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3 A variety of techniques have been applied to limit the explosion in the number of IP addresses. To slow the depletion of IP addresses, the Internet infrastructure evolved to support greater flexibility in the allocation of blocks of IP addresses. The restriction of having fixed address blocks was abandoned in the early 1990s with the introduction of classless interdomain routing (CIDR). CIDR allows the division between the network and host portions of the IP address to occur at any point in the 32 bit number. A CIDR network, then, is identified by a network address and a mask length that indicates how many bits are devoted to the network part of the address. As an example, consider the Art Router To ISP PC CS English EE French Main router Math Music Ethernet Physics Figure 1: campus network at McMaster University shown in figure 1. We will assume that all machines at McMaster University are assigned class B addresses (with 14 bits 7-9-3

4 for the network number and 16 bits for the host number). We will assume that the first two bytes in these IP addresses are 130 and 50 respectively. Let us assume that McMaster University has 35 departments in all, each with its own LAN network, constituting a subnet. So, Mac decides to take away some bits from the host number to create a subnet number for each department. It uses a 6 bit subnet number and a 10 bit host number, allowing for up to 64 Ethernets, each with a maximum of 1022 hosts (all zeros and all ones are not available, as mentioned earlier!). To implement subnetting, the main router on campus needs a subnet mask that indicates the split between network + subnet number and host, as shown in figure 2. The subnet mask can also be represented in dotted decimal notation as An alternative notation is /22 to indicate that the subnet mask is 22 bits long. Outside the network, the subnetting is 32 Bits Subnet mask 10 Network Subnet Host Figure 2: 7-9-4

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