Content Guide & Five Items Resource

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1 Content Guide & Five Items Resource Introduction The following information should be used as a companion to the CPI Links. It provides clarifications concerning the content and skills contained in the CPI Links. Remember that instruction should be much richer than assessment and that the examples contained herein do not represent the variety of instructional strategies and supports necessary for meaningful teaching and learning of academic content. The information and examples are intended to clarify the intentions of the CPI Links so that assessment activities aligned to the links and thus to the state standards can be developed or chosen appropriately for students who participate in the NJ APA. For each standard, you will find that this resource includes The Test Specifications followed by the corresponding CPIs and Links A Glossary of terms contained in the CPI Links Five Items examples that show what constitutes five items for certain links where that may not be clear. How to Use This Resource 1) Review the Steps to Developing an Entry in Modules IV and V of the Fall Training. 2) Remember to make your decisions regarding which CPI Link you will use to assess your students based on the individual needs of your students. Just because a particular link may be best for one student does not mean it is best for another, especially given the diverse needs of the students who participate in the NJ APA. 3) Once you have selected a CPI Link, use the Glossary to look up the definitions of any/all content vocabulary terms contained in the language of the link. This will ensure your understanding of those terms is consistent with the understanding set forth by the NJ DOE for the NJ APA. 4) If the CPI Link has an asterisk at the end of the link statement, you will find an example of that link in the Five Items section to use as a guide/reference/model. Be sure to pay attention to the Important Considerations for this Link section of the examples NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 1

2 4 th Grade Science Test Specifications and Links for Standard 5.8 Earth Science (Portfolio Entry 3) The following are the required CPIs and Links for Standard 5.8: Earth Science. Both CPIs are from Strand B: Atmosphere and Water. You must select a CPI Link from one of the CPIs to develop an entry for the APA portfolio. Science CPI Links were developed with the understanding that Standard 5.1, Scientific Processes, is a vital part of scientific thinking yet difficult to assess out of the context of the other science standards. As a result, some of the Matched Links for science also reference particular CPIs from 5.1. In order to successfully instruct and assess a CPI Link that references 5.1 and to address the Essence of the CPI, you must teach the Link using the scientific process. This may occur by teaching the content of the Link within a scientific experiment, require the child to use inquiry, observation or interpretation of data, etc. Always review Standard 5.1 when assessing a CPI Link that requires evidence that incorporates this process. If the scientific process is required when assessing a CPI Link but is missing from the evidence, the entry will receive zero scores. STRAND B: Atmosphere and Water You MUST CHOOSE only one of the following CPIs: CPI 5.8.4B2 Recognize that most of Earth s surface is covered by water, and be able to identify the characteristics of those sources of water Oceans Rivers Lakes Underground sources Glaciers Essence of the CPI: Recognize that most of Earth s surface is covered by water and that water moves through a predictable cycle Matched Link Near Link Far Link Label the steps of the water cycle and describe how water changes from one step to the next* Describe various water sources* Given a diagram of the water cycle, label the steps (precipitation, surface runoff, evaporation, condensation, and collection )* Identify where oceans, rivers, and lakes are on maps/globes-must do all three* OR NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 2

3 CPI 5.8.4B3 Observe weather changes and patterns by measurable quantities such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and amounts of precipitation Essence of the CPI: Understand that weather can be observed and recorded (temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud type and precipitation) Matched Link Near Link Far Link Gather information on at least two different weather conditions directly or from various sources and illustrate the change over time* 5.1.4B1 Using a thermometer, record temperature over time* Using a rain gauge, record precipitation over time* Identify ways wind conditions can be measured and instruments that can be used to measure these conditions* Identify tools and their purposes for measuring weather* Identify the type of precipitation likely at a given temperature* NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 3

4 Glossary Glossary 5.8 Anemometer weather tool used to measure wind speed anemometer Collection water that accumulates in lakes, oceans, rivers, groundwater, and porous layers of rock as a result of surface runoff Condensation the process by which water vapor in the air becomes liquid water Evaporation the process by which liquid water becomes water vapor; in the water cycle this process moves water from Earth s surface to the atmosphere Glacier a large body of ice moving slowly down a slope or valley; fresh water source Lake man-made or naturally occurring large body of fresh water Ocean a large body of saltwater that covers most of Earth s surface; the entire ocean is classified by geographic location into the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean Precipitation water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail Rain gauge weather tool used to measure the amount of rainfall rain gauge River a large body of fresh water that flows from its source into a lake or ocean Surface runoff precipitation that falls on saturated or impervious ground and flows over land downhill Thermometer weather tool used to measure air or water temperature thermometer NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 4

5 Glossary Underground sources naturally occurring aquifers and man-made wells that hold and store water Water Cycle the continuous movement of water from the atmosphere to Earth s surface and back into the atmosphere Water evaporates from lakes, oceans, and rivers on the surface of earth. The water vapor rises and cools, condensing or freezing to form clouds. The water in the clouds falls back to Earth s surface as precipitation. The rain or melted snow flows downhill as surface runoff to lower elevations. The surface runoff collects in lakes, oceans, rivers, groundwater, and porous layers of rock as water collection. Collection (NJ ASK Test Specifications for Science) Source: US Geological Survey Water sources oceans, lakes, rivers, streams, glaciers, and precipitation Wind direction reported by the direction from which a wind originates. For example, a northerly wind blows from the north to the south. Windsock a cone-shaped cloth tool used to determine wind direction and wind speed. The direction of the wind is opposite of the direction the wind points. Wind speed is determined by the degree to which the sock is extended. [Riemer, O. O. 2013] windsock Wind vane weather tool used to determine wind direction wind vane NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 5

6 The Five Items examples are samples of activities that may be used as models when choosing or developing activities for the APA. They include specific considerations and guidelines that if not followed will likely result in unscorable codes. However, they do not show the required markings for performance (+/-) or independence (I, V, G, M, P), nor do they include student names and collection dates. They are sample activities, not sample evidence. Evidence must include all of the requirements of the Universal Scoring Rules, which are explained in the training modules and the Procedures Manual NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 6

7 REVISED 4th Grade Science, Standard 5.8 CPI: 5.8.4B2: Recognize that most of Earth s surface is covered by water, and be able to identify the characteristics of those sources of water (oceans, rivers, lakes, underground sources, glaciers) Essence of the CPI: Recognize that most of Earth s surface is covered by water and that water moves through a predictable cycle Matched Link, Bullet 1: Label the steps of the water cycle and describe how water changes from one step to the next* The five required steps of the water cycle are evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff, and collection. This CPI Link requires six items: five items are constituted by labeling the required steps and one item is constituted by writing a description of how water changes from one step to the next. Directions to the student: Label each of the numbered steps of the water cycle then use your word strips to write a description of how water changes from one step to the next Explanation: This example constitutes six items. First, the student labeled the required steps of the water cycle (evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff, and collection) for five items. Then the student described how water changes from one step to the next for one item. Even though the description is considered one item, the student work may be graded based on each step addressed within the description NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 7

8 NEW 4th Grade Science, Standard 5.8 CPI: CPI 5.8.4B2 Recognize that most of the Earth s surface is covered by water, and be able to identify the characteristics of those sources of water (oceans, rivers, lakes, underground sources, glaciers). Essence of the CPI: Recognize that most of Earth s surface is covered by water and that water moves through a predictable cycle. Near Link, Bullet 1: Describe various water sources* This is a science skill, not a geography skill. Therefore, realize that this link is not asking the student to describe specific oceans, rivers or lakes by proper name (e.g., The Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, the Ohio River, etc.). Rather, the link intends for the student to describe general water sources, such as rivers, oceans, glaciers, etc. by their specific characteristics. More than one water source must be described. Reference the glossary for a list of various water sources. Directions to the student: After reading about each of the water sources listed, choose the phrases provided and write them below to describe each source. Oceans Rivers 1. Largest water source on Earth 6. Fresh water 2. Salt water 7. Wide bodies of moving water 8. Flow into larger bodies of water Streams Glaciers 3. Fresh water 9. Fresh water that is frozen 4. Narrow bodies of moving water 10. Slow moving bodies of ice 5. Usually flow into larger bodies of water This example constitutes 10 items. The student described 4 different water sources by choosing from a variety of given phrases, each descriptive phrase used is an item NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 8

9 REVISED 4th Grade Science, Standard 5.8 CPI: 5.8.4B2: Recognize that most of Earth s surface is covered by water, and be able to identify the characteristics of those sources of water (oceans, rivers, lakes, underground sources, glaciers) Essence of the CPI: Recognize that most of Earth s surface is covered by water and that water moves through a predictable cycle Near Link, Bullet 2: Given a diagram of the water cycle, label the steps (precipitation, surface runoff, evaporation, condensation, and collection)* The five required steps of the water cycle are evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff, and collection. Directions to the student: Using the SMARTboard, drag and drop the terms provided in the answer bank to label the parts of the water cycle. This example constitutes five items. The student labeled the five required steps of the water cycle (precipitation, surface runoff, evaporation, condensation, and collection) NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 9

10 CPI: 5.8.4B2: Recognize that most of Earth s surface is covered by water, and be able to identify the characteristics of those sources of water (oceans, rivers, lakes, underground sources, glaciers) Essence of the CPI: Recognize that most of Earth s surface is covered by water and that water moves through a predictable cycle Far Link, Bullet 1: Identify where oceans, rivers, and lakes are on maps/globesmust do all three* This is a science skill, not a geography skill. Therefore, realize that this link is not asking the student to identify specific oceans, rivers or lakes by proper name (e.g., The Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, the Ohio River, etc.). Rather, the link intends for the student to identify which water sources, generally illustrated in blue on globes and/or maps, are oceans, which are rivers, and which are lakes. While several water sources are mentioned in the CPI itself and are defined in the Glossary for instruction on the 4th Grade Standard 5.8 (oceans, rivers, lakes, underground sources, glaciers), this link requires the student to specifically identify three water sources for assessment: oceans; rivers; and lakes. Maps and/or globes must be used when assessing this link. Labeling photographs of water is not acceptable. Directions to the student: 1) Locate and highlight two lakes on the map of Minnesota and label them each with an L. 2) Then locate and highlight two rivers on the map of Minnesota and label them each with an R. 3) Locate and highlight an ocean on the world map. Label it with an O. Each water source identified is an item. This example constitutes five items. In this example, the student identified two lakes, two rivers, and one ocean for a total of five items NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 10

11 NEW 4th Grade Science, Standard 5.8 CPI: 5.8.4B3: Observe weather changes and patterns by measurable quantities such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and amounts of precipitation Essence of the CPI: Understand that weather can be observed and recorded (temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud type and precipitation) Matched Link, Bullet 1: Gather information on at least two different weather conditions directly or from various sources and illustrate the change over time* 5.1.4B1 Gathering or using a collection of weather data addresses the referenced 5.1 CPI and may include information from personal weather observations, TV meteorological forecasts and reports, online weather data, weather information from a tablet or smartphone app, etc. Directions to the student: Using the anemometer you built, check the wind speed once a day for a week and record in your table. Since you are determining wind speed by counting the revolutions per minute (RPM), you will need to get help converting RPMs to MPH (note: converting from RPMs to MPH is not part of the link and therefore is not scored). Using the rain gauge you made, check the rain amounts each day. Remember to empty the rain gauge each time after you check it. Date Daily Rain Daily Rain Wind Speed (MPH) Date Amounts (inches) Amounts (inches) Wind Speed (RPM) 9/21/ /28/ /22/ /29/ /23/ /30/ /24/ /1/ /25/ /2/ This constitutes 11 items. Information was collected across 10 days (10 items) and then illustrated in a bar graph (1 item). Even though the graph represents one item, each data point might be individually graded by the teacher, depending on how the student created the chart NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 11

12 CPI: 5.8.4B3: Observe weather changes and patterns by measurable quantities such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and amounts of precipitation Essence of the CPI: Understand that weather can be observed and recorded (temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud type and precipitation) Near Link, Bullet 1: Using a thermometer, record temperature over time* Thermometers used for this link are not required to show both Fahrenheit and Celsius degrees. If using a thermometer that shows both Fahrenheit and Celsius degrees, it is acceptable to cover up one or the other as a support for the student (if needed). Since the purpose of this link is to record temperature over time, the recorded temperatures should use the same scale (either all Fahrenheit or all Celsius). Over time must be a wide enough span to show a change. To clarify this example, the student used an actual thermometer each day to determine the temperature and then record the day s temperature in the chart. The teacher took a photograph of the thermometer each day and included each photo in the chart for the student s reference and for the benefit of a reviewer. Directions to the student: Record the temperature each day by reading the outside thermometer and completing the chart. (The teacher took a picture of the thermometer as soon as the student recorded his answer for the student to include in his answer.) This example constitutes five items. The student recorded the temperature for five days NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 12

13 NEW 4th Grade Science, Standard 5.8 CPI: 5.8.4B3: Observe weather changes and patterns by measurable quantities such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and amounts of precipitation Essence of the CPI: Understand that weather can be observed and recorded (temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud type and precipitation) Near Link, Bullet 2: Using a rain gauge, record precipitation over time* Rain gauges used for this link are not required to show both inches and centimeters. If using a rain gauge that shows both inches and centimeters, it is acceptable to cover up one or the other as a support for the student (if needed). Since the purpose of this link is to record precipitation over time, the recorded rain amounts should use the same scale (either all inches or all centimeters). Over time must be a wide enough span to show a change. To clarify this example, the student used an actual rain gauge each day to determine the amount of precipitation and then record the day s precipitation in the chart. Directions to the student: Check the rain gauge each Friday and record the total amount of precipitation accumulated over the week. Use the bar graph to record the amounts in inches. Remember to empty the rain gauge after you have checked it. This example constitutes five items. The student used a rain gauge to record precipitation totals on five different days NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 13

14 NEW 4th Grade Science, Standard 5.8 CPI: 5.8.4B3: Observe weather changes and patterns by measurable quantities such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and amounts of precipitation Essence of the CPI: Understand that weather can be observed and recorded (temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud type and precipitation) Near Link, Bullet 3: Identify ways wind conditions can be measured and instruments that can be used to measure these conditions* This link has two skills: 1) identify ways wind conditions can be measured and 2) identify the instruments used to do so. Both skills must be evidenced within the five items. There are two wind conditions that are measured: speed and direction. Each condition can be measured using multiple instruments. Directions to student: This example constitutes six items. The student identified the way wind is measured by choosing speed and direction from a variety of weather measurements (speed, amount, density, direction) and identifying what that condition is for 2 items. Then the student chose 2 appropriate instruments per condition from a variety of pairs of instruments (2 thermometers, 2 anemometers, 2 windsocks, 2 barometers, etc.) for 4 items NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 14

15 CPI: 5.8.4B3: Observe weather changes and patterns by measurable quantities such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and amounts of precipitation Essence of the CPI: Understand that weather can be observed and recorded (temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud type and precipitation) Far Link, Bullet 1: Identify tools and their purposes for measuring weather* This link has two skills: 1) identify the tool and 2) identify the tool s purpose. Therefore, the requirement is to identify the tool and then tell for what that tool is used. In the example below, the student was shown photographs of five different tools. The student used red word strips to paste the tool names on their corresponding photographs. Then the student used green word strips to paste the tool purposes on their corresponding photographs. While this example uses photographs of tools, it would certainly be appropriate to provide the student with the actual tools. However, photographs of those tools would need to be included in the evidence so that the student could review his/her work and to make it apparent to reviewers which tools were used. Considerations when grading this link: There is a difference between the number of items and the way a teacher may choose to grade an activity. Although each name/purpose pairing is an item, it is acceptable to grade each response separately (i.e., the student gets one point for naming the tool and another point for identifying the tool s purpose). It is also acceptable to grade each name/purpose pairing holistically (i.e., in order to be counted correct the student must get both the name and the purpose correct). But remember, whichever way an activity such as this is graded, the grading must be consistent from the initial activity to the final activity to prevent the student s score from being artificially inflated or deflated. Directions to the student: Using the red labels, paste the name of each tool on the correct photograph. Then using the green labels, paste the purpose of each tool on the correct photograph. This example constitutes five items. The student was presented with five tools. Each tool name/purpose pairing is an item NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 15

16 CPI: 5.8.4B3: Observe weather changes and patterns by measurable quantities such as temperature, wind direction and speed, and amounts of precipitation Essence of the CPI: Understand that weather can be observed and recorded (temperature, wind direction and speed, cloud type and precipitation) Far Link, Bullet 2: Identify the type of precipitation likely at a given temperature* It is acceptable to use Fahrenheit only, Celsius only, or (as in the example below) both Fahrenheit and Celsius. Directions to the student: For each temperature, paste the label that tells which type of precipitation is likely. This example constitutes five items. There are five given temperatures and therefore five opportunities for the student to identify the type of precipitation likely at each of those temperatures NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 16

17 References 4th Grade Science, Standard 5.8 Widgit Symbols (c) Widgit Software retrieved from Riemer, O. O. (2013). Windsock at Hodenhagen Aerodrome, Germany. Retrieved from NJ APA Content Guide & Five Items Resource Page 17

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