ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X

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1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM for CLASS IX to X The Royal Society for Protection of Nature (RSPN) in collaboration with Department of Curriculum Research & Development (DCRD) of Ministry of Education is developing Environmental Science curriculum as an optional subject for classes IX to X in the formal education system. Interested writers with required qualification and experience to write Environmental Science text book on the broad themes of i) Physical World; ii) Biological World; iii) Environment & Society; iv) Working Scientifically; can submit your Expression of Interest to RSPN office latest by 10 October 2013 along with your CV and copy of publications. For more information, please visit RSPN website Note: Please note that RSPN doesn t encourage one or two writers to write the whole book but rather experts in different fields to write specific topics. The Environmental Science curriculum for classes IX to X will be based on the four broad strands, its key Stage and their learning outcomes and objectives. Strand 1: Physical World The environment in which we live is complex constituted by components such as plants, animals, weather, climatic condition and natural forces that govern the functioning of the universe. The abiotic factors and natural forces generally constitute the physical worlds that are crucial in the dynamics of the universe. Through the strand, Physical world, learners develop understanding of the constituents of the physical and their interactions; and how they affect the biological world and the society. Through exploration and investigation, learners understand the elements of physical world, how human actions affect the physical world and the consequences entailed. Strand 2: Biological World All the living things plants and animals constitute the biological world. The inter relationship amongst them is represented by ecosystem. The flow of energy in the system supports the survival and sustenance of each of these components. The dynamic of the biological world is crucial to humanity on this Earth. Therefore, the understanding of plant diversity and resources has never been more important than at this present time. As we face the unprecedented challenges of climate change and environmental degradation, effective environmental monitoring and conservation depend upon detailed knowledge of plants and animals and their habitats. In this strand, learners develop the knowledge and understanding of different forms of life; their interaction and interdependence; and how the physical world affects the health of the biological world. Learners continuously engage in experimentation, investigation, and project works to

2 develop coherent knowledge and understanding about, and of the biological world.. Strand 3: Environment and Society The study of environment and society is a cornerstone to examine the diverse processes related to interactions between human society and the biophysical environment, ranging from the mostly physical to the mostly social. Natural disasters are not necessarily natural. Physical processes such as climate change, the weather, and hydrology cause these events. Social processes such as land-use decisions, poverty, and political decision-making can transform a large storm into a disaster. Therefore, the social and environmental problems are deeply intertwined. Understanding the reciprocal relationships between social and environmental processes is the foundation of the study of Environment & Society (E&S). This strand emphasizes that the human relationship to the environment can be biological, economic, political, physical, cultural, chemical and social. Students become familiar with relevant theories in human and physical geography, appropriate methods of inquiry, and case studies of environmental challenges. The strand also introduces students to the main approaches and theory for environmental social sciences, including how social science tools can be applied to environmental problems, and how social science theories contribute to understanding the environmental problems. Through project works and practical activities, learners develop understanding of the sustainable use of natural resources as well Strand 4: Working Scientifically The strand, working scientifically, is a process strand embedded in the three content strands. Working scientifically in environmental science involves the processes of science, including understanding the sorts of questions that are the province of science; the design of experiments; reasoning and arguing with scientific evidence; and analyzing and interpreting data. Working scientifically also involves particular forms of reasoning with evidence that is different in detail from reasoning in other areas. Working scientifically emphasizes techniques of focused observation, the recognition of a scientific question that can be investigated; the need for repeated measurements and skills in devising measurement processes; ways of recording data (these can vary considerably); and representing data for analysis; different experimental designs and associated principles (e.g. understanding sample size in making observations in the field), and reporting. Key Stage 4: Classes IX - X At this key stage, learners demonstrate significant developments in terms of logical and abstract thinking; and are able to comprehend complex situations. For older children, education is for understanding for mastering disciplines and for apprenticeship.

3 During Key Stage 4 (Classes IX and X), the learners develop basic knowledge and understanding of the concepts of Physical world, Biological world, Environment and Society, and the fundamental skills needed for the use of these in new and changing situations. The learners discover a wider range of scientific ideas that support the environmental science, and consider them in greater depth, laying the foundations, if appropriate, for further study in the subject and apply these ideas in new contexts to solve problems. They explore how developmental activities are related to the degradation of environment. They consider the power and limitations of science and technology in addressing social, industrial, ethical and environmental issues; and how different groups in the community and beyond may have different views about the role of environment. They make informed judgments on statements and debates that have environmental basis, and use their learning for planning positive action for the welfare of themselves, others in their community and the environment. When they carry out investigations, working either on their own or with others, they draw on increasingly diverse and complex sources of information which they select taking into accounts the issues of reliability and validity to plan their investigation or inquiry. They use a wider range of techniques to carry out their plans and investigations, which will be quantitative in nature. They evaluate critically all the evidence collected to draw conclusions. In drawing these conclusions, they compare, contrast, analyze, synthesize, question and critique the information from different sources. They communicate their ideas clearly and precisely in a variety of ways including the use of ICT. Standard K4.1: Understand the elements of ecosystem and relate the significance of abiotic and biotic world in daily lives and to the sustainable development in Bhutan. Standard K4.2: Evaluate the roles of beliefs, cultural and traditional values in towards environment. Standard K4.3: Apply the concepts of environmental science in everyday experiences, decision making and management of environment. Standard K4.4: Develop the ability to pose critical questions on environment; formulate hypothesis, collect, collate, analyze and interpret data; and draw conclusions and propose solutions. Standard K4.5: Develop the ability to communicate environmental information and ideas logically and concisely in a variety of forms. Learning Outcomes Strand 1: Physical World K4S1.1. Enlist the natural resources and environmental factors that contribute to the benefit of human being. K4S1.2. Discuss the ways of sustaining natural resources. Strand 2: Biological World K4S2.1. Explain elementary ecological concepts and principles.

4 K4S2.2. Identify and explain the interactions between biotic and abiotic components of environment. Strand 3: Environment and Society K4S3.1. Explain the relationships between people and environment and discuss the effect of human activities on environment. K4S3.2. Assess and propose ways of using the natural resources sustainably. K4S3.3. Identify and describe environmental issues, and consider the roles of beliefs, culture and traditional values towards environment. K4S3.4. Describe application of concepts of environmental science in daily lives in decision making and management of environment, and creating awareness. Strand 4: Working Scientifically K4S4.1. Pose critical questions on environment; formulate hypothesis, collect, collate, analyze and interpret data; and draw conclusions and propose solutions in carrying out research works. K4S4.2. Communicate environmental information and ideas logically and concisely through drawings, flowcharts, ICT, graphs, write-ups. Learning Objectives: Strand 1: Physical World I. Natural Resources 1. Define natural resources and explain their importance. 9s1 2. Define and classify renewable and non-renewable resources. 9s1 3. Explain watershed and its importance. 9s1 4. Explain the ways of managing watershed. 10s1 5. Investigate the health of catchment area.10s1 6. Explain water harvesting.9s1 7. List down different kinds of mineral found in Bhutan. 10s1 8. Discuss the uses of minerals. 10s1 9. Discuss the over extraction of minerals in our country. 10s1 10. Suggest ways to sustain minerals 11. Name common forest products of Bhutan 12. Discuss the impact of over exploitation of forest product such as wood and fungi 13. Define deforestation 14. Suggest ways to protect forest 15. List the impact of hydropower construction on environment II. Climate Change 1. Define greenhouse effect. 2. Describe how greenhouse effect works. 3. Define ozone layer. 4. Define ozone depletion.

5 5. Discuss how CFCs create ozone hole. 6. List ways to control ozone hole. 7. List the causes of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases. Strand 2: Biological World I. Fundamental of ecology 1. Define ecosystem 2. Differentiate between key ecological terms and concepts (Ecology: species, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, habitat, niche, biome) 3. Name biotic and abiotic component of ecosystem 4. Explain the interactions between biotic and abiotic components of environment. 5. Define food web and food chain 6. Give examples of habitat and niche 7. Explain the relationship between living organisms and their environment 8. Identify different trophic levels 9. Explain ecological pyramids 10. Explain the role of green plant in ecosystem 11. Explain the role of consumers in the ecosystem 12. Explain the role of decomposers in the ecosystem 13. Describe intra-specific and inter-specific competition with examples 14. Define with examples mutualism, scavenging, predation and parasitism. 15. Define ecological succession 16. Discuss the significance of ecological succession 17. Differentiate between primary and secondary succession 18. determine population size of plants using appropriate sampling quadrats and transects methods 19. Discuss habitat destruction by human 20. Analyze the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem stability 21. identify factors affecting population growth in a natural ecosystem; 22. explain the concept of carrying capacity 23. evaluate human interactions within natural ecosystems 24. investigate at least two ecosystems in their territory 25. Present and interpret data using appropriate charts, table, and graphs. 26. Discuss the sources of introduced species. 27. Discuss the environmental and economic impact of invasive species. 28. List invasive species recorded in Bhutan and their impact 29. Suggest quarantine measures to prevent introduction of new species II. Biodiversity 1. Define biodiversity 2. Evaluate the species richness in Bhutan 3. Discuss the geographical distribution of flora and fauna in Bhutan 4. Define biodiversity hot spot in Bhutan considering National Parks as example.

6 5. Discuss Protected System in Bhutan and biological corridors in Bhutan 6. Write the function of Protected area and Biological corridors 7. Discuss the advantages of having greater biodiversity 8. Describe the impact of biodiversity on i. agriculture ii. human health iii. business and industry iv. leisure, cultural and aesthetic value v. ecological services 9. List the Endangered and Endemic species of Bhutan such as Tiger, Snow leopard, Elephant, Red Panda and Himalayan Black Bear. 10. Discuss ways to protect endangered species. 11. Discuss the habitat destruction and its threat on species population. 12. Define invasive species. 13. Define Ecotourism 14. List the benefits of Ecotourism Strand 3: Environment and Society I. Pollution and environment 1. Define demography, natality, fatality, population density and population explosion. 2. Discuss the factors which regulate population size. 3. Give an overview of human population in Bhutan 4. Discuss the trend in rural urban migration in Bhutan. 5. Discuss the impact of increase in population on the environment. 6. Discuss the environmental impacts of mining. 7. Explain how mining leads to deforestation, soil erosion, land slide and air pollution 8. List down the causes of soil erosion in Bhutan 9. Explain the ways to prevent the soil erosion in Bhutan 10. Explain the effect of mining on water resources 11. Define the terms pollutions and pollutant 12. List the types of pollutions (Air, water, land, noise) 13. Outline the general sources of pollution 14. Investigate on land and water pollution in their community. 15. Design posters, slogans and organize campaign to create awareness on different types of pollutions 16. List different kinds of waste produced by human beings. 17. Define solid waste. 18. Describe the different sources of solid waste. 19. Discuss impact of waste on environment. 20. Analyze municipal waste management systems.

7 II. Sustainable development 1. Name the different sources of energy 2. Write the advantages and disadvantages of i. Wind Energy ii. Water Energy (hydro power) iii. Solar Energy iv. Coal v. Bio Energy (Bio Gas, Fossil fuels and wood) 3. Discuss the ways harnessing and use of solar energy. 4. Evaluate the use of renewable energy 5. Discuss factors affecting electricity generating capacity and demand 6. Outline the impact of various forms of energy in the environment i. Global warming ii. Pollution impact iii. Habitat destruction iv. Health issues 7. Explain sustainable resource consumption. 8. Explain how equity in resource distribution and consumption promote sustainable development. 9. Discuss the traditional agricultural practices in Bhutan i. Use of pasture land ii. Shifting cultivation iii. Nomadic pastoralism 10. Discuss the problem of overgrazing in Bhutan. 11. Explain organic and inorganic farming 12. Write the advantages and disadvantage of organic and inorganic farming 13. Explain how chemical pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture cause water pollution (leeching and eutrophication) 14. Suggest ways to prevent pesticides pollution 15. Define bio-concentration with examples 16. Work out strategies for sustainable agriculture.

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