference to their model. An explanation of how the local environment might recover based on their scientific knowledge of how an ecosystem works. The summative assessment piece is designed to be produced and presented during the Evaluate stage of the unit when students will have gathered all the knowledge required to successfully address the criteria. This date is to be determined by the class teacher. Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

11 Teaching and learning Teaching strategies and learning experiences ENGAGE - To capture interest and discover what we think we know Lesson 1 Ecosystems what are they? Suggested Time one hour Introduction Brainstorm Have a range of pictures of different ecosystems (reef, wetlands, rainforest, desert, bushland, ocean or any other ecosystems teachers are able to get pictures of to stimulate discussion). Use the 2012 Reef Beat posters to generate discussion about ecosystems and biodiversity. As a class, look at some of the different ecosystems and ask students what they think an ecosystem is, what an ecosystem is made up of and what makes different ecosystems unique? Brainstorm with students on what an ecosystem is - the components of ecosystems and how they all link together to make the ecosystem work (draw this on the board for students to see as they come up with ideas). As a class, use the brainstorming to create a definition of an ecosystem to use throughout the unit. Research in books and on the Internet if necessary. Identify questions students may have about ecosystems, record these and try to answer them as the students progress throughout the unit. Investigation Game Explain to the students they are going to play a game to learn more about the components of ecosystems. Follow the instructions in Resource 1 Food Web String Activity. Teachers could choose a specific ecosystem to represent the first time the students play the game so they understand what to do, and then students could choose themselves what they will be to make the game more complex. Discuss the interactions that can take place and those that can t. Examine what happens if a part of the ecosystem is taken away. Discuss the importance of different parts of the ecosystem. Reflect back to the definition of an ecosystem the students came up with in the first part of the lesson. Do they want to change it? Is it ok or do they need to add more to it? Start a science journal for students to record their learning and reflection as they progress through the unit. The science journal could be done in a Assessment opportunities Lesson 1 Diagnostic assessment opportunities: - observe students responses during the lesson to determine students awareness of the topic. Supportive learning environment Adjustments for needs of learners Section 6 of the Disability Standards for Education (The Standards for Curriculum Development, Accreditation and Delivery) state that education providers, including class teachers, must take reasonable steps to ensure a course/program is designed to allow any student to participate and experience success in learning. The Disability Standards for Education 2005 (Cwlth) is available from: select Human rights and antidiscrimination > Disability standards for education. ESL Considerations Teachers should refer to the Learning Place ( u), ESL in the Classroom for Break it Down, Build it Up resources to help restructure the unit according to the ESL needs of the class. Risk Management Refer to Department of Resources Lesson 1 Photos of different ecosystems books, Internet, posters. Reef Beat 2012 posters and activity book, The Inshore Great Barrier Reef Bursting with Biodiversity Resource 1 Food Web String Activity. Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

12 Teaching and learning Teaching strategies and learning experiences simple ruled exercise book or done on a computer in a format suitable to the class. How much time students are given to write in their science journal each lesson will need to be determined by the teacher according to the needs of the students. A science journal is a record of observations, experiences and reflections. It contains a series of dated, chronological entries. It may include written text, drawings, labelled diagrams, photographs, tables and graphs. Teachers could also use the science journal as a part of the students overall assessment. EXPLORE To have shared, hands-on experiences Lesson 2 Photosynthesis experiment Suggested Time one hour Introduction Set up investigation As a class, read Resource 3 Finding Starch Investigation. Ask students if they can explain what photosynthesis is and why it is so important. If students are unsure, ask them to use the experiment to try to work out what photosynthesis is. Fill out investigation planner (Resource 2) and set up the Finding Starch Investigation. Investigation Finding Starch Investigation Complete the Finding Starch Investigation. This will build students knowledge of energy flows through ecosystems. Discuss the investigation and the results. Students record their learning and their reflections in their science journal. Lesson 3 Energy input, energy output Suggested Time 1 hour Introduction Review Discuss and review where plants get their energy and where that energy goes. Complete a diagram and discuss with students what will go in the blanks. Energy input Energy output Ask students - Is it the same for all plants? What about humans or animals? Can students draw a similar diagram of where we get energy and Assessment opportunities Lesson 2 Formative assessment opportunities: - use the investigation planner to assess students' developing science inquiry skills. Lesson 3 Formative assessment opportunities: - use students responses and food webs to assess students developing biological science understandings. Supportive learning environment Adjustments for needs of learners Education and Training for advice and forms relating to risk management during curriculum activities and excursions. Resources Lesson 2 Resource 3 Finding Starch Investigation. Materials list for the Finding Starch Investigation is provided in Resource 3. Resource 2 Investigation Planner. An animation of the experiment being done can be viewed at Lesson 3 Images of food webs. Video clips of food webs and energy flows through ecosystems (if teachers decide they are needed for the lesson). YouTube has many clips available on energy flows through ecosystems. Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

13 Teaching and learning Teaching strategies and learning experiences what the energy is used for? Investigation Food Webs The aim of the investigation is to determine how energy flows through an ecosystem. Teachers could use images of food webs, or if available teachers could use video clips to show energy flows. Teachers could focus on a specific ecosystem or view a range of different ecosystems depending on the needs of the class. Teachers could also go outside and use the local school environment to identify and discuss food chains and food webs. View images or video clips as determined by the teacher. Discuss with students the different parts of the ecosystem. : o Identify the producers o Identify the consumers o Are people producers or consumers? o Can a food web exist without the sun? o o Can a food web exist without plants? Explain how energy is flowing though the food web. Students should provide examples using the provided food web. Ask students to draw a simple food web for a specific ecosystem. The class could do one together and then students do one each. Alternatively, students could do simple food chains for a certain ecosystem and these could be linked up to create a complex food web. Ask students to identify the producers and consumers in the food web. Ask students to identify energy flows through the ecosystem, share with the class. Ask and discuss how is energy replaced in the food web? Is the food web sustainable? Remind students of decomposition of animals and the role they play in sustainability of food webs. Students record their learning and their reflections in their science journal. EXPLAIN To demonstrate what we have learned by exploring Lesson 4 Biotic and abiotic Suggested Time one hour Introduction Food Webs Review Ask students to form pairs or groups to draw their own food web, present to the class and explain the energy flows through the ecosystem. Investigation What are biotic and abiotic features? Assessment opportunities Lesson 4 Formative assessment opportunities: - use students labelled diagrams to assess their developing knowledge of biotic and abiotic. Supportive learning environment Adjustments for needs of learners Resources Lesson 4 Teachers could provide images of ecosystems to provide visual stimulus for students to draw and label food webs. Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

14 Teaching and learning Teaching strategies and learning experiences Explain to students that biotic means the living parts of an ecosystem. Divide students into pairs or groups to choose an ecosystem they are familiar with. Each group needs to identify the biotic components of their ecosystem, create a diagram/drawing to represent the ecosystem and label the biotic parts. This could be as simple as a lake, park or backyard. Ask students to think about what abiotic means (generate a discussion if students do not know to lead students to the answer) and create a definition of abiotic with students. Ask students to label all abiotic components of their ecosystem. Students share their drawings/diagrams with the class. Discuss how biotic and abiotic parts of an ecosystem relate to the flow of energy through a system. Ask students to explain how abiotic parts of an ecosystem might help or hinder the flow of energy. Students record their learning and their reflections in their science journal. Lesson 5 Using models to predict change Suggested Time one hour Introduction Catchment to Reef Look at the Catchment to Reef Poster. Identify and discuss biotic and abiotic features, food webs and energy flows within the ecosystem. Teachers could provide pairs of students with a black and white copy of the poster on A4 and assign a colour for biotic and a colour for abiotic. Students then circle or mark the features with the appropriate colour and compare their findings with the rest of the class in a discussion. Teachers could also put the poster onto an interactive whiteboard and students could circle the features with the appropriate colours on the whiteboard. Investigation Using a model from the Outlook Report 2009 Look at the model from the Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009 Ecosystem Health page 41, Fig 3.7. Read the matching section on sedimentation (Resource 4 or from GBRMPA website). Teachers could show this on an interactive whiteboard so the model can be written on and interacted with. Discuss what the model is showing (changes in exposure to sediment, Great Barrier Reef). Ask students the following questions: o What is the model telling us? o Is it a natural impact or the cause of increase in population along Assessment opportunities Lesson 5 Formative assessment opportunities: - use discussion responses and participation to assess students' developing knowledge of science understandings and human endeavours. Supportive learning environment Adjustments for needs of learners Resources Lesson 5 Catchment to Reef Poster au. Resource 4 The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Sediment Model. Sediment Model is also available from Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009 page 41 Fig Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

15 Teaching and learning Teaching strategies and learning experiences the coast? o Why has the GBRMPA identified this as an area of concern? o What will an increase in sediment do to the energy flow through an ecosystem? o What changes does the model show? o How can the model be used to predict further changes? Use the catchment to reef poster information to help answer questions. Make a conclusion about why scientists use models. Are there other examples of how we could use them? Generate a simple class model to predict trends in the class e.g. how many students exercised over the past five days? From this model, what can we predict about exercise patterns in the class? Does it tell us anything about the health of the class (given that we know to maintain health we should be doing 30 minutes of activity per day)? This could be related to energy output. Students record their learning and their reflections in their science journal. ELABORATE To build understanding through an investigation Lesson 6 What happens when things change? Suggested Time one hour Introduction Write up investigation Explain to the class they are going to design their own investigation to find out how different changes to abiotic features in an ecosystem can affect the ecosystem. Teachers will need to decide if students are going to work with plants or brine shrimp. Discuss with students what resources are available, how they might set up their investigation, time frames for their investigation and what the expectations are. The Investigation Planner (Resource 2) could be used as a guideline. Students could work in pairs or individually. Teachers may choose for all students to do the same investigation and collaboratively design the investigation as a class, or may let students design their own experiment. This will depend on the needs of the class. The investigation could be as simple as changing the water quality (introduce sediment) in test tubes containing water plants or brine shrimp, or could be more complex to include changes in things such as temperature, drought or pollutants known to be an issue in the local area. Write up the experiment using the Investigation Planner (Resource 2). Assessment opportunities Lesson 6 Formative assessment opportunities: - use students investigations to assess their science inquiry skills and their science understandings Supportive learning environment Adjustments for needs of learners Resources Lesson 6 Teachers will need to determine resources needed for the student investigations. Resource 2 Investigation Planner Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

16 Teaching and learning Teaching strategies and learning experiences Investigation Set up the investigation Once students have written up their Investigation Planner, provide them with the resources to set up their investigation. Given the nature of the investigation, students will most likely only be able to start observing their results in the next science lesson. Students record their learning and their reflections in their science journal. Lesson 7 What happens when things change? - continued Suggested Time one hour Introduction Review experiment Review experiment from Lesson 6 and record results. Discuss as a class the results, how to display the results, what students would change about setting up their investigation. Also, are there any follow up investigations needed? Investigation Futures circle Use a futures circle (example provided in Resource 5) to discuss and identify how an ecosystem changes due to natural events (flooding, bushfire, drought, severe storm etc). Consider: o Natural Effects on the population which will affect the energy flow through the ecosystem and the ecosystem s sustainability o Economic Effects on industries reliant on the health of the ecosystem (farming, tourism) o Social Effects on how people will use the ecosystem. Will the o same activities still take place? Who will fix it? Does the ecosystem need help or should it be left to its own devices? How will the ecosystem recover? How can we build resilience for ecosystems so they are able to adapt to threats? Teachers could provide images, books or articles for students to research their topic or they may be able to use local examples. Students record their learning and their reflections in their science journal. OPTIONAL HIGHER ORDER THINKING ACTIVITY Use wave tanks to demonstrate how sand flows through different ecosystems. Analyse what this might mean for an ecosystem during and after severe storms. Assessment opportunities Lesson 7 Summative assessment opportunities: - use students review of experiments to assess their science inquiry skills. - use students futures circle to assess their science understandings and human endeavours. Supportive learning environment Adjustments for needs of learners Resources Lesson 7 Resource 5 Futures Circle. Images, books or articles about different natural events that have impacted different ecosystems for students futures circle research. Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

17 Teaching and learning Teaching strategies and learning experiences Lesson 8 Human Impacts Suggested Time one hour Introduction Defining human impacts Discuss with students the different ways humans can impact ecosystems. Create a list of impacts and beside each suggestion, provide an example of how that impact affects an ecosystem e.g. building roads destroys habitat. Students may have very specific impacts and effects and others may be more general. Students will use these in the investigation. If teachers are able to obtain aerial photos of their local area this will provide good discussion about how humans have impacted the local environment. Aerial photos are also a good example of how photos can be used to predict what might happen if development continues in certain areas. If images are unavailable, teachers could use the Catchment to Reef Poster from Lesson 5 to discuss human impacts. Investigation Futures Circle Use a Futures Circle (Resource 5) to predict human impacts on the local ecosystem, referring to the impacts identified at the beginning of the lesson. Consider: o Natural Effects on the population which will affect the energy flow through the ecosystem and the ecosystem s sustainability o Economic Effects on industries reliant on the health of the ecosystem (farming, tourism) o Social Effects on how people will use the ecosystem. Will the same activities still take place? o Who will fix it does the ecosystem need help or should it be left to its own devices? How will the ecosystem recover? How can we build resilience for the ecosystem so they are able to adapt to threats? Students record their learning and their reflections in their science journal. OPTIONAL EXTRA OR ALTERNATIVE ACTIVITY Visit a local catchment area to identify how it has been affected by both natural elements and humans. Predict the flow on effects of the impacts on the catchment area. How does it affect the ecosystems found further along the water course and out into the ocean? What might happen to the ecosystem in the future given current Assessment opportunities Lesson 8 Summative assessment opportunities: - use students futures circle to assess their science understandings and human endeavours. Supportive learning environment Adjustments for needs of learners Resources Lesson 8 Aerial photos of the local area e.g. from Google Earth, the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Council websites and the Wet Tropics Management Authority. Catchment to Reef Poster au. Resource 5 Futures Circle. Wet Tropics u/st/st_default.html. Australia's tropical land and sea e-atlas: Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

18 Teaching and learning Teaching strategies and learning experiences impacts and what could be done to improve the health of the catchment area? OPTIONAL HIGHER ORDER THINKING ACTIVITY Find a recent environmental issue in the local news (pollution, fires or development) and identify how it might affect the energy flows in the local ecosystems and work out a way to solve it. EVALUATE To review and reflect on learning Lesson 9 Assessment preparation Suggested time one hour Introduction Reflection and begin task As a class, reflect on what has been learned throughout the lessons. Explain to the students that they are going to begin their final assessment project. Present them with a task sheet (Resource 6). Read through the task sheet together and identify all the requirements of the task. Discuss available resources (identify all the work done throughout the unit that will help the students complete the task). Set out a plan for time management and resource management. Investigation Start preparing projects Allow students time to research and prepare their projects. Students may need scaffolding for different parts of the project; this will depend on the need of the class. Assessment opportunities Lesson 9 Summative assessment opportunities: - use students final assessment piece to assess their science understandings, human endeavours and inquiry skills. Supportive learning environment Adjustments for needs of learners Resources Lesson 9 Resource 6 Student Task Sheet. Lesson Continue assessment preparation Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

19 Use feedback (these are some suggestions, teachers will need to vary this according to the needs of their class) Ways to monitor learning and assessment Year 9 teacher: Initially plan the teaching, learning and assessment needs of all learners and make adjustments to the unit plan as necessary Use diagnostic, formative and summative assessment opportunities throughout the unit to plan for students learning and assess student knowledge development Mark presentations and moderate with colleagues to achieve consensus and consistency of teacher judgement Feedback to students Teachers: Plan opportunities for conversations to provide ongoing feedback (spoken and written) and encouragement to students on their strengths and areas for improvement Reflect on and review learning opportunities to individualise learning experiences required Provide multiple opportunities for students to experience, practise and improve knowledge, processes and skills Students: Identify what they can do well and what they need to improve Provide feedback to a peer on interaction skills and suggest some strategies for improvement (written and spoken feedback) Reflection on the unit plan At the conclusion of the unit teachers can reflect on the unit for future planning by answering the following questions: What worked well in this unit? What was a stumbling block? How would you refine it? What trends and gaps in learning have you identified? How will you build on these learning experiences next term and beyond? Year 9 Science Ecosystems Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

20 Resource 1 Food Web String Activity The aim of the game is for participants to become aware of the different interactions taking place in an ecosystem. These interactions might be between living or non-living things. You will need: A ball of string Labels for each participant How to play: Each participant chooses something from the local environment they would like to be sun, grass, rain, fish, cat, snake, water, tree, turtle, person, flower, soil. Each participant needs to be a different thing in the environment. Label each participant so that everyone in the circle can see what they are. Give the ball of string to the first participant. They hold onto the end and throw the ball to a thing in the environment they interact with. That person then holds the piece of string and throws the ball of string to something they can interact with to form a connection, and so on. For example, the fish can throw the string to the water, the water can throw the string to the tree, the tree can throw the string to the sun, the sun can throw the string to the flower, the flower can throw the string to the bird. This can keep going until all interactions within the circle have been used up. To extend the activity, ask participants to state what the relationship or interaction is as they throw the ball of string (encourage the use of scientific language). For example, when the fish throws the string to the water, the fish states I need water to live in, and the water then states I give water to trees and throws the string to the trees and so on. This extension encourages the participants to think about what the relationships and interactions are. Once participants have played the game and understand the interactions going on, discuss what will happen if parts of the environment are removed. For example, if the water dries up or becomes so polluted the fish cannot live there anymore. And if the fish cannot survive, what food will be available for local animals and people who catch fish as a part of their job? The game can be played representing several different ecosystems. Leaders could allow participants to choose what they will be, or to teach participants about a specific ecosystem. Leaders could assign each participant a set of living or non-living things from that ecosystem. Year 9 Science Ecosystems - Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

21 Resource 2 Investigation Planner Investigation Planner Name:... Date:... Investigation Question Hypothesis. What do you think will happen? Explain why. To make the test fair what are you going to: Independent Variable Dependant Variable Control Variable Change? Labelled Diagram Measure? Equipment Keep the same? Procedure Illustrate how you will set up your investigation. What equipment will you need? How will you complete the investigation? Use dot points. Year 9 Science Ecosystems - Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

22 Resource 2 Investigation Planner (cont.) Explaining Results When you changed the what happened? Why did this happen? Was your hypothesis accurate? What challenges did you have in doing this investigation? How could you improve this investigation? What would you investigate next? Fairness? Accuracy? Teacher Comments: Year 9 Science Ecosystems - Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

23 Resource 3 Finding Starch Investigation Sourced and adapted from Mark Ash, Clynton Educational Services Pty Ltd and Evergreen Quest Pty Ltd, Jacaranda Science 2, John Wiley & Sons Australia Brisbane, Aim Materials Procedure To test for starch in the leaves of plants to identify if photosynthesis has taken place One pot plant with plenty of leaves that has been kept in the sun for a few days One pot plant with plenty of leaves that has been kept in the dark for a few days A hotplate or bunsen burner Test tube holder Forceps Petri dish 500ml beaker of boiling water Test tube of ethanol Iodine solution Pipette Small sample of potato starch in a Petri dish 1. Remove a leaf from the plant (that has been kept in the sunlight) with forceps. 2. Dip the leaf into the boiling water for one minute to soften it. 3. Place the leaf into the test tube of ethanol. CAUTION: ethanol is flammable do not place it near a naked flame. 4. Using a test tube holder, hold the test tube of ethanol in the beaker of boiling water and leave for ten minutes. Do not let the beaker touch the sides of the beaker or it may shatter. What happens to the colour of the leaf? What did the ethanol do? 5. While the leaf is in the ethanol, test a small sample of potato starch in a Petri dish with the iodine solution. Note any colour change. 6. Remove the leaf from the ethanol with the forceps and dip it into the hot water in the beaker again to remove any excess ethanol. 7. Place the leaf into a Petri dish and use the pipette to cover it with two drops of iodine solution. Does the colour change on the leaf? Where on the leaf did the colour change? 8. Repeat steps 1-7 for the leaf from the plant that has been kept in the dark (you do not need to repeat step five with the potato starch). 9. Answer the following questions a. Glucose is produced during photosynthesis and is then converted to starch and stored in the leaves of the plants. Did your test show any differences in starch production between the leaves exposed to the light and the leaves kept in the dark? b. Why was one of the plants kept in the dark for a few days before completing this investigation? Year 9 Science Ecosystems - Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

24 Resource 4 The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Sediment Model Image and information sourced from The Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009, The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, pp Sedimentation Inflow of sediments onto the Great Barrier Reef is a natural phenomenon which has been ongoing since modern sea level was reached 6000 years ago. However, over the past 150 years sediment inflow onto the Great Barrier Reef has increased four to five times, and five to ten fold for some catchments (see Section 5.4.1). The coastal zone is clearly the part of the Great Barrier Reef most exposed to increased sedimentation, especially areas close to river mouths (Figure 3.7). The area of the Great Barrier Reef affected by sedimentation is increasing substantially as a result of land management practices (Section 5.4.1), to the point where sediment is reaching mid-shelf reefs for the first time in their geological history (Figure 3.7). A Total Suspended Solids (Pre-European) B Total Suspended Solids (2008) Very Low Low Medium High Very High Very Low Low Medium High Very High Cooktown Cooktown Great Barrier Reef Region Great Barrier Reef catchment Cairns Cairns Bowen Proserpine Charters Towers Mackay Clermont Gladstone Bundaberg 300 Rockhampton Gladstone Bundaberg Maryborough Maryborough Gympie Gympie Kilometres Kilometres SDC B SDC A Figure 3.7 Bowen Proserpine Mackay Rockhampton 0 QLD QLD Clermont Great Barrier Reef catchment Townsville Townsville Charters Towers Great Barrier Reef Region Changes in exposure to sediments, Great Barrier Reef8 Compared to likely conditions prior to European settlement, development in the catchment has meant that the area of the Great Barrier Reef exposed to sediments has increased markedly. This map shows results of a model of the exposure of the ecosystem to total suspended solids before European settlement (A) and in 2008 (B). Year 9 Science Ecosystems - Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

25 Resource 5 Futures Circle Students identify a certain event. As they move out of the circle, they define what gradually happens due to the event. For more advanced analysis of an event, students look at the N, S, E and W of an event - Natural, Social, Economic and Who did it? and/or Who will fix it? Students could then go on to investigate how it could be fixed? Natural Impacts Who did it? Who will fix it? EVENT Economic Impacts IMMEDIATE IMPACTS An immediate result of the event GRADUAL IMPACTS Things that happen more slowly over time due to the immediate impacts Social Impacts Year 9 Science Ecosystems - Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

26 Resource 6 Student Task Sheet Ecosystems Year 9 Science Your Task: There are two parts to your final assessment: Part A You will provide a 2D or 3D model showing the impacts of an extreme weather event on the local environment. You can choose the extreme weather event and the local environment that has been impacted. You might choose one small ecosystem (such as a park or creek) within the environment, or choose a broader part of the whole environment (such as a suburb). Part B You will provide a written report outlining the impacts of your chosen extreme weather event on your chosen local environment. Your report will include: An explanation of the local environment and its features (food webs, habitats, animals found there, energy flows in the environment). An explanation of the extreme weather event (how it formed, environmental factors that led to it happening, weather patterns). An explanation of how the extreme weather impacted the local environment (long term and short term - animal populations, changes in the structure of the environment, changes in energy flows through the environment). You will need to make reference to your model to indicate how your model shows these impacts. An explanation of how your chosen local environment might recover based on your scientific knowledge of how an ecosystem works. Year 9 Science Ecosystems - Version Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority

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