Chem final review sheet with answers

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1 hem final review sheet with answers Name: ate: 1. Which pair of elements form an ionic bond with each other?. Kl. Il. Pl. Hl 6. Which atom listed has the greatest ability to attract the electrons that form a bond between it and another atom?. sodium. magnesium. aluminum. chlorine 2. Which substance is an ionic solid?. Lil. Hl. Ne. Fe 7. n ionic bond forms between atoms of. I and l. K and l. P and l. H and l 3. Molecule-ion attractions are found in. u(s). O(g). Kr(l). Nal(aq) 8. characteristic of ionic solids is that they. have high melting points. have low boiling points. conduct electricity 4. When a reaction occurs between atoms with ground state electron configurations 1s 2 2s 1 and 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 the predominant type of bond formed is. are noncrystalline. polar covalent. nonpolar covalent. ionic. metallic 9. Which of the following compounds contains a bond with the greatest degrees of ionic character?. ao. Mgr 2. PH 3. L 4 5. The greatest degree of ionic character would be found in a bond between sulfur and. oxygen. chlorine. bromine. phosphorus 10. Which of the following bonds exhibits the greatest ionic character?. H F. H l. H r. H I page 1

2 hem final review sheet with answers 11. Which type of bond is formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another?. a covalent bond. a coordinate covalent bond 16. Which two atoms will form an ionic bond?. K and H. I and H. N and H. and H. a hydrogen bond. an ionic bond 17. In which compound does the bond between the atoms have the least ionic character? 12. Which element can react with fluorine to form more than one binary compound?. HF. Hl. Hr. HI. K. Mg. o. Na 18. white crystalline salt conducts electricity when it is melted and when it is dissolved in water. Which type of bond does this salt contain? 13. Which compound contains a bond with the least ionic character?. ionic. metallic. covalent. network. O. ao. K 2 O. Li 2 O 19. Which bond has the greatest ionic character? 14. Which type of bonds are formed when calcium atoms react with oxygen atoms?. H l. H F. H O. H N. polar covalent. coordinate covalent. ionic. hydrogen 20. Which compound contains ionic bonds?. N 2 O. Na 2 O. O. O Which compound contains both covalent bonds and ionic bonds?. Nal(s). Hl(g). NaNO 3 (s). N 2 O 5 (g) 21. Which compound has the least ionic character?. Kl. al 2. ll 3. l 4 page 2

3 hem final review sheet with answers 22. Which element would most likely form an ionic bond with chlorine? 26. When a potassium atom reacts with bromine, the pottasium atom will. O. N. S. K. lose only 1 electron. lose 2 electrons. gain only 1 electron 23. In which compound have electrons been transferred to the oxygen atom?. gain 2 electrons. O 2. NO 2. N 2 O. Na 2 O 24. When a metal atom combines with a nonmetal atom, the nonmetal atom will 27. Which atom will form an ionic bond with a r atom?. N. Li. O.. lose electrons and decrease in size. lose electrons and increase in size. gain electrons and decrease in size. gain electrons and increase in size 28. Element X is in Group 2 and element Y is in Group 17. What happens when a compound is formed between these two atoms? 25. When ionic bonds are formed, metallic atoms tend to. lose electrons and become negative ions. lose electrons and become positive ions. gain electrons and become negative ions. X loses electrons to Y to form an ionic bond.. X loses electrons to Y to form a covalent bond.. X gains electrons from Y to form an ionic bond.. X gains electrons from Y to form a covalent bond.. gain electrons and become positive ions page 3

4 hem final review sheet with answers 29. The forces between atoms that create chemical bonds are the result of interactions between. nuclei. electrons. protons and electrons. protons and nuclei 30. Which type of bond is formed when an atom of potassium transfers an electron to a bromine atom? 33. Which statement best describes the substance that results when electrons are transferred from a metal to a nonmetal?. It contains ionic bonds and has a low melting point.. It contains ionic bonds and has a high melting point.. It contains covalent bonds and has a low melting point.. It contains covalent bonds and has a high melting point.. metallic. ionic. nonpolar covalent. polar covalent 31. Which substance contains a bond with the greatest ionic character?. Kl. Hl. l 2. F hard substance that has a high melting point and is a poor conductor of electricity in the solid phase could be 32. Which elements combine by forming an ionic bond?. O 2. Mg. Nal. l 4. sodium and potassium. sodium and oxygen. carbon and oxygen. carbon and sulfur page 4

5 hem final review sheet with answers 35. chemist performs the same tests on two homogeneous white crystalline solids, and. The results are shown in the accompanying table. 37. The bonds in the compound MgSO 4 can be described as. ionic, only. covalent, only. both ionic and covalent The results of these tests suggest that. neither ionic nor covalent. both solids contain only ionic bonds. both solids contain only covalent bonds. solid contains only covalent bonds and solid contains only ionic bonds. solid contains only ionic bonds and solid contains only covalent bonds 38. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the information below. Given the equation for the dissolving of sodium chloride in water: Nal(s) Na + (aq) + l (aq) Explain, in terms of particles, why Nal(s) does not conduct electricity. 36. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the information below. Each molecule listed below is formed by sharing electrons between atoms when the atoms within the molecule are bonded together. 39. The data table below represents the properties determined by the analysis of substances,,, and. Molecule : l 2 Molecule : l 4 Molecule : NH 3 Explain how the bonding in Kl is different from the bonding in molecules,, and. Which substance is an ionic compound?.... page 5

6 hem final review sheet with answers 40. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the balanced equation below. 2Na(s) + l 2 (g) 2Nal(s) Explain, in terms of electrons, why the bonding in Nal is ionic. 41. Which type of bond is found in sodium bromide?. covalent. hydrogen 43. ase your answers to the following question(s) on the information below. uring a fireworks display, salts are heated to very high temperatures. Ions in the salts absorb energy and become excited. Spectacular colors are produced as energy is emitted from the ions in the form of light. The color of the emitted light is characteristic of the metal ion in each salt. For example, the lithium ion in lithium carbonate, Li2O 3, produces a deep-red color. The strontium ion in strontium carbonate, SrO 3, produces a bright-red color. Similarly, calcium chloride is used for orange light, sodium chloride for yellow light, and barium chloride for green light. Identify the two types of chemical bonds found in the salt used to produce a deep-red color.. ionic. metallic 44. Which kind of bond is formed when two atoms share electrons to form a molecule?. ionic. metallic 42. n ionic bond can be formed when one or more electrons are. electrovalent. covalent. equally shared by two atoms. unequally shared by two atoms. transferred from the nucleus of one atom to the nucleus of another atom. transferred from the valence shell of one atom to the valence shell of another atom 45. The distance between two adjacent nuclei of an element in the solid phase is 2.04 Å. The covalent atomic radius of an atom of this element is closest to Å Å Å Å page 6

7 hem final review sheet with answers 46. ccording to Reference Table E, which compound forms spontaneously from its elements? TLE OF SOLUILITIES IN WTER i nearly insoluable ss slightly soluable s soluable d decomposes n not isolated acetate bromide carbonate chloride chromate hydroxide iodide nitrate phosphate sulfate luminum ss s n s n i s s i s d mmonium s s s s s s s s s s s arium s s i s i s s s i i d alcium s s i s s ss s s i ss d opper II s s i s i i n s i s i Iron II s s i s n i s s i s i Iron III s s n s i i n s i ss d Lead s ss i ss i i ss s i i i Magnesium s s i s s i s s i s d Mercury I ss i i i ss n i s i ss i Mercury II s ss i s ss i i s i d i Potassium s s s s s s s s s s s Silver ss i i i ss n i s i ss i Sodium s s s s s s s s s s s Zinc s s i s s i s s i s i sulfide 48. Given the reaction: H x... Ṇ x. H + H + H H H x... Ṇ x. H H + The bond formed between the NH 3 and the H + is. electrovalent. ionic. metallic. coordinate covalent 49. What type of bond is present in diamonds?. covalent. ionic. electrovalent. metallic. 2 H 4. 2 H 2. NO 2. O The bonds present in silicon carbid (Si) are. covalent. ionic. metallic. van der Waals 47. Which kind of bond is formed between a proton (H + ) and a water molecule in the production of a hydronium ion?. nonpolar covalent. coordinate covalent. electrovalent. ionic 51. diamond consists of covalently bonded carbon atoms. The diamond is an example of. a metallic solid. a molecular solid. a network solid. an ionic solid page 7

8 hem final review sheet with answers 52. One atom of forms a coordinate covalent bond with one atom of. This bond could have been formed by an atom of. sharing two electrons belonging to an atom of 56. The bonds in all network solids are. covalent. ionic. metallic. nonpolar. sharing only one electron belonging to an atom of. transferring two electrons to an atom of. transferring only one electron to an atom of 53. Which type of bond exists between the carbon atoms in diamond? 57. Given the reaction: H + Proton + H. : N H / H mmonia H. H:N H / H mmonium Ion. ionic. covalent. metallic. hydrogen Which type of bond is formed between the proton (H + ) and the ammonia molecule?. ionic. network. coordinate covalent. nonpolar covalent 54. Which compound contains both covalent and ionic bonds?. Kl. NH 4 l. Mgl 2. l Which kinds of bonds are found in a sample of H 2 O(s)?. hydrogen bonds, only. covalent bonds, only. both ionic and hydrogen bonds 58. Substance Melting onductivity In Solid State Solubility in Water high no soluble high yes insoluble high no insoluble low no insoluble The table shows properties of four solids,,,, and. Which substance could represent diamond, a network solid?..... both covalent and hydrogen bonds page 8

9 hem final review sheet with answers 59. What is the maximum number of covalent bonds that a carbon atom can form? 64. When combining with nonmetallic atoms, metallic atoms generally will lose electrons and form negative ions. lose electrons and form positive ions 60. Metallic bonding occurs between atoms of. gain electrons and form negative ions. gain electrons and form positive ions. fluorine. neon. sulfur. copper 61. Mobile electrons are a distinguishing characteristic of. an ionic bond. an electrovalent bond. a metallic bond. a covalent bond 65. Metallic bonding occurs between metal atoms that have. full valence orbitals and low ionization energies. full valence orbitals and high ionization energies. vacant valence orbitals and low ionization energies. vacant valence orbitals and high ionization energies 62. Which element consists of positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons?. sulfur. nitrogen. calcium. chlorine 66. The high electrical conductivity of metals is primarily due to. high ionization energies. filled energy levels 63. Which substance contains particles held together by metallic bonds?. mobile electrons. high electronegativities. Ni(s). Ne(s). N 2 (s). L 2 (s) page 9

10 hem final review sheet with answers 67. onductivity in a metal results from the metal atoms having. high electronegativity. high ionization energy. highly mobile protons in the nucleus 70. n element that has a low first ionization energy and good conductivity of heat and electricity is classified as a. metal. metalloid. nonmetal. noble gas. highly mobile electrons in the valence shell 71. Hydrogen bonds are strongest between molecules of 68. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the information below. Element X is a solid metal that reacts with chlorine to form a water-soluble binary compound. State one physical property of element X that makes it a good material for making pots and pans.. H 2 O(l). H 2 S(l). H 2 Se(l). H 2 Te(l) 72. Which is the predominate type of attraction between molecules of HF in the liquid state?. hydrogen bonding 69. solid substance is an excellent conductor of electricity. The chemical bonds in this substance are most likely. electrocovalent bonding. ionic bonding. covalent bonding. ionic, because the valence electrons are shared between atoms. ionic, because the valence electrons are mobile. metallic, because the valence electrons are stationary. metallic, because the valence electrons are mobile 73. Hydrogen bonds are strongest between the molecules of. HF(l). Hl(l). Hr(l). HI(l) page 10

11 hem final review sheet with answers 74. The strongest hydrogen bonds are formed between molecules in which hydrogen is covalently bonded to an element with. high electronegativity and large atomic radius. high electronegativity and small atomic radius 78. s a chemical bond forms between two hydrogen atoms, the potential energy of the atoms. decreases. increases. remains the same. low electronegativity and large atomic radius. low electronegativity and small atomic radius 79. Which molecule is a dipole? 75. Hydrogen bonds are strongest between molecules of. He. H 2. NH 3. H 4. Hl(l). HF(l). Hr(l). HI(l) 80. The bonding in NH 3 is most similar to the bonding in. H 2 O. Nal. MgO. KF 76. Which atom has the least attraction for the electrons in a bond between that atom and an atom of hydrogen?. carbon. nitrogen. oxygen. fluorine 81. Which electron dot formula represents a molecule that contains a nonpolar covalent bond?. x r x. r:..... H x. r:..... Na +[. x Fx x]. H. x Fx x 77. The relatively high boiling point of water is primarily due to the presence of. hydrogen bonds. van der Waals forces. molecule-ion attractions. ion-ion attractions 82. Which substance contains a polar covalent bond?. Na 3 N. Mg 3 N 2. NH 3. N 2 page 11

12 hem final review sheet with answers 83. Which substance contains a polar covalent bond?. H 2. Hl. l 2. Kl 87. Which molecule contains a nonpolar covalent bond? Which molecule contains a nonpolar covalent bond?. I 2. NH 3. H 2 O. O 88. The chemical bond between which two atoms is most polar?. N. H H. S l. Si O 85. Two fluorine atoms are held together by a covalent bond. Which statement correctly describes this bond?. It is polar and forms a polar molecule.. It is polar and forms a nonpolar molecule.. It is nonpolar and forms a polar molecule.. It is nonpolar and forms a nonpolar molecule. 89. In the modern Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing. atomic number. mass number. oxidation number. valence number 86. The bonds between hydrogen and oxygen in a water molecule are classified as. polar covalent. nonpolar covalent. ionic. metallic 90. In the reaction Zn + u 2+ Zn 2+ + u, the u 2+ ions. gain electrons. lose electrons. gain protons. lose protons page 12

13 hem final review sheet with answers 91. s the elements in Group I are considered in order of increasing atomic number, the atomic radius of each successive element increases. This is primarily due to an increase in the number of. neutrons in the nucleus 95. The arrangement of the elements in the present Periodic Table is based on atomic. mass. number. radius. density. electrons in the outermost shell. unpaired electrons. principal energy levels 96. The most active metal in Group 2 (II) is. Mg. Sr. a. a 92. Which is the most active nonmetal in the Periodic Table of the Elements?. Na. F. I. l 97. In Period 4 of the Periodic Table, the atom with the largest covalent radius is located in Group. 1 (I). 13 (III). 3 (III). 18 (O) 93. Which of the following atoms has the smallest covalent atomic radius?. Li. e.. F 98. The greatest difference in electronegativity between an element in Group 2 (II) and an element in Group 16 (VI) occurs in Period 94. s the elements of Group 16 (VI) are considered from top to bottom on the Periodic Table, the covalent radii increase and the ionization energies decrease. increase and the ionization energies increase. decrease and the ionization energies increase. decrease and the ionization energies decrease 99. The elements in the modern Periodic Table are arranged according to their. atomic number. oxidation number. atomic mass. nuclear mass page 13

14 hem final review sheet with answers 100. s elements in Group 15 of the Periodic Table are considered in order from top to bottom, the metallic character of each successive element generally. decreases. increases 103. Which element in Group 15 has the greatest metallic character?. nitrogen. phosphorus. antimony. bismuth. remains the same 101. Which sequence of Group 18 elements demonstrates a gradual decrease in the strength of the van der Waals forces?. r(l), Kr(l), Ne(l), Xe(l) 104. ccording to the Periodic Table, which element has more than one positive oxidation state?. cadmium. iron. silver. zinc. Kr(l), Xe(l), r(l), Ne(l). Ne(l), r(l), Kr(l), Xe(l). Xe(l), Kr(l), r(l), Ne(l) 105. t STP, which of the following elements has the most metallic character?. iodine. bromine 102. s the elements in Period 3 are considered from left to right, they tend to. chlorine. fluorine. lose electrons more readily and increase in metallic character. lose electrons more readily and increase in nonmetallic character. gain electrons more readily and increase in metallic character. gain electrons more readily and increase in nonmetallic character 106. Which group contains elements that form chlorides having the formula Ml 2 4?. I. II. III. IV page 14

15 hem final review sheet with answers 107. student determining the percent by mass of water in a hydrated crystal obtained the following data. Mass of crystal before heating g Mass of crystal after 1st heating g Mass of crystal after 2nd heating g What is the percent by mass of water hydrate?. 0.80%. 0.20%. 80.0%. 20.0% 110. How does the ground state electron configuration of the hydrogen atom differ from that of a ground state helium atom?. Hydrogen has one electron in a higher energy level.. Hydrogen has two electrons in a lower energy level.. Hydrogen contains a half-filled orbital.. Hydrogen contains a completely filled orbital Which element is a liquid at room temperature?. K. I 2. Hg. Mg 111. The light produced by signs using neon gas results from electrons that are. moving from a higher to a lower principal energy level. moving from a lower to a higher principal energy level. being lost by the Ne(g) atoms. being gained by the Ne(g) atoms 109. The solid block shown here has a mass of 146 grams. What is the block s density? g/cm g/cm g/cm g/cm ompared to a sodium atom in the ground state, a sodium atom in the excited state must have. a greater number of electrons. a smaller number of electrons. an electron with greater energy. an electron with less energy page 15

16 hem final review sheet with answers 113. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below, which shows bright-line spectra of selected elements ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the diagram below, which represents an atom of magnesium-26 in the ground state. Explain how a bright-line spectrum is produced, in terms of excited state, energy transitions, and ground state. On the diagram below, write an appropriate number of electrons in each shell to represent a Mg-26 atom in an excited state. Your answer may include additional shells Which is an electron configuration for an atom of chlorine in the excited state? page 16

17 hem final review sheet with answers 116. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the information below. The table below lists physical and chemical properties of six elements at standard pressure that correspond to known elements on the Periodic Table. The elements are identified by the code letters,, E, G, J, L, and Q. Properties of Six Elements at Standard Pressure Element ensity g/cm 3 Melting point 272 oiling point -269 Oxide formula (none) Element J ensity g/cm 3 Melting point 210 oiling point 196 Oxide formula J 2O 5 Element E ensity 1.82 g/cm 3 Melting point 4 oiling point 280 Oxide formula E 2O 5 Element L ensity 0.86 g/cm 3 Melting point 64 oiling point 774 Oxide formula L 2O Element G ensity 0.53 g/cm 3 Melting point 181 oiling point 1347 Oxide formula G 2O Element Q ensity 0.97 g/cm 3 Melting point 98 oiling point 883 Oxide formula Q 2O n atom of element G is in the ground state. What is the total number of valence electrons in this atom? 118. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the information below. fluorescent light tube contains a noble gas and a drop of mercury. When the fluorescent light operates, the Hg is a vapor and there are free-flowing Hg ions and electrons in the tube. The electrons collide with Hg atoms that then emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The inside of the tube is coated with a mixture of several compounds that absorbs UV radiation. Ions in the coating emit a blend of red, green, and blue light that together appears as white light. The compound that produces red light is Y 2 O 3. The compound that produces green light is emgl 11 O 19. The compound that produces blue light is amgl 10 O 17. Explain, in terms of both electrons and energy, how ions in the coating emit light ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the information below What is the total number of valence electrons in a sulfide ion in the ground state? ond energy is the amount of energy required to break a chemical bond. The table below gives a formula and the carbon-nitrogen bond energy for selected nitrogen compounds. Selected Nitrogen ompounds ompound Formula arbon-nitrogen ond Energy (kj/mol) hydrogen cyanide 890. isocyanic acid 615 methanamine 293 Identify the noble gas that has atoms in the ground state with the same electron configuration as the nitrogen in a molecule of isocyanic acid. page 17

18 hem final review sheet with answers 120. ase your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the information below. n atom in an excited state has an electron configuration of Write the electron configuration of this atom in the ground state. page 18

19 cces format version c Educide Software Licensed for use by Problem-ttic hem final review sheet with answers 01/11/ Kl ionic bond;,, no ionic bonds toms do not share electrons when bonding. There is a transfer of electrons from K to l. Kl forms by electrostatic attraction. onding involves a metal with a nonmetal.

20 Teacher s Key Page Nal(s) ions cannot move (are not mobile). no charged particles free to move The sodium atom transfers its one valence electron to the chlorine atom. ionic bonds and polar covalent bonds covalent and ionic conducts heat, high melting point, malleable

21 Teacher s Key Page Excited state to ground state releases energy. energy released - excited to ground n electron absorbs energy and moves to a higher shell (energy level). s the electron returns to a lower shell (energy level), it releases energy in the form of a bright-line spectrum

22 Teacher s Key Page or one. cceptable answers but not limited to: Electrons move from the ground state to an excited state as the compounds gain energy. Light energy is released when the electrons return to lower states. Electrons lose energy as they move to lower shells. Light is emitted as electrons return from higher to lower energy states Ne neon element

Chem term # 1 review sheet C. 12 A. 1

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