3 Network layer duties Internetworking : heterogeneous Physical Networks To look Like a single network to he upper layers The address at Network layer must uniquely and universally define the connection of a host (computer) or a router to the internet When there are multiple routes to the destination ROUTERS must choose one route Encapsulate packets from upper layer and makes new packets out of them. Packetizing is made by IP Each ROUTER decapsulate IP datagram from the receiving frame, process it, end encapsulate it in another frame (depend on the protocol used by the physical network)
4 Host-to-Host Delivery: Internetworking, Addressing, and Routing
5 Links in an internetwork 4 LANs and WAN If the host A needs to send a data packet to host D, the packet first needs to go from A to S1 (Switch or Router), then from S1 to S3, and finally from S3 to host D
6 Network layer in an internetwork The Network layer at the source is responsible for creating a packet that carries two universal addresses DESTINATION address and SOURCE address
7 Network layer at the source
8 Network layer at a router
9 Network layer at the destination
11 Datagram approach In the DATAGRAM approach each packet is treated independently of all others. This approach can cause the datagrams of a transmission to arrive at their destination out of order. It is the responsibility of an upper layer to reorder the datagrams. The routing and delivery of the packet are based on the source and destination address included in the packet itself. The switches and routers each have a routing table that can decide on the route based on these two addresses.
12 Switching at the network layer in the Internet is done using the datagram approach to packet switching. Communication at the network layer in the Internet is connectionless.
14 An IP address is a 32-bit address. An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique identifier and universal for a node or host connection on an IP network. An IP address is a 32 bit binary number usually represented as 4 decimal values, each representing 8 bits, in the range 0 to 255 (known as octets) separated by decimal points. This is known as "dotted decimal" notation.
15 Example Change the following IP addresses from binary notation to dotteddecimal notation. a b Solution We replace each group of 8 bits with its equivalent decimal number and add dots for separation: a b
16 Example Change the following IP addresses from dotted-decimal notation to binary notation. a b Solution We replace each decimal number with its binary equivalent : a b
17 Every IP address consists of two parts: one identifying the network one identifying the node The Class of the address and the subnet mask determine: which part belongs to the network address and which part belongs to the node address. In classful addressing, the address space is divided into five classes: A, B, C, D, and E.
18 Finding the class in decimal notation A B C D E
19 Finding the class in binary notation
20 Finding the address class Class A addresses begin with 0xxxxxxx, or 1 to 126 decimal. Class B addresses begin with 10xxxxxx, or 128 to 191 decimal. Class C addresses begin with 110xxxxx, or 192 to 223 decimal. Class D addresses begin with 1110xxxx, or 224 to 239 decimal. Class E addresses begin with 1111xxxx, or 240 to 254 decimal. Obs: Addresses beginning with , or 127 decimal, are reserved for loop back and for internal testing on a local machine. [You can test this: you should always be able to ping , which points to yourself] Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting. Class E addresses are reserved for future use. They should not be used for host addresses.
21 Example Find the class of each address: a b Solution a. The first bit is 0; this is a class A address. b. The first 4 bits are 1s; this is a class E address.
22 Example Find the class of each address: a b c Solution a. The first byte is 227 (between 224 and 239); the class is D. b. The first byte is 252 (between 240 and 255); the class is E. c. The first byte is 134 (between 128 and 191); the class is B.
23 Netid and hostid Now we can see how the Class determines, by default, which part of the IP address belongs to the network (N) and which part belongs to the node (n). Class A -- NNNNNNNN.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh Class B -- NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.hhhhhhhh.hhhhhhhh Class C -- NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.NNNNNNNN.hhhhhhhh
24 Blocks in class A Class A is divided into 128 blocks, each block having a different netid. Millions of class A addresses are wasted.
25 Blocks in class B
26 Blocks in class C The number of addresses in class C is smaller than the needs of most organizations.
27 Network address In classful addressing, the network address is the one that is assigned to the organization.
28 There are reserved three blocks of the IP address space for private networks: 1 * Class A Class A network IP address range = For one Class A network: Subnet mask = Network address length = 8 bit ; Computer address length = 24 bit 16 * Class B Class B network IP address range = Class B network IP address range = For each of the 16 Class B networks: Subnet mask = Network address length = 16 bit ; Computer address length = 16 bit Alternatively, 16 * Class B combined Combined Class B networks IP address range = For all 16 Class B networks combined: Subnet mask = Network address length = 12 bit ; Computer address length = 20 bit 256 * Class C Class C network IP address range = Class C network IP address range = For each of the 256 Class C networks: Subnet mask = Network address = 24 bit ; Computer address = 8 bit Alternatively, 256 * Class C combined Combined Class C networks IP address range = For all 256 Class C networks combined: Subnet mask = Network address length = 16 bit; Computer address length = 16 bit
29 Example Given the address , find the network address. Solution The class is A. Only the first byte defines the netid. We can find the network address by replacing the hostid bytes ( ) with 0s. Therefore, the network address is
30 Example Given the address , find the network address. Solution The class is B. The first 2 bytes defines the netid. We can find the network address by replacing the hostid bytes (17.85) with 0s. Therefore, the network address is
31 Example Given the network address , find the class. Solution The class is A because the netid is only 1 byte.
32 A network address is different from a netid. A network address has both netid and hostid, with 0s for the hostid.
33 Sample internet 1 Token ring LAN class C 2 WAN 2 Ethernet LAN class B 4 Point to point WAN T1 line just connect two routers 5 Ethernet LAN class A
34 A network with two levels of hierarchy IP addresses are designed with two levels of hierarchy.
35 Three level of hierarchy( Sub- netted) The network needs to be divided into several sub networks Example : University has one network address The outside world knows the organization by its network address. But needs several sub network addresses for different departments Inside the organization each sub network is recognized by its sub network address In sub netting, a network is divided into several smaller groups with each sub network having its own sub network address.
36 A network with three levels of hierarchy (sub netted) The sub-networks still appear as a single network to the rest of internet
37 Addresses in a network with and without sub netting
38 Hierarchy concept in a telephone number
39 Default masks Class In Binary In Dotted- Decimal Using Slash Prefix A /8 B /16 C /24 The network address can be found by applying the default mask to any address in the block (including itself). It retains the netid of the block and sets the hostid to 0s.
40 Windows IP Configuration Host Name : computer Primary Dns Suffix : Node Type : Hybrid IP Routing Enabled : No WINS Proxy Enabled : No Ethernet adapter Wireless Network Connection: Media State : Media disconnected Description : Intel(R) PRO/Wireless 2200BG Network Connection Physical Address : D-2C Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection: Connection-specific DNS Suffix. : Description : Broadcom NetXtreme Gigabit Ethernet Physical Address : C2-DF-F2-F4 Dhcp Enabled : Yes Autoconfiguration Enabled.... : Yes IP Address : Subnet Mask : Default Gateway : DHCP Server : DNS Servers : Lease Obtained : 9 decembrie :22:01 Lease Expires : 12 decembrie :22:01 Ethernet adapter VPN: Media State : Media disconnected Description : TAP-Win32 Adapter V8 Physical Address : 00-FF-41-B3-55-4F
41 Subnet Masking Applying a mask to an IP address allows you to identify the network and node parts of the address. The network bits are represented by the 1s in the mask, and the node bits are represented by the 0s. Performing a bitwise logical AND operation between the IP address and the subnet mask results in the Network Address or Number. For example, using our test IP address and the default Class B subnet mask, we get: Class B IP Address Default Class B Subnet Mask Network Address
42 Example A router outside the organization receives a packet with destination address Show how it finds the network address to route the packet. Solution The router follows three steps: 1. The router looks at the first byte of the address to find the class. It is class B. 2. The default mask for class B is The router ANDs this mask with the address to get The router looks in its routing table to find out how to route the packet to this destination. Later, we will see what happens if this destination does not exist.
43 Subnetting Subnetting an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons, including organization, use of different physical media (such as Ethernet, FDDI, WAN, etc.), preservation of address space, and security. The most common reason is to control network traffic. In an Ethernet network, all nodes on a segment see all the packets transmitted by all the other nodes on that segment. Performance can be adversely affected under heavy traffic loads, due to collisions and the resulting retransmissions. A router is used to connect IP networks to minimize the amount of traffic each segment must receive.
44 More Restrictive Subnet Masks Additional bits can be added to the default subnet mask for a given Class to further subnet, or break down, a network. When a bitwise logical AND operation is performed between the subnet mask and IP address, the result defines the Subnet Address (also called the Network Address or Network Number). There are some restrictions on the subnet address. Node addresses of all "0"s and all "1"s are reserved for specifying the local network (when a host does not know its network address) and all hosts on the network (broadcast address), respectively. This also applies to subnets. A subnet address cannot be all "0"s or all "1"s. This also implies that a 1 bit subnet mask is not allowed. This restriction is required because older standards enforced this restriction. Recent standards that allow use of these subnets have superseded these standards, but many "legacy" devices do not support the newer standards. If you are operating in a controlled environment, such as a lab, you can safely use these restricted subnets.
45 A router inside the organization receives the same packet with destination address Show how it finds the subnetwork address to route the packet The router follows three steps: 1. The router must know the mask. We assume it is /19 2. The router applies the mask to the address, The subnet address is The router looks in its routing table to find how to route the packet to this destination. Later, we will see what happens if this destination does not exist.
46 CIDR -- Classless InterDomain Routing CIDR was invented several years ago to keep the internet from running out of IP addresses. The "classful" system of allocating IP addresses can be very wasteful; anyone who could reasonably show a need for more that 254 host addresses was given a Class B address block of host addresses. Even more wasteful were companies and organizations that were allocated Class A address blocks, which contain over 16 Million host addresses! Only a tiny percentage of the allocated Class A and Class B address space has ever been actually assigned to a host computer on the Internet.
47 CIDR notated address Under CIDR, the subnet mask notation is reduced to a simplified shorthand. Instead of spelling out the bits of the subnet mask, it is simply listed as the number of 1s bits that start the mask. Example, instead of writing the address and subnet mask as , Subnet Mask the network address would be written simply as: /22 which indicates starting address of the network, and number of 1s bits (22) in the network portion of the address. If you look at the subnet mask in binary , you can easily see how this notation works. The use of a CIDR notated address is the same as for a Classful address. Classful addresses can easily be written in CIDR notation : (Class A = /8, Class B = /16, and Class C = /24)
50 Class C # bits Subnet Mask CIDR #Subnets #Hosts Nets * Hosts / / / / /
51 Example Say you are assigned a Class C network number of You want to utilize this network across multiple small groups within an organization. You can do this by subnetting that network with a subnet address. We will break this network into 14 subnets of 14 nodes each. This will limit us to 196 nodes on the network instead of the 254 we would have without subnetting, but gives us the advantages of traffic isolation and security. To accomplish this, we need to use a subnet mask 4 bits long. Recall that the default Class C subnet mask is Extending this by 4 bits yields a mask of
52 Example cont This gives us 16 possible network numbers, 2 of which cannot be used: Subnet bits Network Number Node Addresses Broadcast Address Reserved None thru thru thru thru thru thru thru thru thru thru thru thru thru thru Reserved None
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