Structures of animals

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1 Structures of animals Name: All animals have been designed with different parts, which we call structures, that make up their bodies. Each of these structures is important as it is used to perform a specific function. Activity 1 Look at the picture of the dog. What structures make up its body? Use the word bank to help you label the diagram. WORD BANK mouth tongue head nose eyes skin hair ears body legs

2 THE HEAD 1) What is the most important organ in the body, which is found in the head? 2) What function does it perform? Animals have a head that contains their brain. Some animals have bigger brains than other animals. The brain is the most important organ in the body because it controls all of the other organs and parts of the body. The head contains other organs as well, such as the eyes, ears, nose and mouth, which are very important sense organs. THE SENSE ORGANS Do you know what the five senses are? Match up the sense in Column A with the organ we use to perform that sense, in Column B. COLUMN A (SENSE) Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell COLUMN B (ORGAN) Nose Tongue Eyes Skin Ears Animals also have these senses, but different animals may use a particular sense more than another, depending what they need it for. For example, an owl relies on its good eye-sight to see in the dark, as it is nocturnal and hunts and flies at night. A dog has a very powerful sense of hearing and smell which give it the ability to sense things that humans cannot. This is why we use dogs to sniff out bombs and drugs. Bats are blind and rely on a special sense called echolocation to help them sense where objects are and identify objects. Echolocation is a series of sound waves the bat sends out through their nose or mouth. When the sound hits the objects it echoes back to the bat and it matches the sound to an animal or object. Snakes taste the air with their tongues and can sense even the slightest vibrations in the ground through their bodies.

3 LIMBS An animal uses its limbs to move around. These limbs make walking, running, climb and swim. Different animals rely on different types of limbs. Monkeys have very long arms to help them climb and swing from branch to branch. Cheetahs have long, thin legs and flexible paws which help them move quickly and easily. A fish has fins that keep it balanced in the water, assist it with swimming and help it change direction as it swims. Birds have wings which enable them to fly. TAIL Many animals have tails. These tails are used for different purposes. Look at the pictures and decide what these animals are using their tails for

4 3. 4. Other animals use their tails in other ways: Monkeys and lemurs use their tails to help them climb and swing in the trees. Crocodiles use their tails to help them spin in the water when they are killing their prey. Scorpions have venom in their stings in their tails to kill their prey. Beavers use their tails to help them build their homes. Squirrels use their fluffy tails to keep them and their offspring warm. Dogs and some antelope use their tails to communicate dogs communicate their emotions with their tails; some antelope lift their tails so the white underside shows to warn others of danger. Other animals like lizards and geckos use their tails as a defense mechanism they drop them off to distract the predator. BODY COVERINGS Think about and name a few reasons why people wear clothes? Animals have coverings over their skin as well. Each animal s body covering is designed to provide protection suited to its habitat (where it lives). An animal that lives in a cold area will have thicker fur or hair than an animal living in a hot area. Body coverings protect the animal s body from the weather, but they have other purposes as well. Fish have scales covering their body these help them to be streamlined so they can glide through the water easily and quickly. Snails have a slime that covers their bodies which keeps them moist and protects them from the rough surfaces they glide over. Whales and seals have a layer or blubber under their skin that helps to keep them warm in the cold water they swim in. Some animials, like the chameleon, have body coverings that help the animal blend into its surroundings (camouflage). This makes them less visible to predators. Body coverings are also used to attract mates male birds have brightly coloured feathers to attract the females. Activity 2 Examine the animals pictured on the following page. 1) Label the following parts of each animal: Head, limbs, tail, sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, skin) and type of body covering.

5

6 2) Look at each animal s tail. What do you think each animal uses its tail for? Elephant: Crocodile: Baboon: 3) Use the table below to describe each animal s body covering and explain how it helps the animal. Elephant: BODY COVERING HOW IT HELPS THE ANIMAL Crocodile: Baboon:

7 Memorandum Activity 1 Teacher to check diagram for accurate labelling. THE HEAD 1) What is the most important organ in the body, which is found in the head? The brain 2) What does it do? Controls all the body parts and sense organs. THE SENSE ORGANS Do you know what the five senses are? Match up the sense in Column A with the organ that helps us have that sense, in Column B. COLUMN A (SENSE) Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell COLUMN B (ORGAN) Nose Tongue Eyes Skin Ears TAIL COW: Swatting flies. PEACOCK: Attracting a mate. KANGAROO: Balance while hopping. FISH: swimming forward, changing direction. BODY COVERINGS Think about this: Why do people wear clothing? To cover themselves, Protection from the weather, Attract attention, Specific activities (eg: Costume to swim in), School clothes go to school in (blend in with the rest of the children) Activity 2 Examine the animals pictured here. Note: Teacher to check and mark according to accuracy. Label line must line up on the right hand side of the diagram with the label written next to, rather than on top of, the line. Label lines must not cross one other. 2) Look at the animal s tail. What do you think each animal uses its tail for?

8 Elephant: Swatting insects and also used for communication. Baby elephants also hold onto an adult s tail while walking. Crocodile: Swimming. The tail acts like a propeller, powering the crocodile through the water. Baboon: Used to grip branches while climbing trees. 3) Use the table below to describe each animal s body covering and explain how it helps the animal. BODY COVERING Elephant: Thick, tough skin covered in short wiry hair. Grey and brown in colour. Crocodile: Thick leathery skin with scales. Usually a brown/dark green colour. HOW IT HELPS THE ANIMAL Protects them from the hot sun, thorny bushes and trees. Helps them blend into the vegetation Protects them from sharp rocks in the water, makes them difficult to attack. Helps them blend into the vegetation. Baboon: Short hair covering whole body. Grey colour with white and black areas. Protects them from the cold and from scratches from branches and thorns. Helps them blend into the shadows in the trees.

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