Computer Networks. Introduc)on to Naming, Addressing, and Rou)ng. Week 09. College of Information Science and Engineering Ritsumeikan University

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1 Computer Networks Introduc)on to Naming, Addressing, and Rou)ng Week 09 College of Information Science and Engineering Ritsumeikan University

2 MAC Addresses l MAC address is intended to be a unique identifier for a network interface card (NIC) l Usually written in hexadecimal for, one byte each, sometimes separated by a hyphens l Uniqueness of each code is determined by the first part of the code being the manufacturer s three-byte identification (similar to ISBN) l Broadcast addresses are all ones (FF) l Multicast addresses have a one in the least significant bit in the most significant byte 2

3 MAC Addresses 3

4 Naming, Addressing, and Routing in IP l RFC 791 (1981), Internet Protocol, explains the three terms: A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there. l Domain names, hostnames, site names, and addresses can all change over time

5 Purpose of Naming and Addressing l Information on computer networks is usually not broadcast l Even in logical buses, most messages are intended for one recipient l Messages on the network are sent in packets to specific destinations so there must be a way of naming and/or addressing every device that sends or receives l Routing depends on broad (global) naming and addressing standards

6 Who has an IP address? l Basically, every device on the Internet must have a unique IP address l Some devices with IP addresses include: routers, computers, printers, and VOIP telephones l MAC addresses are permanently associated with a device; however l IP addresses are assigned by software l Currently, the most widely used type of IP address is IPv4, IP version 4

7 What does an IP address look like? l Each IPv4 address consists of four bytes (also known as octets), usually shown as four decimal numbers separated by dots ( dotted quad notation ) l Google s search engine server, for example, currently has IP address or: l Each number can have a value from 0 to 255 l For ordinary IP addresses, this allows addresses, a little over 4 billion

8 What are the parts of an IP address? l The address has two parts, the network part and the local (host) part, just like a telephone number l The size of each part can vary from one to three octets, depending on its importance or role in the larger network l All hosts with the same network address are assumed to be in the same physical location

9 IP Classes l The four main classes are called A, B, C and D l The class determine the relative sizes of the network and host parts of the address l Class A is reserved for large corporations and organisations (with many hosts) l Class B is reserved for medium-sized organisations, such as universities l Class C is for small organisations l Classes D & E are used for special purposes

10 Class A l Reserved for large corporations or organisations with up to 2 24 hosts l First octet is the network part and the last three octets are the host part Net = 115 Host = l Class A addresses begin with a binary 0 so the first octet must be between 0 and 127

11 Class B l Reserved for smaller corporations or organisations with up to 2 16 hosts l First two octets are the network part and the last two octets are the host part Net = Host = l Class B addresses begin with a binary 10 so the first octet must be between 128 and 191

12 Class C l Reserved for smaller corporations or organisations l First three octets are the network part and the last octet is the host part Net = Host = 107 l Class C addresses begin with a binary 110 so the first octet must be between 192 and 223

13 Classes D & E l Reserved for special uses l Class D is for multicasting (special addressing for router messages and streaming) l Class D begins with a binary 1110 (first octet between 224 and 239) l Class E is for experimental purposes l Class E addresses begin with a binary 1111 so the first octet must be between 240 and 255 l For classes D and E, only the first octet is the Net part of the address

14 What are subnet masks? l l l The subnet mask shows which part of the IP address contains the network part In this example, the first three octets are the network part The IP layer uses the subnet mask to decide whether to deliver or to route outbound packets, based on the destination IP address

15 Some Special IP Addresses l Some IP addresses are reserved for special use on LANs, either by standard or by convention l to , with the subnet mask or , is common for private networks, for example a home LAN; these addresses are not routed l is reserved for local IP traffic l usually is a loopback a way of addressing the same local machine 15

16 Routing l Routing simply means sending packets through the network with the intention of getting each one to its proper destination l A router uses packet forwarding to send a packet: if the packet can t be sent to the final destination, the router finds the best route, usually using a table l Some routers, such as gateways, also monitor traffic or perform other computations to find the best route

17 Types of Forwarding Unicast Multicast l Unicast is typical for packets transferring data between peers or between client and server l Multicast is often used to send video or backups l Broadcast (not shown) is used in some protocols

18 Routing Tables l A routing table tells a router where to send a packet based on its intended destination l This is often done with a Routing Information Base (RIB) l Typical entries in a routing table are Network route: Route to a specific network ID Host route: to a specific network address, which allows better routing for specific addresses Default route: when no route is found

19 NAT Routing l NAT stands for Network Address Translation l Used when moving a packet into or out of a local address space l The NAT router uses PAT, port translation, to examine each incoming packet and determine for which local machine the packet is intended l NAT routing is a simple kind of firewall because it can prevent unexpected (and unwelcome) packets from entering

20 Address Exhaustion and IPv6 l Even with local subnets and reservations for private networks, IPv4 addresses are limited in number l RFC 2460 introduced a new IP called IPv6, with a 128-bit address space (about ) l IPv6 addresses are usually written in hexadecimal with colons separating every 16 bits, for example: 2001:db8:85a3::8a2e:370:

21 IPv6 Implementation l Many devices have the ability to use Ipv6 but no one knows how well IPv6 will work on the exiting infrastructure as it grows l The last blocks of IPv4 addresses were distributed in 2011 l Every possible IPv4 address has been in use since November 2011 l This crisis led to the first extensive testing of IPv6 on the Internet in June

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