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1 Free-response/problem Explain why an economy s income must equal its expenditure. 0

2 23 Measuring a Nation s Income P R I N C I P L E S O F ECONOMICS F O U R T H E D I T I O N N. G R E G O R Y M A N K I W PowerPoint Slides by Ron Cronovich 2007 Thomson South-Western, all rights reserved

3 Real versus Nominal GDP Inflation can distort economic variables like GDP, so we have two versions of GDP: One is corrected for inflation, the other is not. Nominal GDP values output using current prices. It is not corrected for inflation. Real GDP values output using the prices of a base year. Real GDP is corrected for inflation. 2

4 EXAMPLE: Pizza Latte year P Q P Q 2002 \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Compute nominal GDP in each year: 2002: \$10 x \$2 x 1000 = \$6, : \$11 x \$2.50 x 1100 = \$8, : \$12 x \$3 x 1200 = \$10,800 Increase: 37.5% 30.9% 3

5 EXAMPLE: Pizza Latte year P Q P Q 2002 \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ Compute real GDP in each year, using 2002 as the base year: 2002: \$10 x \$2 x 1000 = \$6, : \$10 x \$2 x 1100 = \$7, : \$10 x \$2 x 1200 = \$8,400 Increase: 20.0% 16.7% 4

6 EXAMPLE: year Nominal GDP In each year, Real GDP 2002 \$6000 \$ \$8250 \$ \$10,800 \$8400 nominal GDP is measured using the (then) current prices. real GDP is measured using constant prices from the base year (2002 in this example). 5

7 EXAMPLE: year Nominal GDP Real GDP 2002 \$6000 \$ % 2003 \$8250 \$ % 2004 \$10,800 \$ % 16.7% The change in nominal GDP reflects both prices and quantities. The change in real GDP is the amount that GDP would change if prices were constant (i.e., if zero inflation). Hence, real GDP is corrected for inflation. 6

8 Billions Nominal and Real GDP in the U.S., \$12,000 \$10,000 \$8,000 \$6,000 Real GDP (base year 2000) \$4,000 \$2,000 Nominal GDP \$

9 The GDP Deflator The GDP deflator is a measure of the overall level of prices. Definition: GDP deflator = 100 x nominal GDP real GDP One way to measure the economy s inflation rate is to compute the percentage increase in the GDP deflator from one year to the next. 8

10 EXAMPLE: year Nominal GDP Real GDP 2002 \$6000 \$ \$8250 \$ \$10,800 \$8400 GDP Deflator % 12.2% Compute the GDP deflator in each year: 2002: 100 x (6000/6000) = : 100 x (8250/7200) = : 100 x (10,800/8400) =

11 A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 2: Computing GDP 2004 (base yr) P Q P Q P Q good A \$ \$31 1,000 \$ good B \$ \$ \$ Use the above data to solve these problems: A. Compute nominal GDP in B. Compute real GDP in C. Compute the GDP deflator in

12 A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 2: Answers 2004 (base yr) P Q P Q P Q good A \$ \$31 1,000 \$ good B \$ \$ \$ A. Compute nominal GDP in \$30 x \$100 x 192 = \$46,200 B. Compute real GDP in \$30 x \$100 x 200 = \$50,000 11

13 A C T I V E L E A R N I N G 2: Answers 2004 (base yr) P Q P Q P Q good A \$ \$31 1,000 \$ good B \$ \$ \$ C. Compute the GDP deflator in Nom GDP = \$36 x \$100 x 205 = \$58,300 Real GDP = \$30 x \$100 x 205 = \$52,000 GDP deflator = 100 x (Nom GDP)/(Real GDP) = 100 x (\$58,300)/(\$52,000) =

14 GDP and Economic Well-Being Real GDP per capita is the main indicator of the average person s standard of living. But GDP is not a perfect measure of well-being. Robert Kennedy issued a very eloquent yet harsh criticism of GDP: 13

15 Gross Domestic Product does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education, or the joy of their play. It does not include the beauty of our poetry or the strength of our marriages, the intelligence of our public debate or the integrity of our public officials. It measures neither our courage, nor our wisdom, nor our devotion to our country. It measures everything, in short, except that which makes life worthwhile, and it can tell us everything about America except why we are proud that we are Americans. - Senator Robert Kennedy, 1968

16 GDP Does Not Value: the quality of the environment leisure time non-market activity, such as the child care a parent provides his or her child at home an equitable distribution of income 15

17 Then Why Do We Care About GDP? Having a large GDP enables a country to afford better schools, a cleaner environment, health care, etc. Many indicators of the quality of life are positively correlated with GDP. For example 16

18 GDP and Life Expectancy in 12 Countries Life expectancy (in years) Japan U.S. 75 China Mexico Germany Indonesia India Brazil Russia Pakistan Bangladesh Nigeria \$0 \$10,000 \$20,000 \$30,000 \$40,000 Real GDP per capita, 2002

19 GDP and Adult Literacy in 12 Countries Adult Literacy (% of population) Russia China Mexico Brazil Indonesia Japan Germany U.S. 70 Nigeria 60 India Pakistan Bangladesh \$0 \$10,000 \$20,000 \$30,000 \$40,000 Real GDP per capita, 2002

20 GDP and Internet Usage in 12 Countries Internet Usage (% of population) Japan U.S. Germany China Mexico Brazil Russia \$0 \$10,000 \$20,000 \$30,000 \$40,000 Real GDP per capita, 2002

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