1 STAAR Prep Grade 5 Science by Dr. Jean Brainard Edited by Jonathan D. Kantrowitz Item Code RAS4023 Copyright 2011 Queue, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system. Printed in the United States of America. Queue, Inc. 80 Hathaway Drive Stratford, CT (800) Fax: (800)
2 About the Author: Dr. Jean M. Brainard is a freelance health and science writer and curriculum specialist living in central Ohio. She received a master s degree from the Harvard School of Public Health and a doctorate in biomedical anthropology from the State University of New York at Binghamton. A former university professor, Dr. Brainard has written hundreds of textbook chapters and encyclopedia articles on a diversity of subjects, as well as numerous professional publications based on her own research.
3 Table of Contents Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science Grade 5 Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to 1 14 A. classify matter based on physical properties, including mass, magnetism, physical state (solid, liquid, and gas), relative density (sinking and floating), solubility in water, and the ability to conduct or insulate thermal energy or electric energy; B. identify the boiling and freezing/melting points of water on the Celsius scale; C. demonstrate that some mixtures maintain physical properties of their ingredients such as iron filings and sand; and 1 54 D. identify changes that can occur in the physical properties of the ingredients of solutions such as dissolving salt in water or adding lemon juice to water. 3.5 Matter and energy. The student knows that matter has measurable physical properties and those properties determine how matter is classified, changed, and used. The student is expected to C. predict, observe, and record changes in the state of matter caused by heating or cooling
4 Reporting Category 2: Force, Motion, and Energy Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that energy occurs in many forms and can be observed in cycles, patterns, and systems. The student is expected to A. explore the uses of energy, including mechanical, light, thermal, electrical, and sound energy; B. demonstrate that the flow of electricity in circuits requires a complete path through which an electric current can pass and can produce light, heat, and sound; C. demonstrate that light travels in a straight line until it strikes an object or travels through one medium to another and demonstrate that light can be reflected such as the use of mirrors or other shiny surfaces and refracted such as the appearance of an object when observed through water; and D. design an experiment that tests the effect of force on an object. 3.6 Force, motion, and energy. The student knows that forces cause change and that energy exists in many forms. The student is expected to B. demonstrate and observe how position and motion can be changed by pushing and pulling objects to show work being done such as swings, balls, pulleys, and wagons Reporting Category 3: Earth and Space Earth and space. The student knows Earth s surface is constantly changing and consists of useful resources. The student is expected to A explore the processes that led to the formation of sedimentary rocks and fossil fuels; B. recognize how landforms such as deltas, canyons, and sand dunes are the result of changes to Earth s surface by wind, water, and ice; C. identify alternative energy resources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, geothermal, and biofuels; and
5 D. identify fossils as evidence of past living organisms and the nature of the environments at the time using models. 5.8 Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to A. differentiate between weather and climate; B. explain how the Sun and the ocean interact in the water cycle; C. demonstrate that Earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours causing the day/night cycle and the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky; and D. identify and compare the physical characteristics of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. 4.7 Earth and space. The student knows that Earth consists of useful resources and its surface is constantly changing. The student is expected to A. examine properties of soils, including color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants; and C. identify and classify Earth s renewable resources, including air, plants, water, and animals; and nonrenewable resources, including coal, oil, and natural gas; and the importance of conservation. 4.8 Earth and space. The student knows that there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to A. measure and record changes in weather and make predictions using weather maps, weather symbols, and a map key; B. describe and illustrate the continuous movement of water above and on the surface of Earth through the water cycle and explain the role of the Sun as a major source of energy in this process; and ,
6 C. collect and analyze data to identify sequences and predict patterns of change in shadows, tides, seasons, and the observable appearance of the Moon over time. 3.7 Earth and space. The student knows that Earth consists of natural resources and its surface is constantly changing. The student is expected to B. investigate rapid changes in Earth s surface such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and landslides. 3.8 Earth and space. The student knows there are recognizable patterns in the natural world and among objects in the sky. The student is expected to D. identify the planets in Earth s solar system and their position in relation to the Sun Page , 416 Reporting Category 4: Organisms and Environments Organisms and environments. The student knows that there are relationships, systems, and cycles within environments. The student is expected to A. observe the way organisms live and survive in their ecosystem by interacting with the living and non-living elements; B. describe how the flow of energy derived from the Sun, used by producers to create their own food, is transferred through a food chain and food web to consumers and decomposers; C. predict the effects of changes in ecosystems caused by living organisms, including humans, such as the overpopulation of grazers or the building of highways; and D identify the significance of the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle to the survival of plants and animals
7 5.10 Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to A. compare the structures and functions of different species that help them live and survive such as hooves on prairie animals or webbed feet in aquatic animals; B. differentiate between inherited traits of plants and animals such as spines on a cactus or shape of a beak and learned behaviors such as an animal learning tricks or a child riding a bicycle; and C. describe the differences between complete and incomplete metamorphosis of insects. 3.9 Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms have characteristics that help them survive and can describe patterns, cycles, systems, and relationships within the environments. The student is expected to A. observe and describe the physical characteristics of environments and how they support populations and communities within an ecosystem Organisms and environments. The student knows that organisms undergo similar life processes and have structures that help them survive within their environments. The student is expected to C. investigate and compare how animals and plants undergo a series of orderly changes in their diverse life cycles such as tomato plants, frogs, and lady bugs Scientific Investigation and Reasoning Skills Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student conducts classroom and outdoor investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. The student is expected to A. demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations; and B. make informed choices in the conservation, disposal, and recycling of materials
8 5.2 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations. The student is expected to A. describe, plan, and implement simple experimental investigations testing one variable; B. ask well-defined questions, formulate testable hypotheses, and select and use appropriate equipment and technology; C. collect information by detailed observations and accurate measuring; D. analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct (observable) and indirect (inferred) evidence; E. demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results; F. communicate valid conclusions in [both] written [and verbal] form[s]; and G construct appropriate simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using technology, including computers, to organize, examine, and evaluate information Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to A. in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student; B. evaluate the accuracy of the information related to promotional materials for products and services such as nutritional labels; C. draw or develop a model that represents how something works or looks that cannot be seen such as how a soda dispensing machine works; and D. connect grade-level appropriate science concepts with the history of science, science careers, and contributions of scientists
9 5.4 Scientific investigation and reasoning. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to A. collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, prisms, mirrors, pan balances, triple beam balances, spring scales, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; and materials to support observations of habitats or organisms such as terrariums and aquariums; and B. use safety equipment, including safety goggles and gloves.
10 Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy 38. A student plans to mix a different material into each of these beakers of water. Sand Sugar Flour Which material will dissolve in the water? A. sand B. sugar C. flour D. sugar and sand 39. This funnel contains a piece of filter paper. filter paper funnel The funnel and filter could be used to separate a A. mixture of water and sand. B. solution of water and sugar. C. solution of water and oxygen. D. mixture of water and carbon dioxide. Reproducing copyrighted material is against the law! Queue, Inc. All rights reserved.
11 Reporting Category 1: Matter and Energy 45. Which of these defines condensation? A. A liquid changing to gas. B. A solid changing to liquid. C. A gas changing to liquid. D. A gas changing to solid. 47. What happens to an ice cube that is set on a table at room temperature for one hour? A. It condenses. B. It freezes. C. It melts. D. It boils. 46. A student poured ice water into a glass and left it sitting on the kitchen table. 48. Which of the following is not an example of a change in state? About 15 minutes after the student poured the ice water, the outside of the glass was wet. The outside of the glass was wet because A. a puddle that dries up B. dew forming on surfaces on cool mornings C. melting ice D. a burning log A. water vapor in the air evaporated. B. liquid water in the air condensed. C. water vapor in the air condensed. D. liquid water in the glass evaporated. Reproducing copyrighted material is against the law! Queue, Inc. All rights reserved.
12 Reporting Category 2: Force, Motion, and Energy 69. Which diagram best shows the property of reflection? A. B. C. D. 70. The drawing below shows a pencil in a glass of water. What process causes the pencil to appear to be broken when viewed in this way? A. refraction B. reflection C. radiation D. conduction Reproducing copyrighted material is against the law! Queue, Inc. All rights reserved.
13 Reporting Category 2: Force, Motion, and Energy 83. Bells like the ones shown here produce a ringing sound when you shake them. The bigger the bell, the lower the ringing sound it produces. A B C D Which of the four bells vibrates slowest when you shake it? A. bell A B. bell B C. bell C D. bell D 84. Using a drum like this one, how could you test the hypothesis that producing a sound with greater force increases the loudness of the sound? Drum Stick Drum Head Drum A. by hitting the drum harder with the stick B. by hitting the drum slower with the stick C. by hitting the drum with a smaller stick D. by making the drum head tighter 2011 Queue, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Reproducing copyrighted material is against the law!
14 Reporting Category 3: Earth and Space 171. Explain how wind can weather and erode rocks and deposit the pieces in other areas Explain how ice can weather and erode rocks Queue, Inc. All rights reserved. 59 Reproducing copyrighted material is against the law!
15 Reporting Category 3: Earth and Space The drawing below shows several landforms that were left behind when a glacier melted. Use the drawing to answer questions 173 and 174. receding glacier drumlin terminal moraine braided stream kame kettle lake 173. One type of feature formed when large chunks of ice were left behind by the receding glacier and these later melted. Which type of feature formed this way? A. kettle lake B. braided stream C. drumlin D. terminal moraine 174. Which process caused the kames to form? A. deposition B. sublimation C. evaporation D. condensation Reproducing copyrighted material is against the law! Queue, Inc. All rights reserved.
16 Reporting Category 4: Organisms and Environments Use the food chain below to answer questions 431 and Which role in the food chain does the oak tree play? A. producer B. consumer C. predator D. decomposer 432. What ecological role is NOT being filled in this food chain? A. consumer B. predator C. decomposer D. carnivore 2011 Queue, Inc. All rights reserved. 149 Reproducing copyrighted material is against the law!
17 Reporting Category 4: Organisms and Environments 433. What is one way that plants differ from animals in their interactions with the environment? A. Plants take in water. B. Plants take up soil nutrients. C. Plants cannot be hosts of parasites. D. Plants do not compete with each other The leaves of most plants do all of the following EXCEPT A. use light energy. B. give off oxygen. C. make food. D. provide support Both people and pigs have the same ecological role in communities. What role is it? A. producer B. consumer C. decomposer D. none of the above 437. Earthworms eat soil. Which component of soil gives earthworms energy? A. water B. minerals C. carbon dioxide D. bits of dead plants 435. How do decomposers obtain nutrients from their environment? A. by making their own food B. by eating live animals C. by breaking down dead organisms D. by feeding on living plants Reproducing copyrighted material is against the law! Queue, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 112. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science Subchapter A. Elementary Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter A issued under the Texas Education Code, 7.102(c)(4) and 28.002,
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CMT Prep Grade 5 Science by Dr. Jean Brainard Edited by Ralph R. Kantrowitz Designed by Philip W. Sedelnik Item Code RAS4005 Copyright 2009 Queue, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected
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