CHAPTER 3. A is a certain number of individuals that make up an interbreeding, reproducing group within a given area.

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1 Review Question-1 Answer CHAPTER 3 Basic Needs of Living Things A is a certain number of individuals that make up an interbreeding, reproducing group within a given area. a. species b. population c. organism d. cell 1 Review Question-2 Answer Review Question-3 Answer All the ecosystems of the Earth are interconnected and form one huge system called the a. ecotone. b. landscape. c. biome. d. biosphere. The basic building blocks of all matter are a. atoms. b. molecules. c. compounds. d. matter. Review Question-5 Answer Organic compounds usually contain the following six key elements: a. helium, oxygen, hydrogen, magnesium, plutonium, and nitrogen. b. carbon, plutonium, helium, nitrogen, sulfur, and magnesium. c. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. d. gold, silver, magnesium, chromium, iron, and sulfur. Entropy is a measure of the degree of in a system. a. order b. disorder c. light d. oxygen 1

2 Interpreting Graphs and Data-1 Answer Interpreting Graphs and Data-2 Answer According to Fig. 3-5, the range of tolerance for the species is a degrees Celsius. b degrees Celsius. c degrees Celsius. d degrees Celsius. According to Fig. 3-8, when water undergoes sublimation, it moves from the state to the state. a. solid; gas b. solid; liquid c. gas; solid d. liquid; gas Thinking Environmentally-1 Answer Thinking Environmentally-2 Answer All of the following are examples of potential energy except a. batteries. b. firewood. c. gasoline. d. light. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states: In any energy conversion, some of the usable energy is always lost. Underlying the loss of usable energy to heat is a. the Law of Gravity. b. the process of photosynthesis. c. the Law of Independent Assortment. d. the principle of entropy. Review Question-1 Answer CHAPTER 4 Populations and Communities (Births plus ) minus ( plus Emigration) = Change in population number a. Emigration; Births b. Immigration; Deaths c. Immigration; Births d. Emigration; Deaths 2

3 Review Question-2 Answer Review Question-3 Answer True or False: Natural selection results in a modification of the gene pool toward traits that enhance survival and reproduction of a population. a. True b. False The rate at which members of a species reproduce if there are no limiting factors is referred to as a. K-strategy. b. r-strategy. c. environmental resistance. d. biotic potential. Review Question-5 Answer A species that has a critical role in maintaining an ecosystem s biotic structure is a a. J-curve species. b. K-strategist. c. keystone species. d. biotic potential. The theory that has helped us understand earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the geographic distribution of present-day biota is a. the law of limiting factors. b. the Laws of Thermodynamics. c. the theory of evolution. d. plate tectonics. Interpreting Graphs and Data-1 Answer Interpreting Graphs and Data-2 Answer According to Fig. 4-2, the population growth curve that represents logistic growth is a. the J-curve. b. the S-curve. According to Fig. 4-8, the approximate date that this population reached its greatest level of environmental resistance was a b c d

4 Thinking Environmentally-1 Answer Thinking Environmentally-2 A K-strategist s population size typically fluctuates around a. the midpoint of the J-curve. b. carrying capacity. c. density-dependent factors. d. density-independent factors. A sudden hard freeze that kills members of an ecosystem is an example of a. a critical number. b. a density-dependent factor. c. a density-independent factor. d. density-driven resistance. Thinking Environmentally-2 Answer A sudden hard freeze that kills members of an ecosystem is an example of a. a critical number. b. a density-dependent factor. c. a density-independent factor. d. density-driven resistance. CHAPTER 5 Ecosystems: Energy, Patterns, and Disturbance Review Question-1 Answer Review Question-2 Answer The process of initial invasion and progression from one biotic community to the next is called a. primary succession. b. secondary succession. c. a climax ecosystem. d. fire. True or False: Forest fires are destructive to ecosystems and should be avoided if at all possible. a. True b. False 4

5 Review Question-3 Answer Resilience mechanisms might include a. replenishment of nutrients. b. rapid regrowth of plant cover. c. succession in a forest. d. all of the above. When an ecosystem reaches a dynamic balance between all of the species and the physical environment, the ecosystem is considered a. at climax. b. in primary succession. c. in secondary succession. d. in aquatic succession. Review Question-5 Answer Interpreting Graphs and Data-1 Answer A small human action that catalyzes a major change in the state of an ecosystem is called the a. turning point. b. dew point. c. tipping point. d. point of no return. According to Fig. 5-11, the temperature and precipitation of the moist tundra biome can be described as a. cold and wet. b. cold and dry. c. hot and wet. d. hot and dry. Interpreting Graphs and Data-2 Answer Thinking Environmentally-1 Answer According to Fig. 5-20, areas shaded in black have a. no net primary production. b. low net primary production. c. medium net primary production. d. high net primary production. All of the following are categories of consumers except a. herbivores. b. photosynthesizers. c. omnivores. d. parasites. 5

6 Thinking Environmentally-2 Answer Which of the following might be considered primary stakeholders in an ecosystem? a. government decision makers b. scientists studying the ecosystem c. people living within the ecosystem d. conservation organizations CHAPTER 6 Wild Species and Biodiversity Review Question-1 Answer Review Question-2 Answer The natural species of living things are collectively referred to as a. biota. b. abiota. c. symbiota. d. bopota. When a species or organism provides some benefit to another, it is considered to have ; when the species or organism has value for its own sake, it is considered to have. a. intrinsic value; instrumental value b. instrumental value; intrinsic value c. intrinsic value; economic value d. economic value; instrumental value Review Question-3 Answer Habitat destruction that leaves only small patches of natural habitat is considered a. invasion. b. conversion. c. intrusion. d. fragmentation. A critical element in the protecting of species is, which is the cataloging of species and the naming of new ones. a. ethnobotany b. taxonomy c. aquaculture d. biodiversity 6

7 Review Question-5 Answer Interpreting Graphs and Data-1 Answer The List uses a set of criteria to evaluate the risk of extinction for thousands of species throughout the world. a. Red b. Yellow c. Green d. Rainbow According to Fig. 6-5, what percentage of U.S. species of plants and animals are considered to be at risk of extinction? a. approximately 33% b. approximately 55% c. approximately 67% d. approximately 92% Interpreting Graphs and Data-2 Answer Thinking Environmentally-1 Answer According to Fig. 6-20, the United States has one biodiversity hot spot; it is called a. Caucasus. b. Micronesia. c. California Floristic Province. d. Cape Floristic Region. In 1900, U.S. Congress passed the Act to prevent interstate commerce in illegally traded wildlife. a. Endangered Species b. Magnuson c. Lacey d. Threatened and Endangered Species Recovery Thinking Environmentally-2 Answer Which of the following was not a major recommendation of the UN Global Biodiversity Assessment for the protection of biodiversity? a. reform policies that lead to declines in biodiversity b. address the needs of people who live near biodiversity hotspots c. reduce conservation at the landscape level d. promote more research on biodiversity CHAPTER 7 The Use and Restoration of Ecosystems 7

8 Review Question-1 Answer Review Question-2 Answer Which of the following is NOT a natural service provided by ecosystems? a. modification of climate b. maintenance of the hydrologic cycle c. erosion control and soil building d. production of pollutants The highest possible rate of use that a system can match with its own rate of replacement or maintenance is the a. extractive limit. b. optimum yield. c. wise-use threshold. d. maximum sustainable yield. Review Question-3 Answer The aim of conservation is to a. preserve the environment in a pristine state. b. actively manage the environment for optimum resource extraction. c. ensure the continuity of the system, regardless of its potential utility. d. fragment the system for human use. The main difference between consumptive and productive use is a. consumptive use is applied to secondary consumers, whereas productive is applied to producers. b. consumptive use is applied to bacteria, whereas productive use is applied to primary consumers. c. consumptive use refers to the use of natural systems for basic human needs, while productive use implies use for economic gain. d. consumptive use refers to the value of an organism to humans, whereas productive use is based on the value of the organism in and of itself. Review Question-5 Answer Interpreting Graphs and Data-1 Answer refers to the problems that arise when the exploitation of common pool resources causes the eventual ruin of the resource. a. Shakespearean tragedy b. Conservation pooling c. Tragedy of the commons d. Restoration pooling According to Fig. 7-6, when a population is at carrying capacity, a. yield is reduced by competition. b. maximum sustainable yield is possible. c. yield is reduced by decreased population sizes. d. recruitment is low. 8

9 Interpreting Graphs and Data-2 Answer Thinking Environmentally-1 Answer According to Fig. 7-14, between 1960 and 2006 the world s total fish harvest was a. in decline year after year. b. increasing year after year. c. staying approximately the same. d. fluctuating dramatically. Which of the following is the current major cause of deforestation of the tropics? a. conversion to pastures and agriculture b. conversion to municipalities c. restoration of plantations d. all of the above Thinking Environmentally-2 Answer Fishers are currently prohibited from hunting large whales under the Act. a. Marine Reserves b. Endangered Species c. Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization d. Wild Species Restoration 9

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