Solar System Fact Sheet

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1 Solar System Fact Sheet (Source: The Solar System Categories Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Rocky or Gas Rocky Rocky Rocky Rocky Gas Gas Gas Gas from Sun (millions of kilometers) Revolution (Year) Rotation (Day) (kilometers) ,427 2,871 5, days days (backwards) hours 56 min hours 31 min hours 55 min hours 42 min hours 12 min. (backwards) hours 6 min. 4,880 12,100 12,756 6, , ,000 51,800 49,528 Moons Rings Temperature Weight on Planet* -300 o F. to 800 o F. 900 o F o F. to 125 o F o F. to 72 o F o F. (average) -284 o F. (average) -383 o F. (average) -392 o F. (average)

2 Categories Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Atmosphere Various gases Very Thin CO 2 Thicker Nitrogen Oxygen Thicker Carbon Dioxide Thin Hydrogen Helium Very Thick Hydrogen Helium Very Thick Hydrogen Helium Methane Very Thick Hydrogen Helium Methane Very Thick *To calculate your weight on the Sun or planet, multiply your weight by the number in the column. For example, if you weighed 100 pound on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mercury, 86 pounds on Venus, etc. Moon Revolves Around Other Bodies in the Solar System from Planet Major Moons Your weight on moon* Atmosphere Larger than Mercury Moon Earth 384,000 3, ne Io Jupiter 421,600 3, Very thin; sulfur gas from volcanoes. Europa Jupiter 671,000 3, Very thin; oxygen. Ganymede Jupiter 1,100,000 5, Very thin; oxygen. ** Callisto Jupiter 1,890,000 4, ne

3 Moon Revolves Around from Planet Your weight on moon* Atmosphere Larger than Mercury Enceladus Saturn 238, (est.) Water Vapor Titan Saturn 1,222,000 5, Nitrogen/Methane Miranda Uranus 130, (est.) ne Triton Neptune 355,000 2, (est.) Very thin; nitrogen ice particles. Charon Pluto 19,700 1, (est.) ne * Your weight times the number in the column. **Ganymede is the largest moon in the Solar System. Surface Features of Major Moons Moon Moon Io Europa Ganymede Callisto Surface Features Surface covered with craters. There are also flat areas of lava flow (called Maria Latin for seas). Io is covered with active volcanoes that erupt with molten sulfur. Molten sulfur is also thrown into the atmosphere; most falls to the surface as snow. Surface colors are brown, orange, and yellow. Entire surface is ice. There are ice volcanoes. The surface shows movement similar to that around the rth Pole, indicating the possibilities of a water ocean under the ice. Has an icy surface. May have a liquid water ocean underneath the ice. Very heavily craters. May have ocean underneath the surface that filled older craters. Craters on surface indicate the oldest surface in the Solar System.

4 Moon Enceladus Titan Miranda Triton Charon Surface Features Very bright, icy surface. The surface is split; there are plains. The surface has numerous ridges and rough terrain. There are water jets coming from the surface. There may be a liquid ocean under the surface. Surface cannot be seen because of thick clouds in atmosphere. The Cassini probe and Huygens Lander have shown a frozen surface with methane lakes. There appear to be mountains, rivers, channels, and plains. Surface may be similar to that of the Earth. Its surface is unlike anything in the Solar System. Miranda may be have been broken apart by a collision with a moon long ago. It appears the moon may have come back together in a jumbled fashion. There are canyons, mountains, and rough surfaces. The most prominent feature on the surface is an area that is shaped like a chevron (V-shaped). Triton s surface is covered with ridged areas, canyons, and grooves. Liquid nitrogen geysers also cover the surface. May be covered with water ice and little rock. Dwarf Planets Body (kilometers) from Sun (millions of kilometers) Rotation (Day) Revolution (Year) Moons Rings Temperature Atmosphere Weight on Body*** Eris (Icy) (plutoid*) 2,400 5,700 (closest)** 14,700 (farthest) Unknown 557 Earth o F. ne.07

5 Body Pluto (Icy/Rocky) (plutoid*) Haumea (how-mayuh) (Icy/Rocky) (plutoid*) MakeMake (Mah-Key) (Icy) (plutoid*) Ceres (Rocky) (kilometers) from Sun (millions of kilometers) 2,300 4,400 (closest)** 7,400 (farthest) (Eggshaped) 2,000 x 1,000 1,300 1,900 5,300 (closest)** 7,700 (farthest) 5,700 (closest)** 8,000 (farthest) Rotation (Day) 6.4 Earth 3 hrs 55 min Revolution (Year) 248 Earth 285 Earth? 310 Earth hours 4.6 Earth Moons Rings Temperature Atmosphere Weight on Body*** o F. Nitrogen, CO 2, and Methane (Thin) o F.? o F. Methane o F. (Sun high overhead) *Plutoid a dwarf planet outside the orbit of Neptune. **Closest closest approach to Sun; Farthest farthest distance from Sun. ***Your weight times the number in the column. ne.003

6 Comets Composition (what they are made of!) Location of Comets from Sun Number Main Parts of a Comet -Water ice, dry ice, ammonia ice, dirt, and rocks. -Sometimes called dirty snowballs or icy mudballs. Come from the Kuiper Belt (outside the orbit of Neptune) or the Oort Cloud (Oort Cloud named after Jan Oort who proposed its existence [has not been confirmed]) 10,000,000,000,000 (one light year) Over 1,000,000,000,000 Nucleus The dirty snowball. Coma Dense cloud of vaporized ices and dirt that surrounds Nucleus. Tail Gases and other particles blown off the comet by the Solar Wind (particles from the Sun). Always points away from the Sun. (source: Amateur Observer s Program Comets & Asteroids)

7 A comet s path around the Sun At first, a comet is nothing more than a dirty frozen snowball in space. 2. As it approaches the Sun, the gases start vaporizing and you start to see the coma. 3. As the comet gets close enough to the Sun, a tail forms (made of dirt and gas being pushed away from the comet s nucleus by the solar wind). 4. It passes around the Sun. The tail is longest at this point. (If the comet gets close enough to the Sun, it can break-up into many pieces. It can also get close enough to be pulled into the Sun.) 5. It moves away form the Sun. The tail is smaller and pointing away from the Sun. It is pushed by the solar wind. 6. It gets fainter and the tail smaller. Eventually it can no longer be seen. (source: crystalinks.com) Asteroids Composition Locations from Sun Irregular rocky bodies Most found between orbit of Mars & Jupiter 270,000,000 to 675,000,000 Number Size Range Two Largest Over 150, km to around 100 meters Vesta 526 km Pallas 520 km

8 Meteoroids/Meteors/Meteorites Where They Come From Size Range Definition of a Meteoroid Definition of a Meteor Definition of a Meteorite -Most come from the Asteroid Belt. -Few come from particles left from comets when Earth crosses their path. Grain of sand to less than 100 meters. Grain or rock that is travelling in space. Grain or rock that has entered the atmosphere (sometimes called shooting or falling star.) A meteor that is large enough to survive the trip through the atmosphere and hit the Earth s surface. Do I Need a Telescope? Solar System Body Mercury Venus Mars Asteroids Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Dwarf Planets Visible Without a Telescope

9 Solar System Body Comets Visible Without a Telescope Depends** **Comets are not visible without a telescope when they are far from the Sun. As they approach the Sun, the size of the comet, how much light it reflects, and how close to Earth it gets all affect if it can be seen without a telescope. Some can, but most cannot be seen without a telescope.

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