# Georgia Standards of Excellence Curriculum Map. Mathematics. GSE 8 th Grade

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1 Georgia Standards of Excellence Curriculum Map Mathematics GSE 8 th Grade These materials are for nonprofit educational purposes only. Any other use may constitute copyright infringement.

2 GSE Eighth Grade Curriculum Map 1 st Semester 2 nd Semester Unit 1 Transformations, Congruence and Similarity MGSE8.G.1 MGSE8.G.2 MGSE8.G.3 MGSE8.G.4 MGSE8.G.5 Unit 2 Exponents MGSE8.EE1 MGSE8.EE.2 (evaluating) MGSE8.EE.3 MGSE8.EE.4 MGSE8.EE.7 MGSE8.EE.7a MGSE8.EE.7b MGSE8.NS.1 MGSE8.NS.2 Unit 3 Geometric Applications of Exponents MGSE8.G.6 MGSE8.G.7 MGSE8.G.8 MGSE8.G.9 MGSE8.EE.2 (equations) Unit 4 (2 3 weeks) Functions MGSE8.F.1 MGSE8.F.2 Unit 5 (3 4 weeks) Linear Functions MGSE8.EE.5 MGSE8.EE.6 MGSE8.F.3 Unit 6 (5 6 weeks) Linear Models and Tables MGSE8.F.4 MGSE8.F.5 MGSE8.SP.1 MGSE8.SP.2 MGSE8.SP.3 MGSE8.SP.4 Unit 7 Solving Systems of Equations MGSE8.EE.8 MGSE8.EE.8a MGSE8.EE.8b MGSE8.EE.8c Unit 8 (3 4 weeks) Show What We Know ALL Plus High School Prep Review These units were written to build upon concepts from prior units, so later units contain tasks that depend upon the concepts addressed in earlier units. All units will include the Mathematical Practices and indicate skills to maintain. NOTE: Mathematical standards are interwoven and should be addressed throughout the year in as many different units and tasks as possible in order to stress the natural connections that exist among mathematical topics. Grades 6-8 Key: NS = The Number System F = Functions EE = Expressions and Equations G = Geometry SP = Statistics and Probability. July 2016 Page 2 of 7

3 Georgia Standards of Excellence Eighth Grade Mathematics Curriculum Map Rationale Unit 1: This unit centers around geometry standards related to transformations both on and off the coordinate plane translations, reflections, rotations, and dilations. Students develop understanding of congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software, and learn to use informal arguments to establish proof of angle sum and exterior angle relationships. Unit 2: Students explore and understand numbers that are not rational (irrational numbers) and approximate their value by using rational numbers. Students work with radicals and express very large and very small numbers using integer exponents. Unit 3: Students extend their work with irrational numbers by applying the Pythagorean Theorem to situations involving right triangles, including finding distance, and will investigate proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse. Students solve real-world problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres. Unit 4: Students are introduced to relations and functions. Students define, evaluate, and compare functions. Functions are described and modeled using a variety of depictions, including algebraic representation, graphic representation, numerical tables, and verbal descriptions. Unit 5: Students further explore functions, focusing on the study of linear functions. Students develop understanding of the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations, and solve mathematical and real-life problems involving such relationships. Slope is formally introduced, and students work with equations for slope in different forms, including comparing proportional relationships depicted in different ways (graphical, tabular, algebraic, verbal). Unit 6: Students extend the study of linear relationships by exploring models and tables to describe rate of change. The study of statistics expands to bivariate data, which can be graphed and a line of best fit determined. Unit 7: The final unit broadens the study of linear equations to include situations involving simultaneous equations. Using graphing, substitution, and elimination, students learn to solve systems of equations algebraically, and make applications to real-world situations. July 2016 Page 3 of 7

4 1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4 Model with mathematics. GSE Eighth Grade Expanded Curriculum Map 1 st Semester Standards for Mathematical Practice 5 Use appropriate tools strategically. 6 Attend to precision. 7 Look for and make use of structure. 8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Transformations, Congruence and Exponents Geometric Applications of Exponents Functions Similarity Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software. MGSE8.G.1 Verify experimentally the congruence properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: lines are taken to lines and line segments to line segments of the same length; angles are taken to Work with radicals and integer exponents. MGSE8.EE.1 Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. MGSE8.EE.2 Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations. Recognize that x² = p (where p is a positive rational number and lxl < 25) has 2 Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem. MGSE8.G.6 Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse. MGSE8.G.7 Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three Define, evaluate, and compare functions. MGSE8.F.1 Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. MGSE8.F.2 Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way angles of the same measure; parallel lines solutions and x³ = p (where p is a negative dimensions. (algebraically, graphically, numerically in are taken to parallel lines. MGSE8.G.2 or positive rational number and lxl < 10) has MGSE8.G.8 Apply the Pythagorean tables, or by verbal descriptions). Understand that a two- dimensional figure is one solution. Evaluate square roots of Theorem to find the distance between two congruent to another if the second can be perfect squares < 625 and cube roots of points in a coordinate system. obtained from the first by a sequence of perfect cubes > and < Solve real-world and rotations, reflections, and translations; given MGSE8.EE.3 Use numbers expressed in mathematical problems involving two congruent figures, describe a sequence scientific notation to estimate very large or volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres. that exhibits the congruence between them. very small quantities, and to express how MGSE8.G.9 Apply the formulas for the MGSE8.G.3 Describe the effect of dilations, many times as much one is than the other. volume of cones, cylinders, and spheres and translations, rotations and reflections on two- For example, estimate the population of the use them to solve real-world and dimensional figures using coordinates. United States as and the population mathematical problems. MGSE8.G.4 Understand that a two- of the world as 7 109, and determine that Work with radicals and integer exponents. dimensional figure is similar to another if the the world population is more than 20 times MGSE8.EE.2 Use square root and cube root second can be obtained from the first by a larger. symbols to represent solutions to equations. sequence of rotations, reflections, MGSE8.EE.4 Add, subtract, multiply and Recognize that x² = p (where p is a positive translations, and dilations; given two similar two- dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. MGSE8.G.5 Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. divide numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Understand scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g. use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology (e.g. calculators). rational number and lxl < 25) has 2 solutions and x³ = p (where p is a negative or positive rational number and lxl < 10) has one solution. Evaluate square roots of perfect squares < 625 and cube roots of perfect cubes > and < July 2016 Page 4 of 7

5 Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations. MGSE8.EE.7 Solve linear equations in one variable. MGSE8.EE.7a Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers). MGSE8.EE.7b Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms. Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. MGSE8.NS.1 Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number. MGSE8.NS.2 Use rational approximation of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., estimate π² to the nearest tenth). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of 2 (square root of 2), show that 2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations. July 2016 Page 5 of 7

6 1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4 Model with mathematics. GSE Eighth Grade Curriculum Map 2 nd Semester Standards for Mathematical Practice 5 Use appropriate tools strategically. 6 Attend to precision. 7 Look for and make use of structure. 8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Unit 5 Unit 6 Unit 7 Unit 8 Linear Functions Linear Models and Tables Solving Systems of Equations Show What We Know Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations. MGSE8.EE.5 Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. MGSE8.EE.6 Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b. Define, evaluate, and compare functions. MGSE8.F.3 Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph Use functions to model relationships between quantities. MGSE8.F.4 Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x,y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. MGSE8.F.5 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations. MGSE8.EE.8 Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations (systems of linear equations). MGSE8.EE.8a Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously. MGSE8.EE.8b Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. MGSE8.EE.8c Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. ALL Plus High School Prep Review is a straight line; give examples of functions described verbally. that are not linear. For example, the function Investigate patterns of association A = s2 giving the area of a square as a in bivariate data. function of its side length is not linear MGSE8.SP.1 Construct and interpret scatter because its graph contains the points (1,1), plots for bivariate measurement data to (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight investigate patterns of association between two line. quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association. MGSE8.SP.2 Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line. July 2016 Page 6 of 7

7 MGSE8.SP.3 Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. MGSE8.SP.4 Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. a. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. b. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores? July 2016 Page 7 of 7

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