1 Internet Protocol version 4 Part I Claudio Cicconetti International Master on Information Technology International Master on Communication Networks Engineering
2 Table of Contents IP Addressing Class-based IP addresses IP subnets IP routing Methods of delivery
3 Internet Protocol (IP) IP is a standard protocol with STD number 5. The current IP specification can be found in RFCs 791, 950, 919 and 922, with updates in RFC IP is the protocol that hides the underlying physical network by creating a virtual network view. It is an unreliable, best-effort, and connectionless packet delivery protocol.
4 Internet Protocol (IP) Note that best-effort means that the packets sent by IP may be lost, arrive out of order, or even be duplicated. IP assumes higher layer protocols will address these anomalies. One of the reasons for using a connectionless network protocol was to minimize the dependency on specific computing centers that used hierarchical connection-oriented networks.
5 Internet Protocol (IP) The United States Department of Defense intended to deploy a network that would still be operational if parts of the country were destroyed. This has been proven to be true for the Internet!
6 IP Addressing IP addresses are represented by a 32-bit unsigned binary value. It is usually expressed in a dotted decimal format. For example, is a valid IP address. The numeric form is used by IP software. The mapping between the IP address and an easier-toread symbolic name, for example is done by the Domain Name System (DNS).
7 IP Addressing To identify a host on the Internet, each host is assigned an address, the IP address, or in some cases, the Internet address. When the host is attached to more than one network, it is called multi-homed and has one IP address for each network interface.
8 IP Addressing The network number portion of the IP address is administered by one of three Regional Internet Registries (RIR): American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) for North America, South America, the Caribbean and sub-saharan Africa Reseaux IP Europeens (RIPE) for Europe, Middle East, parts of Africa Asia Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) for the Asia Pacific region
9 IP Addressing The binary format of the 32-bit IP address is: Sometimes IP addresses are also reported in hexadecimal format (e.g., c1:cd:50:01). IP addresses are used by the IP protocol to uniquely identify a host on the Internet (or more generally, any internet).
10 IP Addressing Strictly speaking, an IP address identifies an interface that is capable of sending and receiving IP datagrams. One system can have multiple such interfaces. Usually, hosts have only one interface (thus, one IP address), whereas routers have many interfaces (thus, many IP addresses). Therefore, it is easy to identify a host by its IP address, but not a router.
11 IP Addressing IP datagrams (the basic data packets exchanged between hosts) are transmitted by a physical network attached to the host. Each IP datagram contains a source IP address and a destination IP address. The first bits of the IP address specify how the rest of the address should be separated into its network and host part.
12 IP Addressing To send a datagram to a certain IP destination, the target IP address must be translated or mapped to a physical address. This may require transmissions on the network to find out the destination's physical network address.
13 Class-based IP addresses There are five classes of IP addresses. Class A netid hostid Class B 10 netid hostid Class C 110 netid hostid Class D 1110 multicast Class E future use
14 Class-based IP addresses Not all host numbers are available: all 0 s: this address refers to the network itself. E.g., means the whole network 10.*. all 1 s: this is the directed broadcast for this network. E.g., means all the hosts on network 10.*.
15 Class-based IP addresses The class A network is defined as the loopback network. Addresses from that network are assigned to interfaces that process data within the local system. These loopback interfaces do not access a physical network.
16 Class-based IP addresses Class A addresses These addresses use 7 bits for the <network> and 24 bits for the <host> portion of the IP address. This allows for (126, both 0 and 127 are reserved values) each with ( ) hosts; a total of over 2 billion addresses.
17 Class-based IP addresses Class B addresses These addresses use 14 bits for the <network> and 16 bits for the <host> portion of the IP address. This allows for 2 14 (16384) each with (65534) hosts; a total of over 1 billion addresses.
18 Class-based IP addresses Class C addresses These addresses use 21 bits for the <network> and 8 bits for the <host> portion of the IP address. This allows for 2 21 ( ) each with (254) hosts; a total of over half a billion addresses.
19 Class-based IP addresses Class D addresses These addresses are reserved for multicasting (a sort of broadcasting, but not in a limited area, and only to hosts using the same class D addresses). Class E addresses These addresses are reserved for future use.
20 Class-based IP addresses A Class A address is suitable for networks with an extremely large number of hosts. Class C addresses are suitable for networks with a small number of hosts. This means that medium-sized networks (those with more than 254 hosts or where there is an expectation of more than 254 hosts) must use Class B addresses.
21 Class-based IP addresses However, the number of small- to medium-sized networks has been growing very rapidly. It was feared that if this growth had been allowed to continue unabated, all of the available Class B network addresses would have been used by the mid-1990s. This was termed the IP address exhaustion problem.
22 Class-based IP addresses The division of an IP address into two parts also separates the responsibility for selecting the complete IP address. The network number portion of the address is assigned by the RIRs. The host number portion is assigned by the authority controlling the network.
23 IP subnets Due to the explosive growth of the Internet, the principle of assigned IP addresses became too inflexible to allow easy changes to local network configurations. Those changes might occur when: (i) a new type of physical network is installed at a location; (ii) growth of the number of hosts requires splitting the local network into two or more separate networks; (iii) growing distances require splitting a network into smaller networks, with gateways between them.
24 IP subnets To avoid having to request additional IP network addresses, the concept of IP subnetting was introduced. The assignment of subnets is done locally. The entire network still appears as one IP network to the outside world. The host number part of the IP address is subdivided into a second network number and a real host number.
25 IP subnets That second network is termed a subnetwork or subnet. The main network now consists of a number of subnets. The IP address is interpreted as: <network number><subnet number><host number> The combination of subnet number and host number is often termed the local address or the local portion of the IP address.
26 IP subnets Subnetting is implemented in a way that is transparent to remote networks. A host within a network that has subnets is aware of the subnetting structure. A host in a different network is not. This remote host still regards the local part (subnet + host) of the IP address as a host number.
27 IP subnets The division of the local part of the IP address into a subnet number and host number is chosen by the local administrator. Any bits in the local portion can be used to form the subnet. The division is done using a 32-bit subnet mask. Like IP addresses, subnet masks are usually written in dotted decimal form. The bit positions in the subnet mask belonging to the original network number are set to ones but are not used.
28 Example. IP subnets network subnet- --host network mask
29 IP subnets The special treatment of all bits zero and all bits one applies to each of the three parts of a subnetted IP address just as it does to both parts of an IP address that has not been subnetted. For example, subnetting a Class B network could use one of the following schemes: (i) subnet mask the first octet is the subnet number; the second octet is the host number. This gives (254) possible subnets, each having up to (254) hosts; (ii) subnet mask the first 12 bits are used for the subnet number and the last four for the host number. This gives (4094) possible subnets but only (14) hosts per subnet.
30 IP subnets Of course, there are several other possibilities for assigning the subnet and host portions of the address. The number of subnets and hosts and any future requirements should be considered before defining this structure. The network administrator defines either a larger number of subnets each with a small number of hosts, or a smaller number of subnets each with many hosts.
31 IP subnets There are two types of subnetting: static and variable length. Variable length subnetting is more flexible than static. Static subnetting implies that all subnets obtained from the same network use the same subnet mask. Even though this is simple to implement and easy to maintain, it may waste addresses.
32 IP subnets Example. You have been assigned an address pool ( /24) to be subnetted so as to serve a set of 6 LANs with the following requirements (in terms of number of hosts/lan): 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 30 You have to employ at least 5 bits for the host part (2 5-2 = 30), thus leaving 3 bits for the subnet part (i.e., =6). Each subnet holds up to 30 addresses. All subnets but the last one are largely overprovisioned!
33 IP subnets When variable length subnetting is used, allocated subnets within the same network can use different subnet masks. A small subnet with only a few hosts can use a mask that accommodates this need. A subnet with many hosts requires a different subnet mask. The ability to assign subnet masks according to the needs of the individual subnets helps conserve network addresses. Drawback: not every IP device includes support for variable length subnetting.
34 IP subnets Example. Let us consider the problem below. With variable length subnetting you can subnet the address poll as follows: /27 -> 30 hosts /30 -> 2 hosts /30 -> 2 hosts /30 -> 2 hosts /30 -> 2 hosts /30 -> 2 hosts In this way, there is still room for accommodating (for example) the following subnets: /30 -> 2 hosts /27 -> 30 hosts /27 -> 30 hosts /27 -> 30 hosts /27 -> 30 hosts
35 IP subnets Example. Consider now a university that has been assigned the Class C network The university has the requirement to split this address range into five separate networks each with the following number of hosts: - Subnet #1: 50 hosts - Subnet #2: 50 hosts - Subnet #3: 50 hosts - Subnet #4: 30 hosts - Subnet #5: 30 hosts
36 IP subnets This cannot be achieved with static subnetting! For this example, static subnetting divides the network into four subnets each with 64 hosts or eight subnets each with 32 hosts. This subnet allocation does not meet the stated requirements! To divide the network into five subnets, multiple masks should be defined. Using a mask of , the network can be divided into four subnets each with 64 hosts. The fourth subnet can be further divided into two subnets each with 32 hosts by using a mask of There will be three subnets each with 64 hosts and two subnets each with 32 hosts. This satisfies the stated requirements!
37 IP routing Whenever a host has a physical connection to multiple networks or subnets, it is described as being multihomed. By default, all routers are multi-homed since their purpose is to join networks or subnets. A multi-homed host has different IP addresses associated with each network adapter. Each adapter connects to a different subnet or network. A device can simultaneously function as both a normal host and a router.
38 IP routing The router only has information about four kinds of destinations: - hosts that are directly attached to one of the physical networks to which the router is attached; - hosts or networks for which the router has been given explicit definitions; - hosts or networks for which the router has received an ICMP redirect message; -adefault for all other destinations.
39 IP routing Additional protocols are needed to implement a fullfunction router. Protocols for interior routing: - Open Shortest Path First (OSPF); - Routing Information Protocol (RIP); - Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) - Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) Protocols for exterior routing: - Border Gateway Protocol version 4 (BGP4)
40 IP routing There are two types of IP routing: direct and indirect. If the destination host is attached to the same physical network as the source host, IP datagrams can be directly exchanged. This is done by encapsulating the IP datagram in the physical network frame. This is called direct delivery and is referred to as direct routing. Indirect routing occurs when the destination host is not connected to a network directly attached to the source host. The only way to reach the destination is via one or more IP routers.
41 IP routing The address of the first router (the first hop) is called an indirect route in the IP routing algorithm. Note that the address of the first router is the only information needed by the source host to send a packet to the destination host. In some cases, there may be multiple subnets defined on the same physical network. If the source and destination hosts connect to the same physical network but are defined in different subnets, indirect routing is used to communicate between the pair of devices.
42 IP routing lan /26 Host A Router R lan0: lan1: lan /26 Host B Host C
43 IP routing Host B communicates directly with Host B. Host A communicates with Host B and Host C indirectly via Route R. Router R forwarding table: Destination Netmask Interface Next-hop lan lan1 Host A forwarding table: Destination Netmask Interface Next-hop lan lan
44 IP routing
45 IP routing Even though Host A and Host B are connected to the same physical network, they cannot communicate directly, because they belong to different logical subnetwork. All IP datagrams between Host A and Host B are routed through R, which doubles the traffic on the physical network. Router R forwarding table: Destination Netmask Interface Next-hop lan lan0 Host A forwarding table: Destination Netmask Interface Next-hop lan lan
46 IP routing IP uses the following algorithm to route datagrams. without subnets - Is the destination IP network address equal to my IP network address? - Then send IP datagram on local network. - Otherwise send IP datagram to the router corresponding to the destination IP network address. with subnets - bitwise_and(destination IP address, subnet mask) is equal to bitwise_and(my IP address, subnet mask)? - Then send IP datagram on local network. - Otherwise send IP datagram to router corresponding to the destination IP (sub)network address.
47 IP routing This algorithm represents a change to the general IP algorithm, therefore, to be able to operate this way, the particular router must contain the new algorithm. Also, all of the hosts in the subnet must have an IP routing algorithm that supports subnetting. Some implementations may still use the general algorithm, and will not function within a subnetted network, although they can still communicate with hosts in other networks that are subnetted. If the IP implementation on any of the hosts does not support subnetting, that host will be able to communicate with any host in its own subnet but not with any machine on another subnet within the same network.
48 Methods of delivery The majority of IP addresses refer to a single recipient, this is called a unicast address. Unicast connections specify a one-to-one relationship between a single source and a single destination. Additionally, there are three special types of IP addresses used for addressing multiple recipients: broadcast addresses, multicast addresses and anycast addresses.
49 Methods of delivery Broadcast addresses are never valid as a source address. They must specify the destination address. There are different types of broadcast addresses: - limited broadcast address - network-directed broadcast address - subnet-directed broadcast address - all-subnets-directed broadcast address
50 Methods of delivery Limited broadcast address This uses the address (all bits 1 in all parts of the IP address). This address refers to all hosts on the local subnet and it is recognized by every host. Routers do not forward this packet.
51 Methods of delivery Network-directed broadcast address This is used in an unsubnetted environment. The network number is valid and the host number is all ones (for example ). This address refers to all hosts on that network. Routers should forward these broadcast messages.
52 Methods of delivery Subnet-directed broadcast address If the network number is a valid network number, the subnet number is a valid subnet number and the host number is all ones, then the address refers to all hosts on the specified subnet. Since the sender's subnet and the target subnet may have different subnet mask, the sender must somehow find out the subnet mask in use at the target. The actual broadcast is performed by the router that receives the datagram into the subnet.
53 Methods of delivery All-subnets-directed broadcast address If the network number is a valid network number, the network is subnetted and the local part is all ones (for example, ), then the address refers to all hosts on all subnets in the specified network. In principle routers may propagate broadcasts for all subnets but are not required to do so. In practice, they do not, because if misconfigured, it can lead to problems. Consider the misconfigured host in a subnetted Class A network. If the device was configured with the address as a local broadcast address instead of , all of the routers in the network will forward the request to all clients!
54 Methods of delivery If an IP datagram is broadcast to a subnet, it is received by every host on the subnet. Each host processes the packet to determine if the target protocol is active. If it is not active, the IP datagram is discarded. Multicasting avoids this overhead by selecting destination groups. Each group is represented by a Class D IP address. Packets sent to a multicast address are forwarded only to the members of the corresponding host group, which allows for one-tomany connections.
55 Methods of delivery Sometimes, the same IP services are provided by different hosts. For example, a user wants to download a file via FTP and the file is available on multiple FTP servers. Hosts that implement the same service provide an anycast address to other hosts that require the service. Connections are made to the first host in the anycast address group to respond. This process is used to guarantee the service is provided by the host with the best connection to the receiver. The anycast service is included in IPv6.
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