1 Science Grade 7 Unit 01 & 02: Science Safety & Flow of Energy
2 1 2 Using the diagram above of a grassland ecosystem, complete the following: Draw and label an energy pyramid to represent this ecosystem. Use the desert food web above to answer the following question: How is this ecosystem MOST likely to be affected by a large increase in the number of rats? Compare the amount of energy available in each of the levels of the pyramid. F G H J The snake population will decrease. There will be an increase in the number of snakes, coyotes, and hawks. There will be a decrease in the number of coyotes and hawks. There will be an increase in the number of cacti and sagebrush plants. Describe the energy flow in an ecosystem to help explain your responses. 3 Use the desert food web diagram from the previous question to answer the following question: Who are the producers? A cacti and sagebrush B C D hawks and coyotes ants and tarantulas rats and snakes Page 2 GO ON
3 4 Jewel diagrammed a food web of algae, snails, ducks, frogs, and snakes that she observed during a summer trip to her grandparents' farm. What is the correct arrangement of these organisms on an energy pyramid? F G H J Page 3 GO ON
4 5 Josie added grass clippings, fungi, and worms to her school's environmental club compost bin. What is the BEST way to show the flow of energy among the organisms found in the compost bin? A B C D 6 When energy is passing through a food web, some of the energy is lost. How much of the energy is passed from one level to the next? F 1% G 10% 8 What happens to the solar energy absorbed by plants during photosynthesis? F It is recycled by plants and returned to the atmosphere. G It is converted into oxygen and glucose. H 50% J 90% 7 Which of the following organisms can undergo photosynthesis? H J It is stored as heat within the plant for cellular functions. It is transformed into chemical energy. I. Animals II. Plants III. Fungi A B C D I and II I and III II and III II only Page 4 GO ON
5 9 Which diagram BEST represents the process of photosynthesis? A B 11 The annual goal of the Preservation Middle School Environmental Club is to reduce the amount of solid waste it contributes to the landfill by collecting and composting food waste from the school cafeteria. Students then collect humus from the compost bins and add it to the planters in the school courtyard. This composting is a form of. C A B C D respiration pollution recycling fermentation D 10 What kind of energy is necessary to initiate the process of photosynthesis? F radiant G heat H electrical J wind 12 Michigan's Isle Royale is a small island in the northwestern part of Lake Superior which is home to a few thousand moose and wolves. Wildlife scientists have studied the island's food chains for years. During the 1980s, scientists noticed that as the old moose population increased; the number of wolves increased, and as the numbers of old moose decreased, the number of wolves decreased. What can be concluded from this passage? F Wolves prey on older moose. G Young moose are protected by their mothers. H Vegetation on Isle Royale decreases as the moose population ages. J Wolves do not prey on female moose and their calves. Page 5 GO ON
6 13 Leftover food can be put into compost bins, and after a few weeks turns into soil. What is occurring in the compost bin? A B C D Decaying causes the food to become cold. Energy leaves the food. Matter is recycled through decay. New elements are formed. 14 Mushrooms and bacteria serve an important role in an ecosystem, that of the decomposer. Decomposers break down the organic material of once living organisms, such as carbon and nitrogen. Why are decomposers important to the ecosystem? F They release stored energy and nutrients from dead organisms into the ecosystem. G They eat the dead animals in the ecosystem, cleaning the habitat. H They provide a direct food source for producers and consumers in the ecosystem. 15 Compost bins are containers where items such as food scraps, paper, and yard trimmings are combined with water and air, and are allowed to break down and decompose. This produces a nutrient rich product that can be used for fertilizer. What happens to the energy from these materials as they decompose? A There is no energy in dead organisms. B No energy is lost as the materials decompose. C The energy stays in the compost bin. D Some of the energy is released as heat. J They are not an important component in the ecosystem. Page 6 GO ON
7 16 Essentially, biomass is stored energy that man can convert to electricity, fuel, and heat. Through, the energy from the Sun is stored in the plant material. Which words BEST complete the paragraph above? F G H J solar decomposition solar photosynthesis heat...recycling trophic production Page 7 GO ON
8 Use the scenario below to answer the following two questions. You enter the classroom, and your teacher tells you to stand on one side of the room. You see on your laboratory table a laboratory procedure, a glass beaker with a blue liquid in it, a pipette; glass, graduated cylinder; petri dish, leaves, and goggles. 17 What is the FIRST thing you should do? A B C D put the goggles on waft the beaker wait for teacher directions read the procedure 18 Which of the following is a safety risk for your eyes and would be a reason for having to wear goggles? I. unknown blue liquid II. glass beaker III. glass graduated cylinder IV. glass petri dish F G H J I I, II, IV II, III, IV I, II, III, IV 19 After observing a compost bin, a student wanted to investigate what microscopic organisms were living in it. What equipment would be needed to view the microscopic animals? A B C D graduated cylinder, meter stick, thermometer balance, hand lens, beaker microscope, microscope slides, notebook hot plate, stereoscope, tape measure Page 8 GO ON
9 20 Describe how a secondary consumer is dependent on the Sun for its energy. Page 9 STOP
10 Test Key Science Grade 7 Unit 01 & 02: Science Safety & Flow of Energy ## Item # Correct Answer SE SE Obj/Cat 1 C D 0 to 4 7.5(C) [S] 7.2(E) TAKS: SC5(K) 2 C D G 7.5(C) [S] 7.2(C) TAKS: SC5(K) 3 C D A 7.5(C) [S] 7.2(C) TAKS: SC5(K) 4 C CS J 7.5(C) [S] 7.2(C) TAKS: SC5(K) 5 C CS B 7.5(C) [S] 7.2(C) TAKS: SC5(K) 6 C CS G 7.5(C) [S] None TAKS: SC5(K) 7 C CS D 7.5(A) None TAKS: SC5(K) 8 C CS J 7.5(A) None TAKS: SC5(K) 9 C CS A 7.5(A) 7.2(C) TAKS: SC5(K) 10 C CS F 7.5(A) None TAKS: SC5(K) 11 C CS C 7.5(B) 7.1(B) None 12 C CS F 7.5(C) [S] 7.3(A) TAKS: SC5(K) 13 C CS C 7.5(B) None TAKS: SC5(K) 14 C CS F 7.5(B) None TAKS: SC5(K) 15 C CS D 7.5(B) None TAKS: SC5(K) 16 C CS G 7.5(B) 7.5(A) TAKS: SC5(K) 17 C CS C 7.1(A) 7.4(B) TAKS: SC1(K) 18 C CS J 7.1(A) 7.4(B) TAKS: SC1(K) 19 C CS C 7.4(A) None TAKS: SC4(K) 20 C CS Plants use photosynthesis to create sugars. Primary consumers eat the plants and store that energy. Secondary consumers eat the primary consumers. The original energy came from the sun. 7.5(A) 7.5(C) [S] TAKS: SC5(K)
11 Scoring Rubrics 1 Energy decreases as you go up the pyramid. Each level has less energy than the level below it. This is because most energy is used by organisms to live and grow, and much is lost to the environment as heat. 4 The student response includes an energy diagram that: - Has three levels. - Places each organism in the correct level AND includes the student response: - Shows an understanding that each higher level has less energy than the level below it. - Relates the decrease in energy to energy used by organisms and given off as heat. 3 The student makes three of the above points. 2 The student makes two of the above points. 1 The student makes one of the above points. 0 No correct response is given.
12 Science Grade 7 Unit 01 Appendix: Science Safety
13 Science Assessment and Evaluation Criteria Grade 07 Unit 01 Appendix: Science Safety Performance Indicator #1 Demonstrate knowledge of safe practices, including wearing safety goggles, washing hands and using materials appropriately as well as use of other preventive equipment such as aprons, gloves and chemical splash goggles by explaining orally or in writing, the class safety rules for investigations. Include an explanation of how to use emergency safety equipment. (7.1A; 7.4B) Give a safety quiz. Give each student a copy of the safety contract. 7.1A Demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations as outlined in the Texas Safety Standards The oral presentation or written explanation includes a set of very specific explanations of safety rules including examples and references to cause/effect relationships (why it is important to keep this rule) and specific process steps for the use of emergency safety equipment. The oral presentation or written explanation includes a set of explanations of safety rules, many of which are quite specific; however, there may be some that are generally correct, but lack specificity, examples or cause/effect relationships. In general; however, it is obvious that the student knows the rules even though there may be minor omissions or inaccuracies, especially in describing how to use the equipment. The oral presentation or written explanation includes a set of safety rules; however, there is not a great deal of specificity. The rules are generally stated without elaboration. There is likely no evidence that the student understands why a rule is important. The student may have some omissions or inaccuracies, especially in describing how to use the equipment. These steps are generally vague and nonspecific. There is little to no evidence that the student understands the safety rules. There are missing rules, misstated rules, or incorrect applications of rules to a very large degree. Student does not attempt the task.
14 7.4B Use preventative safety equipment, including chemical splash goggles, aprons, and gloves, and be prepared to use emergency safety equipment, including an eye/face wash, a fire blanket, and a fire extinguisher The oral presentation or written explanation includes specific references to preventative safety equipment including examples, cause/effect relationships, and other details. The oral presentation or written explanation includes some reference to preventative safety equipment, but may have minor inaccuracies or omissions. In general; however, it is obvious that the student understands the preventative equipment available to him and how to use it. The oral presentation or written explanation includes minimal reference to preventative safety equipment, but may have several inaccuracies or omissions. It may be that there are just general references to preventative equipment so that the teacher can tell the student knows there are pieces of preventative equipment, but cannot necessarily tell if the student knows all of what is available to him or what to use for what situation. There are likely few examples or references to cause/effect relationships. There is little to no evidence that the student is aware of preventative equipment and its use. There may be no reference to preventative equipment at all, or what is there is inaccurate or too vague to determine any level of understanding. Student does not attempt the task.
15 Science Grade 7 Unit 02 Appendix: Flow of Energy
16 Science Assessment and Evaluation Criteria Grade 07 Unit 02 Appendix: Flow of Energy Performance Indicator #1 Write a paragraph describing photosynthesis and explain its importance to life on Earth. Draw a diagram to illustrate the process described in the paragraph. Label the components of the process on the diagram. (7.2C; 7.5A) Have students explain the components of photosynthesis. The components should include: how matter and energy interact to take light and turn it into glucose the chemical formula for photosynthesis the importance of photosynthesis to life on Earth Have students draw a diagram to illustrate the process they described in their writing. The diagram should be labeled and include the following: light energy from the Sun carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor chlorophyll and chloroplasts glucose plant leaf
17 7.2C Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawing, writing, and graphic organizers The diagram is accurate and detailed with appropriate vocabulary used as labels of the components of the process. The diagram is most accurate and detailed; however, some parts of the process may not be easily identified, although labels are correct. Proper vocabulary is utilized. Only minor errors are included. The diagram is somewhat accurate; however, there are parts that are incorrect, misplaced, omitted or unclear. Labels may not use proper vocabulary. In general, the student provides enough information to judge that he/she understands photosynthesis. The diagram is confusing, inaccurate and too skeletal to be minimally successful. Student does not attempt the task. 7.5A Recognize that radiant energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis The written explanation of photosynthesis is clear with details and examples to support each part of the process. The role of radiant energy and energy transformation and the process of storage in bonds of sugar are explicitly stated. The importance of photosynthesis to life is clearly described including what would happen without it. The written explanation of photosynthesis is generally clear with details and examples that support each part of the process; however, there may be minor errors or omissions. The level of detail may be inconsistent. Still the role of the Sun, conversion of light to chemical energy and the importance of photosynthesis to life are included, but possibly not elaborated to a great degree. The written explanation of photosynthesis is inconsistent and at times unclear due to errors or omissions. The role of the Sun may not be clearly expressed or the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and the importance to life may be omitted. In general; however, there is sufficient evidence that the student understands the process of photosynthesis to achieve a minimally successful score. There is little to no evidence that the student understands photosynthesis due to major errors, major omissions, and vague, general, and confusing statements. Student does not attempt the task.
18 Performance Indicator #2 Create a graphic to diagram the flow of energy from the Sun through living systems. Include food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids. (7.2C; 7.5A, 7.5B, 7.5C) Have students create a graphic of their choice to include diagrams of the following items including the criteria: Food chain- Label producers and consumers, include arrow showing the transfer of energy and a brief explanation of the illustration. Food web- Include arrow showing the transfer of energy and a brief explanation of the illustration. Transfer of matter and energy in a compost column-include a brief explanation of the illustration. Energy Pyramid showing the 10% Rule- Labeled and include a brief explanation of the illustration. The formula for photosynthesis, labeled. 7.2C Collect and record data using the International System of Units (SI) and qualitative means such as labeled drawing, writing, and graphic organizers The graphic is a properly labeled drawing or graphic organizer that provides a clear diagram of the flow of energy from the sun through living systems. The graphic is a labeled drawing or graphic organizer that provides a somewhat clear diagram of the flow of energy. The graphic is a drawing or graphic organizer that provide part of the information required. Proper labels, directional arrows, and graphic representations may be missing. The graphic is a confusing, disorganized attempt to diagram the flow of energy and cannot be judged to be minimally successful. Student does not attempt the task.
19 7.5A Recognize that radiant energy from the Sun is transformed into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis. 7.5C Diagram the flow of energy through living systems, including food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids. 7.5B Demonstrate and explain the cycling of matter within living systems such as in the decay of biomass in a compost bin. NOTE: The teacher should make sure that the graphic includes energy transformation (light to chemical) in photosynthesis, how energy flows through living systems, food chains, food webs and energy pyramids; and finally to include how decomposers free nutrients from dead consumers and producers and put them back into the environment The graphic accurately displays energy flow in food chains, food webs and energy pyramids; includes photosynthesis where appropriate and recycling of matter within living systems where appropriate. The graphic includes critical attributes and examples as well as appropriate vocabulary. The graphic could be used as a tool to learn about flow of energy. The graphic appropriately displays energy flow and includes all of the critical elements, but may have minor omissions or errors. There may be less detail and fewer examples overall than the score point 4. This graphic could be used as an aid to an oral presentation. The graphic may include errors in labels, arrows, or examples, but overall there is enough evidence to indicate the student understands flow of energy. Some information such as the cycling of matter may be omitted. This graphic would need revision to be used as a learning tool. There is little to no evidence that the student understands the flow of energy in living systems. There are major omissions and errors and the graphic is too confusing to interpret. Student does not attempt the task.
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