Grade 1 Geometric Shapes Conceptual Lessons Unit Outline Type of Knowledge & SBAC Claim Prerequisite Knowledge:


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1 Grade 1 Geometric Shapes Conceptual Lessons Unit Outline Type of Knowledge & SBAC Claim Prerequisite Knowledge: Standards: Lesson Title and Objective/Description Shape names: square, rectangle, triangle, circle, cube, sphere Shape vocabulary: side, vertex (corner), 2 dimensional (flat), 3 dimensional (solid) Geometry 1.G 1. Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and threesided) versus nondefining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes. Suggested Time Frame 3 Weeks Math Practice Embedded P, RK 1, 2, 3 2. Compose twodimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, halfcircles, and quartercircles) or threedimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. 3. Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of, or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares. Let Me Introduce Each half of the classroom examines and discusses a selection of shapes. Students introduce classmates from the other side of the class to a shape they have examined by describing key attributes. 1 hour 3, 6 P, C 1, 3 My Shape Attribute Book 2D and 3D Students sort shapes to distinguish defining and non defining attributes. Students then make a book with shape examples, non examples, defining attributes and real world uses. 34 hours 3, 6
2 C, RK 2, 3 Five Questions Students ask up to five yes or no questions about a shape that is in a bag. The fifth and final question is used to attempt to identify the shape. Practice Students practice drawing, identifying and describing 2 D and 3 D shapes. RK 2, 3 Three Shapes in a Row A student uses descriptions (without using shape names) to get classmates to identify and place three shapes in a row. C, RK 1, 2 Four Triangles Students use four isosceles right triangles to build various regular and irregular shapes. Parts of the shapes are colored to identify halves and fourths (quarters). Practice Students practice composing shapes out of squares, rectangles and triangles and decomposing complex shapes into these three types of figures. C 1, 3 Making Halves and Fourths Students look at examples of divided shapes and clarify the need for equal amounts when using fraction names. RK 2, 3 My 3D Thingamajig Students build a cone, cylinder, sphere, cube, rectangular prism and hemisphere from play doh. They assemble 2 to 4 of these solids into a thingamajig (composite shape) and describe what it is. Classmates identify what solids were used. Practice and Problem Solving Students review, practice and summarize all of the unit skills. All Summative Assessment Codes: RK Relational Knowledge Claim 1: Concepts/Procedures C Conceptual Knowledge Claim 2: Problem Solving P Procedural Fluency Claim 3: Communicating & Reasoning M Memorization Claim 4: Model and Data Analysis 1 hour 1, 3, 6 2 hours 12 hours 3, 6 2 hours 1, 2, 3, 6 1 hour 1 hour 3, hours 1, 5, 6 2 hours
3 Let Me Introduce (No Student Pages) Teacher Directions Materials: 3Dimensional shapes Cube, Cone, Hemisphere, Rectangular Prism, Cylinder, Sphere, Pyramid (23 of each). 2Dimensional shapes 23 sets copied from resource page at end of lesson and shapes cut out for students as described below. Half the class will each get one of the following: Cube Cone Half Sphere (Hemisphere) Rectangle Triangle (Regular/Equilateral) Trapezoid Circle The other half of the class will each get one of the following: Prism (Rectangular) Cylinder Sphere Pyramid Square Triangle (with square corner/right) Half circle Objective: Students are physically introduced to many of the shapes of this unit and teachers can formatively assess the language with which students describe those shapes. Directions: Discuss with the class the idea of introducing someone to someone else. Have they ever been introduced to others? What do they like to be said about them in an introduction? Possibly have someone demonstrate what an introduction looks like: Hi, I d like to introduce my friend, Lilliana. She is 6 years old and likes to play soccer. She has two older brothers and a dog named Figgins. Explain that introductions are an important part of life. Today they will practice doing introductions, but they will be introducing shapes to each other. Each person will have a shape in their hands and will first work with others to decide what could be said about it. Next they will walk around the room introducing their shape to other students and being introduced to other shapes. IMP Activity: Let Me Introduce 1
4 Give out the shapes to the two halves of the classroom. Ask the students to sit together in small groups to examine their shapes and think about what to say about them. They can help each other if they don t know the name of the shape or are stuck about what to say. After each side of the room has prepared, ask the students to mingle and to introduce their shape to as many other students as they have time for. They should also try to meet as many different shapes as they can. Give about minutes for the introductions. Ask all of the students to sit back down and then silently (in their heads) try to count how many different shapes they met. You can ask how many met 5 or more, 7 or more, 9 or more, to find out who thinks they met the most. Ask that person if they can tell you the names of all the shapes they met. You can list the names in front of the class and put a shape or drawing of the shape next to each name. Let the students know that they will be learning more about these shapes during the next few weeks. IMP Activity: Let Me Introduce 2
5 Teacher Directions Materials: 2D shape cards to sort. One set per team (4 or 5) students. Print the set with the odd pages in one color and the even pages in a different color. My Shape Attribute Book pages for each student (34 pages per student, depending on how many shapes you plan to describe.) Colored pencils or crayons Objective: Students will identify defining and nondefining attributes of shapes and will create pages of a reference book about 2D shapes. Directions: Make time for at least three 2D shape pages Triangle, Rectangle and Circle. If time permits, you could do also do a page for square. Pass out a set of the 2D shape cards to each group. Give students a chance to look through the set of cards and examine them all. Direct them to work with their team to decide on one feature of the cards that will allow them to sort the entire set into two groups one group that has that feature and one group that does not have the feature. (You can demonstrate this, if needed, by separating the cards into those that have curves and those that do not have curves.) Allow a few teams (36) to show their sorts and see if the rest of the class can identify the feature (or attribute) on which the sort was based. (The framework suggests that feature and attribute can be used interchangeably.) Some possible sorts might be small shapes, one color, has vertices (corners), closed figures. If you have groups who sorted by shape, save these sorts for later in the lesson. After working through the class examples of sorts, create a new sort that puts all of the triangles together. Ask students if they can identify the sort. Explain that the features or attributes that all triangles share are called defining attributes. Take some time for students to identify the defining attributes of triangles. They should include: Has 3 straight sides Closed Flat (2Dimensional) Sides meet at 3 corners (vertices) Draw attention to cards that have some but not all these attributes, so they are not triangles. For example, the cards with three straight pieces but are not closed, the cards with curved parts, or the cards with sides that overlap and extend across each other. IMP Activity: My Shape Attribute Book 2
6 Note also that some attributes do not matter when checking to see if a figure is a triangle. For example, color and size are not important. Also, some triangles have equal length sides while others do not. Distribute a copy of the My Shape Attribute Book page to all students. Together, fill out the page for Triangle. Put Triangle in the middle. Use examples from the cards for students to draw triangles and nontriangles. Be sure to include some triangles that are orientated differently, such as point down. These are still triangles. Help students to list the defining attributes of triangles and think about where in the world triangles appear. For a triangle the defining attributes are as follows: Has 3 straight sides Closed Flat (2Dimensional) Sides meet at 3 corners (vertices) You will now repeat this process for rectangles (be sure to include the squares in this group) and then again for circles. To do so, play guess my rule again, this time, though, show the students a group that has all the rectangles (including squares). Note: if you have a group who already sorted into rectangles, have this group come present. Give the class about 30 seconds to try to think of your rule. If they state a rule that is true but is not rectangles, then say that might be true, but it was not what I was thinking. Once someone guesses correctly, make sure to label this group as rectangles and then proceed to complete a new My Shape Attribute Book Page. Repeat the same process as you did for triangles. Defining attributes for a rectangle include the following: Has 4 straight sides Closed Flat (2Dimensional) Sides meet at 4 square corners (vertices) (in grade 4 students will call these right angles). Show one final sort (or find a group who used this sort) of circles vs. noncircles. Repeat the same process for guessing the rule and then complete another My Shape Attribute Book Page. Defining attributes for a circle include the following (note that circles are not formally defined until grade 7): Closed Flat (2Dimensional) No straight sides IMP Activity: My Shape Attribute Book 3
7 Set of all points equidistant from fixed center (again, this is a grade 7 definition, but if is good for the teacher to know to help students produce defining attributes that would support this bigger idea). If there is time left, close out the lesson by playing a quick is my sort by a defining attribute or not game. To do this, place a few cards up into 2 piles (those that have a feature and those that do not) and let the class guess 1) is the feature a defining attribute or not and 2) what the rule is. Below are some sample sorts. Sample Sorts 1. Triangles facing up vs. facing down. 2. Squares vs. nonsquares. 3. Red circles vs. blue circles (or whichever colors you copied onto). 4. Larger rectangles vs. smaller rectangles. IMP Activity: My Shape Attribute Book 4
8 Teacher Directions Materials: A bag or box with the shapes from Let Me Introduce for each team: Cube Cone Triangle (Regular/Equilateral) Half Sphere (Hemisphere) Cylinder Rectangle Sphere Trapezoid Square Prism (Rectangular) Circle Half circle Pyramid Triangle (with square corner/right) My Shape Attribute Book pages for each student (35 pages per student, depending on how many shapes you plan to describe.) Colored pencils or crayons Objective: Students will identify defining and nondefining attributes of shapes and will create pages of a reference book about 3D shapes. Directions: Make time for at least three 3D shape pages Cube, Cylinder, Cone. If time permits, you could do also do pages for Pyramid and Rectangular Prism. Begin by asking students to follow and recreate in their teams your sorting. Put two of the 2D shapes in one pile and two of the 3D shapes in a separate pile. Ask students in their teams to put another shape into each pile if they can identify how you are sorting. Walk around and observe if they are sorting 2D vs. 3D. If not, ask them to describe what they are using to sort the shapes. You may choose to have students explain their sorts if your original choices led to more than one reasonable sort. Be sure to have the sort of 2D vs. 3D be shown and explained. Explain that the next few pages in their Shape Attribute Book will have 3D shapes on them. Have everyone hold and examine the cylinder. Together identify the defining attributes of a cylinder. These should include: Two circular faces One curved surface Has no vertices 3 dimensional Distribute a copy of the My Shape Attribute Book page to all students. Together, fill out the page for Cylinder. IMP Activity: My Shape Attribute Book 2
9 Be sure to draw some cylinders on their side and include both 2D and 3D nonexamples. Repeat this process for cubes and then again for cones. For cubes, the defining attributes are as follows: 6 square faces 3 dimensional 8 corners (vertices) For cones, the defining attributes are as follows: 1 circular face 3 dimensional 1 curved surface 1 corner (vertex) IMP Activity: My Shape Attribute Book 3
10 Five Questions No Student Pages Teacher Directions Materials: Paper lunchsize bags, each with one of the shapes from Let Me Introduce: Cube Cone Triangle (Regular/Equilateral) Half Sphere (Hemisphere) Cylinder Rectangle Sphere Trapezoid Square Prism (Rectangular) Circle Half circle Pyramid Triangle (with square corner/right) Objective: Students use yes/no questions about attributes to identify shapes that a classmate has in a bag. Directions: Arrange the 14 bags in the front of the classroom, each with one of the shapes in it. Begin the class by demonstrating how the 5 questions game will work. Select one of the bags, put your hand into the bag but do not pull out the shape or look into the bag, and tell the class that there is a shape inside. Let them know they will be able to ask 4 questions about the features or attributes that the shape has. Each of these questions must be a yes/no type question, such as Do you feel any curves? or Is it flat? Let the class ask you four questions about what you feel in the bag. After the four questions, tell them that their fifth question will be in the form, Is it a? Allow the students to talk to decide what they think is in the bag, and then select someone to ask the final question. If necessary, you can model the game a second time with a student holding a different bag. If the class appears to understand well enough, divide into teams and have one student from each team come forward to take a bag. They will answer the questions of their team by feeling the object in the bag. When the team has identified the shape, a different team member should bring the bag back and select a new bag to repeat the game. At the end of the class, have a class discussion about what types of questions they found most useful and in what order. Use this opportunity to review what defining attributes vs. "nondefining attributes" are. The most helpful questions should all be about defining IMP Activity: Five Questions 1
11 attributes, as knowing the color or size does not help you determine the shape, whereas know if it is 2 or 3 dimensional, how many sides it has, etc, will all help immensely. You can label the bags A, B, C... M, N so that teams do not repeat bags. IMP Activity: Five Questions 2
12 Three Shapes In A Row No Student Pages Teacher Directions Materials: Three Shapes In A Row Cards (four or eight cards per team) note: copy onto cardstock and fold each halfpage so that the shapes are facing outwards on the top and the blank half of the sheet is on the bottom. A box or bag with the shapes from Let Me Introduce for each team: Cube Cone Triangle (Regular/Equilateral) Half Sphere (Hemisphere) Cylinder Rectangle Sphere Trapezoid Square Prism (Rectangular) Circle Half circle Pyramid Triangle (with square corner/right) Objective: Students use statements about attributes to get classmates to arrange three particular shapes in a row. Directions: Make sure each team has a bag or box with shapes. Hold up one of the shape cards, folded, so that students cannot see the three shapes on it. Tell them that there are 3 shapes on the card and that you will describe them so that the students can select the correct three shapes to put in a row. Describe the attributes of each shape, but do not use the shape name. For example, if you had the card with: Rectangle Cube Half Circle You could say: IMP Activity: Three Shapes in a Row 1
13 The first shape has four sides and four angles. It is flat or 2dimensional. Two sides are longer than the other two sides. The second shape is 3dimensional or solid. It has six faces that are all squares. The third shape is 2dimensional. It has one curve and one straight line. As you describe, students should be taking out the shapes from the box or bag and trying to line up the three you have on your card in the order in which you have them. Once you are done describing, have students tell their neighbor what shapes they think you have on your card and in what order. Select a student to share with the class and then show the class your card. Remind the students that they have to use attribute (feature) words to describe the shape. Students in a team will rotate who is describing and who is choosing and arranging the shapes. In teams of four, you can have one person describing while 3 people are working together to pick and arrange the shapes, or two people can work together to describe the shapes while the other two arrange. After teams have tried several times, you can stop the class to have a discussion about which shapes the class feels are hardest to describe. You can also have students share which attributes seemed to be the most helpful. IMP Activity: Three Shapes in a Row 2
14 Materials: Teacher Directions A set of four right triangles for each student. (Cut copies from the template at the end of this document or use the small triangles from a standard 4 inch Tangram set.) Copies of Four Triangles pages for each student Colored pencils or crayons Objective: Students use four triangles to make shapes. The triangle parts are colored to show half the shape and to show one fourth of the shape. Directions: Give students the four triangles. Allow them some time to see what shapes they can make with the triangles, first showing their partners and then selecting some to show the class. Distribute the activity sheet and work through reading the directions and doing the first puzzle together. As you color the triangles, be sure to make declarative statements using the words half, halves, fourth and fourths, such as: I colored half of the shape red. There are two halves to the shape. Only one half is red. One fourth is now colored blue. There are four fourths in the whole shape. One fourth is still uncolored. There are two fourths that are not red. Students should learn quarter as a synonym for fourth. They may be used interchangeably. As a teacher, based on your understanding of the language proficiency in your classroom, decide when and how to introduce this synonym. If both language and the concept of half and fourth are a challenge, you may choose to introduce quarter on a different day. After completing the first shape together, give students a chance to complete the remaining six shapes. After about minutes, select a student to show how they composed the triangles into one of the remaining shapes and how they colored the parts. Encourage them to describe their coloring using the words half and fourth. Repeat for other students and shapes. The final page has space for two new designs created by students. They can draw the outline of a new shape that they created using the four triangles and ask another student to find how it was created. IMP Activity: Four Triangles 5
15 Materials: Teacher Directions Copies of Making Halves and Fourths for each student. Objective: Students clarify the meaning of halves and fourths by comparing rectangles and squares cut into two or four unequal pieces vs. those cut into equal sized pieces. Directions: Give students copies of Making Halves and Fourths. Read the directions together at the top of the page. Ask students to think (without talking) for 2 minutes about what they are being asked to do. After two minutes, do not ask for answers yet, but ask if anyone has any questions about what the directions are. Clarify the directions if needed; then ask students to discuss the page and share their thoughts in small teams. Give teams a few minutes to talk while you listen to the discussions. Do not allow students to ask you if they are correct or to take sides in any disagreements. When it seems appropriate, stop the teams and ask individuals to show and explain to the class which shapes they think demonstrate halves. Use the discussion and examples to clarify that half means each of the two parts has an equal amount. Move to fourths when the halves discussion is complete. Use the questions on page two to clarify some important ideas about the use of these fraction terms. In particular, two halves of one figure are the same amount, but two halves from different figures may not be. Use the drawings at the bottom of page two to assess student understanding of the ideas of the day. IMP Activity: Making Halves and Fourths 3
16 My 3D Thingamajig No Student Pages Teacher Directions Materials: Playdoh, ideally five cans of the same color per team. Plastic knives for cutting Objective: Students build composite 3D figures and identify the component parts of others students composite figures. Directions: Tell the students that today they will have the opportunity to show their knowledge of 3D shapes in several ways. First, they will be building five different shapes out of playdoh. They should use what they know about the attributes of these shapes to make them as precisely as they can. Pass out playdoh to each group and instruct them to make five shapes: cone, cylinder, sphere or half sphere, pyramid and rectangular prism. Explain the next task to the students: just as triangles can be put together to make many different shapes, they will compose a new figure out of 2 to 4 of the shapes they made. Each team will then present their new figure and explain what it is, what it does, or what it represents. Encourage groups to be creative in explaining what there their shape is, does and represents; for example, We built a superdog who can defend against attackers with his pointed noise and who can roll away when trouble comes. His tail also serves to protect by shooting out small arrows from the vertex. Have each team come present their Thingamajig. As each team presents, ask other teams to identify the parts that were used to make the composite figure. To do this, first give them a minute to discuss and list the shapes as a team and then randomly select a team to share with the class. Ideally, the component shapes should be attached well enough to hold but lightly enough to still maintain their individual shape. Teams should be given the freedom to make some of their shapes larger by using more than one can of playdoh for that shape. This will mean that some of their other shapes will be smaller. Using a checklist can help identify teams moving slowly so you can encourage their progress. A checkoff list for teams completing each stage might look like this: IMP Activity: My 3D Thingamajig 1
17 Made all 5 shapes Created composite Presented composite All members spoke Named shape components for others Team A B C D E IMP Activity: My 3D Thingamajig 2
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