English for Academic Skills Independence [EASI]

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1 English for Academic Skills Independence [EASI] Session 5 Grammar

2 Quiz Quick question from Session 4 If a simple sentence has one independent clause, how do you define a compound sentence?

3 Grammar: two sentence types Sentences can be classified as follows: Simple sentence = one independent clause Compound sentence = two (or more) independent clauses (joined by coordinating conjunctions)

4 By the end of this session you will be able to make complex sentences using a range of conjunctions identify some common subordinating conjunctions

5

6 Review: Simple and compound sentences Simple sentence = one independent clause This approach was chosen. Compound sentence = two (or more) independent clauses (joined by a coordinating conjunction) This approach was chosen and the other approach was abandoned.

7 Compound sentence: Two clauses In this example we can say that each clause is independent: Independent clause Independent clause This approach was chosen and the other approach was abandoned.

8 Three sentence types: Simple, compound and complex Simple sentence = one independent clause Compound sentence = two (or more) independent clauses Complex sentence = two (or more) clauses: o independent clause + o dependent clause

9 Complex sentence: Two clauses A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by a dependent clause Independent clause dependent clause This approach was chosen because the interviewers wanted more flexibility.

10 Complex sentence: Subordinating conjunction The dependent clause begins with a subordinating conjunction: Independent clause dependent clause This approach was chosen because the interviewers wanted more flexibility. subordinating conjunction

11 Activity 1 Consider again this sentence: This approach was chosen because the interviewers wanted more flexibility. What are the possibilities for organising the clauses in this sentence?

12 Activity discussion We can see that there are two ways of expressing this idea: This approach was chosen because the interviewers wanted more flexibility. Because the interviewers wanted more flexibility, this approach was chosen. A good academic writer will be sensitive to the possibilities for organising the clauses in a complex sentence.

13 Start of sentence What do you want the reader to focus on? Either the approach: This approach was chosen because the interviewers wanted more flexibility. Or focus on the interviewers requirements: Because the interviewers wanted more flexibility, this approach was chosen. The independent clause is more likely to contain the essential information

14 Dependent clause first Note the change in punctuation: dependent clause Independent clause Because the interviewers wanted more flexibility, this approach was chosen. subordinating conjunction Note the presence of the comma after the dependent clause

15 Incomplete sentence = a fragment If you only provide part of the sentence e.g. the dependent clause, this is known as a fragment. Because the interviewers wanted more flexibility. The reader is left with a number of questions: what next? so what?

16 Complex sentence: Linking clauses We can see from the analysis that all we have is a dependent clause: dependent clause Because the interviewers wanted more flexibility. subordinating conjunction

17 Complex sentence: Linking clauses Clauses are linked in two ways: subordinating conjunctions and relative pronouns. There are many subordinating conjunctions [or subordinators] in English, eg: because, since, after, although You should aim to build up a list of common subordinating conjunctions and familiarise yourself with the sorts of sentences they are used to construct.

18 Complex sentence: Subordinating conjunctions A complex sentence allows you to combine two meanings in one sentence. The subordinating conjunction provides the transition in meaning between these two ideas. The word because indicates a causal relationship.

19 Complex sentence: Subordinating conjunctions What other relationships can you identify? Time Place Contrast Condition Comparison Cause [when] [where] [although] [if] [whereas] [because]

20 Activity 2 Match the words below to each list. One list has two headings. Choose from the following options: Time Place Contrast Condition Comparison Cause as because in order to since so so that although as as though though whereas while even if if in case unless provided that however where wherever after as soon as before once still til now that when

21 Subordinating conjunctions: By meaning Cause as because in order to since so so that Contrast & comparison although as as though though whereas while Condition Place Time even if if in case unless provided that however where wherever after as soon as before once still til now that when

22 Subordinating conjunctions: Useful mnemonic Here is a mnemonic trick ON A WHITE BUS Each letter is a reminder of the set of subordinating conjunctions that you can use to begin dependent clauses

23 O N A W H I T E B U S Subordinating conjunctions: Useful mnemonic Can you think of subordinating conjunctions beginning with these letters?

24 O N A W H I T E B U S once now that although when however if though even if because until so that Subordinating conjunctions: Useful mnemonic

25 To summarise You will communicate more effectively if you become sensitised to the following: Complex sentences Subordinating conjunctions

26 Homework activities Learn the mnemonic: ON A WHITE BUS Think about the meanings associated with groups of subordinating conjunctions. Practise making complex sentences using the most common subordinating conjunctions. Go through your last assignment and identify subordinating conjunctions.

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