UFT (Unified Functional Testing) ********************************************************* Table of Contents: CH-1: Introduction to Automation

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1 UFT (Unified Functional Testing) ********************************************************* Table of Contents: CH-1: Introduction to Automation What is Automation Testing? Why Automation? Test Automation Tools How to Choose an Automation Tool? Which Test Cases to Automate? CH-2: Introduction to UFT Why QTP/UFT Tool? How to Install UFT? Applying Patches and Configuring Browsers QTP Tool Overview System Requirements for UFT Supported Technologies (Add-Ins) UFT Introduction UFT GUI Testing UFT API Testing Unified Functional Testing UFT Integrated Testing Business Process Testing in UFT 3. Record & Playback First QTP Script Using Record and Playback How QTP Did Record a Script? How QTP Did Play Back the Recorded Script? Different Types of Recording Normal Recording Analog Recording Low Level Recording Insight Recording How to Choose Recording Modes Running Tests CH-4: Object Identification & Object Repositories How UFT Learns Objects Object Identification Mechanism Learned Description Visual Relation Identifier Smart Identification Ordinal Identifier Object Repositories- Local, Shared Synchronization WaitProperty Exist Wait By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 1

2 Sync (only for web based apps) Inserting QTP Inbuilt Synchronization Points Object Spy Tool Virtual Objects Descriptive Programming (Static, Dynamic) Enhance Test Cases with Descriptive Programming Enhance Test Cases Using Dynamic Descriptive Program with User-Defined Functions 5. Checkpoints & Output Value Checkpoint Introduction Checkpoint Type Different Types of Checkpoints- Standard, Image, Bitmap, Table, Text, Textarea, Accessibility, Database, XML How to Insert a Checkpoint in a GUI Test or Component Output Values Introduction Configuring, Storing & Using Output Values CH-6: Debugging Test Script Debugging Introduction Different Types of Debugging Techniques- Break Points, Step Into, Step Over, Step Out, Debug Viewer, Watch, Console CH-7: Error Handling & Recovery Scenarios Error Handling Optional Step On Error Statement (programmatic handling of errors) Recovery Scenarios CH-8: Working with Actions Introduction to Actions Different Types of Actions- Internal, External, Reusable Creating and Calling Actions Parameterization in UFT CH-9: Working with Databases Introduction to Databases How to Connect to the Database from UFT? Creating Database Checkpoints Read/Write data from Excel sheet using UFT Data Table in QTP Working with External Databases File Handling Using UFT CH-10: Advanced Object Identification When to use Advanced Object Identification Object Identification Using - XPath, CSS, Web Table, Child Objects, HTML DOM, WebFrame Regular Expressions SendKeys Method DeviceReplay Method FireEvent Method CH-11: Frameworks By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 2

3 Introduction to Frameworks Benefits of Using Frameworks Different Types of Framework Implementation of Each Framework on Real Applications Batch Runner Task Scheduler CH-12: Additional Topics Automation Object Model Page Object Model Integration of QTP with ALM/QC Continuous Integration Using Jenkins Send Using MS Outlook Find the Row Where TestCase is Located Close all the Open Browsers Built In Method in UFT Get count and names of all open Browsers and Links. CH-1: Introduction to Automation Test Automation is a process in which software tools control the execution of tests and the comparison of actual outcomes with predicted outcomes before it is released into production. Why Do We Need Testing? To deliver the best application we can. To verify the functionality. To be sure that your application is always up and running. To ensure your application works on multiple devices, browsers, and operating systems. To make sure the Quality of Product. To ensure that the software does not contain any bug/errors. To check the software meets its specification/requirements What is Automation Testing? Test automation can automate some repetitive but necessary tasks in a formalized testing process already in place, or add additional testing that would be difficult to perform manually. There are many approaches to test automation; however below are the general approaches used widely: Code-Driven Testing: The public (usually) interfaces to classes, modules or libraries are tested with a variety of input arguments to validate that the results that are returned are correct. GUI (Graphical User Interface) Testing: A testing framework generates user interface events such as keystrokes and mouse clicks, and observes the changes that result in the user interface, to validate that the observable behavior of the program is correct. API (Application Programming Interface) Driven Testing: A testing framework that uses a programming interface to the application to validate the By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 3

4 behaviour under test. Typically API driven testing bypasses application user interface altogether. Goal of Automation is to reduce number of test cases to be run manually and not eliminate manual testing all together Why Automation? Test Each and Every Feature. Reduce Manual Effort/Saving Time. Save Money. Increasing Productivity. Reducing Human Errors. Faster Cycle/Release. Increased Test Efficiency and Software Quality. Increased Confidence. Greater Test Coverage Test Automation Tools There are hundreds of automation tools in the market. Following are the most popular test tools: QTP/UFT Selenium LoadRunner TestComplete TestDrive How to Choose an Automation Tool? Selecting the right tool can be a tricky task. Following criterion will help to select the best tool - Environment Support and Ease of Use. Testing of Database. Object identification and Object Mapping. Error Recovery Testing. Scripting Language Used. Support for various types of test - including functional, test management, mobile, etc... Support for multiple testing frameworks. Easy to debug the automation software scripts. Ability to recognize objects in any environment. Extensive test reports and results. Minimize training cost of selected tools Which Test Cases to Automate? The benefit of automated testing is correlated with how many times a given test can be repeated. Tests that are only performed a few times are better left for manual testing. Good test cases for automation are those that are run frequently and require large amounts of data to perform the same action. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 4

5 Test cases to be automated can be selected using the following criterion to increase the automation ROI: High Risk - Business Critical test cases. Test cases that are executed repeatedly for multiple builds. Tests that require different set of data. Tests that run on several different hardware or software platforms and configurations. Tests that are highly subject to human error. Test cases executed with complex business logic or complex calculation. Tests that take a lot of manual effort and time. Test case Involves large amount of data. Test cases which are stable enough. Execute the routine tasks like smoke tests and regression tests. Number of iterations of the test case executions are not known. Test Cases those are very tedious or difficult to perform manually.. Automation is a bad idea when the automation objective is unclear, unrealistic or requirements and manual test cases are not stable enough. The following categories of test cases are not suitable for automation: Test Cases that are newly designed and not executed manually at least once. Test Cases for which the requirements are changing frequently. Test cases which are executed on ad-hoc basis. Common beliefs that cause automation to fail: Automation will find more bugs. ************************************************************ CH-2: Introduction to UFT Unified Functional Testing or UFT is a Functional and Regression Testing Software that test both Web and Windows Application. UFT is a licensed/commercial tool owned by HP which is one of the most popular tools available in the market. It compares the actual and expected result and reports the results in the execution summary. Make automated testing more efficient and help developers and testers collaborate. This functional automated testing software formerly Quick Test Professional (QTP) helps deliver quality software at the speed your business needs. Versions History: Astra Quick Test v1.0 to v5.5 - Mercury Interactive May 1998 to Aug : First release: Released in : Released in : Released in Quick Test Professional (QTP) 7.0: Never released 8.0: Released in : Released in : Released in : Released in Acquired and Released by HP 9.2: Released in : Released in : Released in 2009 By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 5

6 11.0: Released in : Released in renamed Unified Functional Testing (UFT) 11.52: Released in June : Released in November : Released March : Released July : Released March : Released July Why QTP/UFT Tool? There are hundreds of automation tools in the market. Choosing automation tool for your organization is really a difficult task. Advantages: QTP is there in Market from Long Time. Very Stable. Own Market Share. Programming Language is VBScript. Test Web based as well as Desktop Applications. HP UFT comes with built in Object Repository. Supports different environments like SAP, Oracle,.NET. Integrates with test management tool like HP Quality Center. Disadvantages: Cost/Money (QTP is licensed product). Install on Windows. VBScript (Non object oriented language) How to Install UFT? Go to Download and Install Free Trial for 30 Days. Latest Version: Installation: different places it stores the traces Use Virtual Tools: VMWare, Parallels Then Uninstall and Reinstall How much does QTP cost? -- 8k-12k USD/Year Two License Types in UFT: 1. Seat License: License only for your specific machine. Seat License: 6k 2. Concurrent License: First Come First Serve. Concurrent License: 8k Seat License A Seat License is specific to the computer in which it is installed. This license includes a 30-day demo period during which you must contact HP to obtain a permanent seat license key. Concurrent License A Concurrent License regulates the number of concurrent Unified Functional Testing users and requires installation of a license server from a separate CD-ROM found in the Unified Functional Testing package. You purchase Concurrent Licenses separately from HP, and install them on the HP Functional Testing Concurrent License Server. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 6

7 2.3 - Applying Patches and Configuring Browsers Supported Languages HP QuickTest Professional uses VBScript as its scripting language. This is the only language that is fully supported by QTP IDE. VBScript supports Object Oriented Programming concepts but not polymorphism and inheritance. OS and Browser Support UFT officially supports Windows 8.1 and supports Windows Server 2012 R2 (at technology preview level) Support for Safari on Mac is now out of Technology Preview. UFT can now officially perform testing on Safari browsers (running on Mac OS) including: Running tests on Safari browsers running on a remote Mac computer. Remotely spy on Safari browser objects and take snapshots during test runs. Using a secure communication channel between the UFT computer and the Mac computer. Browser versions supported by UFT are IE v8 v11 (including extended protected mode), Firefox till v31, Chrome till v36 and Safari (on Mac) v6, v6.10, v7.00. Check if Browsers are Identified by QTP 1. Launch browser after launching QTP Tool. 2. Browser Version we are using is in supported list. Note: Downgrade the browsers to the supported version ( Installing browser, make sure that auto update is turned off. For serial key use serials.ws 3. Enable the QTP extension/addon on the browser UFT Tool Overview Unified Functional Testing Unified Functional Testing was released in Dec The combo of QuickTest Pro (QTP) + Service Test (ST) is now integrated into Unified Functional Testing (UFT). The major new features introduced in this version were: HP UFT Insight. Multiple Script Debugging. PDF Checkpoints. Support Open Source CI Systems. Mobile Testing Support. Unified Functional Testing A service pack UFT_00001.exe was released in Feb 2013 which has changed the version of UFT from UFT to UFT This patch has various bug fixes and minor enhancements. It has an added support for Windows 8 and IE 10. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 7

8 Mozilla Firefox version 19 is now supported with a patch UFT_00037.EXE. Unified Functional Testing A service pack UFT_00022.EXE was released in June 2013 which has changed the version of UFT from UFT to UFT (This service pack can be installed directly on top of 11.50; you don t need UFT if you have not installed it earlier) This patch has various bug fixes and minor enhancements. With this patch, UFT now fully supports.xlsx format. HP is keeping pace with Firefox. It has added support for Firefox 21 in this pack. A new method was added for Insight objects: ClickSpecial. New versions are supported for SAP CRM, WDA, and SAP Portal. New support for numerous SAP Web Dynpro ABAP controls. Unified Functional Testing A service pack UFT_00044.EXE was released in December 2013 which has changed the version of UFT from UFT to UFT (This service pack can be installed directly on top of 11.50; you don t need UFT or if you have not installed them earlier) This Service Pack addresses quality and performance issues found in the Major releases and its previous service packs, SP 1 & SP 2. This service pack is a mandatory update for all UFT 11.50/11.51/11.52 and Service Test 11.50/11.51/11.52 users. Unified Functional Testing 12 UFT 12 was released in March The major new features introduced in UFT 12 were: Better, Faster installer. Better ALM authentication. Auto Upload of run results to ALM. Introducing support to test Safari browser on a remote Mac (in technology preview mode). Support for more technologies. Unified Functional Testing UFT was released in July The major new features introduced in UFT were: Official support for Windows 8.1. Support for Safari on Mac OS is now out of Tech Preview and available for production environment. Chrome extension for UFT is available in Chrome Store from now on. Better documentation. Support for windows runtime objects. Unified Functional Testing 12.5 UFT 12.5 was released in July The major new features are: By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 8

9 LeanFT A brand new powerful tool which can compliment your testing with UFT. Version control with Git. Running UFT test without the full IDE using Run Time Engine. Enhanced support for cross browser testing. Migration of UFT licensing mechanism from Sentinel to AutoPass. UFT 12.5 is the latest version available in the market as of August To learn more check Version History of UFT System Requirements for UFT To successfully install and run HP QuickTest Professional 12.02, your computer must meet the minimum system requirements shown below. However, It is always recommended to have a configuration higher than the minimum requirements. Computer/Processor: Pentium IV or higher microprocessor (minimum 1 Ghz) Operating System: Windows XP Service Pack 3, Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Windows 8/8.1 (with a patch) Memory: Minimum of 1GB when no more than three add-ins are loaded simultaneously. [Additional memory is required when loading more add-ins and when using the Save movie to results option to capture movies during run sessions.] Color Settings: High Color (16 bit) Graphics Card: Graphics card with 64MB video memory Free Hard Disk Space: 1 GB of free disk space for application files and folders. [You must also have an additional 120 MB of free disk space on the system disk (the disk on which the operating system is installed).] Supported Technologies (Add-Ins) QTP can be used to automate web based and windows based client-server applications. However, it doesn t support all technologies by default. For an extended support, we need to load the corresponding add in. For instance, if you were to automate an application based on Java technology, you will have to load Java add in. [QTP Add-Ins is software provided by HP that needs to be installed on a machine where QTP is installed to support a corresponding technology.] Quick Test Professional comes with 3 add-ins by default ActiveX, Visual Basic and Web. All-in-all QTP supports:.net, Web, VB, Mobile, Java, Oracle apps, SAP, PeopleSoft, Siebel, Stingray, Terminal Emulators (Unix, Mainframes), Power Builder, Delphi, Visual Age, Web Services, Flex (By Adobe), Shunra VE Desktop Professional for WAN emulation (By Shunra). Mobile Add-on for UFT The add-on enables to use UFT only (as a standalone tool) for mobile testing. You can now test on real mobile devices using UFT; the same way you use it to test web or desktop applications: Use UFT recorder. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 9

10 Use UFT object Spy. Use UFT command auto-completion. Receive the reports in UFT reporting tab Inc screenshots what happened on the device. Test on local or remote (Cloud) devices. Supports ios, Android, WindowsPhone and Blackberry devices. Support Web and Native recognition. Support QTP 11,11.5 and UFT 12,12.5 Download Link: UFT Introduction 1. UFT GUI Testing 2. UFT API Testing 3. Unified Functional Testing 4. UFT Integrated Testing 5. Business Process Testing (BPT) in UFT UFT GUI Testing Graphical User Interface or GUI testing is the process of ensuring proper functionality of the graphical user interface (GUI) for a given application and making sure it conforms to its written specifications. GUI testing involves checking the screens with the controls like menus, buttons, icons, and all types of bars - toolbar, menu bar, dialog boxes and windows etc. UFT API Testing UFT's API (service) testing solution provides tools for the construction and execution of functional tests for headless (GUI-less) systems. For example, you can use UFT to test standard Web Services, non-soap Web Services, such as REST, and so on. You create an API test by dragging and dropping activities from the UFT Toolbox pane into the test, displayed in the canvas. The toolbox provides a collection of activities for functional testing in areas such as REST, Web Services, JMS, and HTTP. You can add more activities to the toolbox by importing WSDLs or providing other contract definitions. Unified Functional Testing UFT's combined solution for GUI and API (service) testing enables you to test functionality across multiple application layers, such as the front-end GUI layer as well as back-end service layers. Additionally, the integrated BPT features enable a wider range of both technical and non-technical UFT users, maximizing your opportunity to create comprehensive automated tests. UFT helps you to cut time-to-market by starting automated functional testing earlier in your process. You can also streamline your tools, cutting costs on both training and licenses. UFT Integrated Testing Integration for GUI and API Testing By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 10

11 You can integrate your GUI and service testing processes in a single test by including calls from your GUI test to API tests, or from your API tests to GUI tests. When you insert a call to another test, the call is displayed as nested under the relevant action in the canvas. You insert and modify calls to API tests from GUI tests using the Call to API Test/Action Dialog Box. You insert and modify calls to GUI tests from API tests by dragging the Call GUI Action or Test onto the canvas from the HP Automated Testing Tools node in the Toolbox pane. For more details, see How to Call External Tests or Actions. Integration with ALM You can also use UFT together with ALM - the HP centralized quality solution - to manage the entire testing process. For example, you can use ALM to: Create a project (central repository) of manual and automated tests. Build test cycles. Run tests. Report and track defects. You can also create reports and graphs to help you review the progress of test planning, runs, and defect tracking before a software release. Tests and components created in UFT can be saved directly to your ALM project, and you can run UFT tests and review and manage the results in ALM. Business Process Testing in UFT Business Process Testing (BPT) works within UFT or ALM as a component-based testing framework. Working with a testing framework provides many advantages to enterprises, including streamlining the creation and maintenance of both manual and automated tests, and maximizing efficiency for testing complete business processes. Business Components: Enable structured automated testing. Reduce the duplication of effort when combining manual tests with automatic tests. Enable component reusability to speed-up the automation process. Provide the ability to pass parameters from one step to another within your business process. You can save the output of a step to a parameter and use it as an input value for subsequent steps. Simplify on-going test maintenance. Minimizes time-to-test. Business Process Testing in UFT describes how to use BPT in UFT, including how to maintain business process tests and flows, business components, and application areas in UFT. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 11

12 CH-3: Record & Playback Record and Playback are used to record the user actions in the form of scripts and Play them back at a later time by running the script. Using record option QTP users can build automation scripts automatically without having any knowledge of scripting First QTP Script Using Record and Playback How QTP did Record a Script? Starting from the moment when Record button is clicked till the moment stop button is clicked QTP as a record all the user actions as you navigate through your website or application and generates a script. User actions can be seen in the script as steps. A step is anything that user does that changes the content of a page or object in your application, like for example clicking a link or typing data in an edit box. Steps for Record and Playback are as follows: Step 1: Click on "New" test from the Start Page Step 2: Upon Clicking, "New" Link, the new test window opens and the user need to select the test type. Select "GUI Test", give a name for the test and also the location where it needs to be saved. Step 3: Once a New test is created, the new test screen opens. Now, click on "Action1" Tab which is created with 1 action by default. Step 4: Click on "Record" Menu and select "Record and Run Settings". Step 5: The Record and Run Settings Dialog opens and based on the type of application, one can select i.e. Web, Java, Windows Applications. Record & Run settings shows a tabs corresponding to add-ins installed and loaded for your test. For example if you have SAP Add-in Installed and loaded you will see a SAP tab. The Windows Application tab is always available and is used for environments, such as Visual Basic, ActiveX, and terminal emulators. For any Environment, the Record and Run settings can be classified into two generic groups: 1. Record & Run Test on ANY Open Browser belonging to that particular environment. 2. Record & Run on a SPECIFIC window belonging to that particular environment - which is the recommended Option. Let's stick to default settings. QTP remembers and uses the same settings for additional record sessions on the same test, unless you manually open the Record and Run Settings dialog box to modify the settings. For Example, We will record a Web Based Application Put this on address box. Step 6: Click Record Button, the Internet Explorer opens automatically with the web address as per the settings. Click "VBScript" link under "UFT" and then click "Continue Reading " link under Conditional Statement. Click on ALM at the right of Conditional Statement page. Upon completion of the action By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 12

13 click "Stop" button in the record panel. You will notice that the script is generated as shown below: Browser("QA Engineering And Web").Page("QA Engineering And Web").Link("Continue Reading ").Click Browser("QA Engineering And Web").Page("Different Types of Checkpoints").Link("UFT").Click Browser("QA Engineering And Web").Page("UFT NH-TECH").Link("Continue Reading ").Click Browser("QA Engineering And Web").Page("Different Types of Recording").Sync Browser("QA Engineering And Web").CloseAllTabs How QTP Did Play Back the Recorded Script? Step 7: Now playback the script by clicking on the playback button. The Script replays and result is displayed. Step 8: The result window is opened by default which exactly shows the timestamp of execution, passes and failed steps Different Types of Recording Recording Modes: There are four recording modes in UFT. 1. Normal Recording 2. Analog Recording 3. Low Level Recording 4. Insight Recording (1) Normal Recording Mode: It records the actions performed by the user on the application objects like Edit boxes, List boxes and Links. UFT records each action as one step in the UFT script. Step is nothing but one line in the code. The Default recording mode is the Normal Recording Mode. Normal Recording Script: Browser("QA Engineering And Web").Page("QA Engineering And Web").Link("ALM").Click Browser("QA Engineering And Web").Page("ALM NH-TECH").Link("About").Click Browser("QA Engineering And Web").Page("About Me").Sync Browser("QA Engineering And Web").CloseAllTabs (2) Analog Recording Mode: This mode enables you to record the exact mouse and keyboard operations you perform in relation to either the screen or the application window. This mode is useful when you want to record mouse movements, for example recording a signature or drawing performed by dragging the mouse. To record in analog mode, first start normal recording then select Recording Mode > Analog Recording. The Analog recording dialog box opens up. Record relative to the screen: QTP records any mouse movement or keyboard input relative to the top left coordinates of your screen (i.e. desktop). Record relative to the following window: QTP records any mouse movement or keyboard input relative to the coordinates of the specified window. Analog Recording Script: Desktop.RunAnalog "Track1" By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 13

14 (3) Low Level Recording: Low level recording mode is used only when exact coordinate of the operation is essential. To record a test using low level recording mode, start the normal recording session then select Recording Mode > Low Level Recording to start recording in low level. Low Level Recording Script: Window("Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 971,170 Window("Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 269,434 Window("Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 704,368 Window("Internet Explorer").WinObject("Internet Explorer_Server").Click 840,396 (4) Insight Recording: UFT records operation based on its appearance and NOT based on its native properties. Insight Recording Script: Browser("QA Engineering And Web").InsightObject("InsightObject").Click Browser("QA Engineering And Web").InsightObject("InsightObject_2").Click Browser("QA Engineering And Web").InsightObject("InsightObject_3").Click How to Choose Recording Modes Upon clicking on recording button, user can choose the recording mode from the recording pane that appears on the screen once recording starts. The selection can be made from any ones. Guidelines for Choosing the Recording Mode: Use Analog recording mode only when normal recording mode does not accurately record your operations. Use analog recording for the applications in which the actual movement of the mouse is what you want to record, like drawings, signatures etc. Use low level recording when you need to record the exact location of the operation on your application screen Running Tests QTP always run from the first step, unless you specify. To run a test, open it and select Run > Run or press F5. The Run dialog box opens, in the dialog box specify the result location. Temporary run result folder saves run results in a temporary folder. This option overwrites any results previously saved in this folder. Click OK to start the Run session. Test Result Window: By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 14

15 When a run session ends, you can view run session results in the Test Results window. The run result tree is located in the left pane in the Test Result window. ************************************************************ CH-4: Object Identification & Object Repositories UFT tests your dynamically changing application by learning and identifying test objects and their expected properties and values. To do this, UFT analyzes each object in your application in much the same way that a person would look at a photograph and remember its details How UFT Learns Objects Every test automation tool has to identify the objects on the application, and then only it can do the intended operations. UFT uses the same method how Human's Identify the Object for object identification. During Record Time UFT tries to learn properties of a GUI object on which operation is performed. During Run-Time UFT compares the stored object properties with actual properties of object available on screen and uniquely identifies an object independent of its location on screen. The stored object and its associated properties called TEST Object. During Runtime, the actual object available on the application under test is called UFT Run-Time Object. Information about the Test Objects is stored in Object Repository. Object Identification Dialogue Box: Tools > Object Identification UFT considers the identification properties for the test object. For each test object class, UFT has a list of mandatory properties that it always learns; similar to the list of characteristics. When UFT learns an object, it always learns these default property values, and then "looks" at the rest of the objects on the page, dialog box, or other parent object to check whether this description is enough to uniquely identify the object. If not, UFT adds assistive properties, one by one, to the description, until it has compiled a unique description. If no assistive properties are available, or if those available are not sufficient to create a unique description, UFT adds a special ordinal identifier, such as the object's location on the page or in the source code, to create a unique description Object Identification Mechanism UFT stores Object and its properties in Object Repository to identify them during runtime. An Object could have large number of properties associated with it. By default UFT does not store all the properties of an object. It stores a limited number of typical properties for an object which helps in its unique identification. This choice of properties for various environments and objects is stored in Object Identification. How UFT Identifies Objects During a Run Session: UFT has four types of Object Identification Mechanism as follows: By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 15

16 1. Learned Description 2. Visual Relation Identifier 3. Smart Identification 4. Ordinal Identifier (1) Learned Description When UFT learns an object, it learns a set of properties and values that uniquely describe the object within the object hierarchy. In most cases, this description is sufficient to enable UFT to identify the object during the run session. The Learned Description mechanism uses two types of properties: 1. Mandatory Properties - Mandatory properties are properties that UFT always learns for a particular test object class. UFT has a predefined set of properties that it learns for each test object. If these mandatory property values are not sufficient to uniquely identify a learned object, UFT can add some assistive properties and/or an ordinal identifier to create a unique description. 2. Assistive Properties - Assistive properties are properties that UFT learns only if the mandatory properties that UFT learns for a particular object in your application are not sufficient to create a unique description. If several assistive properties are defined for an object class, then UFT learns one assistive property at a time and stops as soon as it creates a unique description for the object. If UFT does learn assistive properties, those properties are added to the test object description. (2) Visual Relation Identifier Visual Relation Identifier which enables UFT to identify test objects according to their neighboring objects in the application. You use this property to link less stable test objects to more unique test objects, and as long as those objects in the application maintain their relative location to your object, UFT should still be able to identify the test object even after predictable user interface changes in the application. You define visual relations in the Visual Relation Identifier Dialog Box, which is accessible from the local or shared object repository, or from the Object Properties Dialog Box. How UFT Uses Visual Relation Identifiers: Visual Relation Identifiers compares the relative locations of the test objects you defined in the visual relation identifier with the multiple identical objects. During a run session, UFT first attempts to identify the test object using the object's description properties. If UFT finds one or more objects matching the test object's description, it attempts to identify the object using the visual relation identifier. After the visual relation identifier is applied, if no objects or more than one object is found, the visual relation identifier fails, and UFT continues to Smart Identification (when defined for that test object class). After Smart Identification is applied, if no objects or more than one object is found, no ordinal identifiers are used for that test object. (3) Smart Identification By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 16

17 Smart Identification mechanism to identify an object, even when the learned description is no longer accurate. Even if the values of your identification properties change, UFT maintains the reusability of your test or component by identifying the object using Smart Identification. If UFT is unable to find any object that matches the learned object description, or if it finds more than one object that fits the description, then UFT ignores the learned description, and uses the Smart Identification mechanism (if defined and enabled) to try to identify the object. The Smart Identification Properties Dialog Box enables you to create and modify the Smart Identification definition that UFT uses for a selected test object class. Configuring Smart Identification properties enables you to help UFT identify objects in your application, even if some of the properties in the object's learned description have changed. The Smart Identification mechanism uses two types of properties: 1. Base Filter Properties the most fundamental properties of a particular test object class; those whose values cannot be changed without changing the essence of the original object. For example, if a Web link s tag was changed from {A} to any other value, you could no longer call it the same object. 2. Optional Filter Properties other properties that can help identify objects of a particular class. These properties are unlikely to change on a regular basis, but can be ignored if they are no longer applicable. (4) Ordinal Identifier The ordinal identifier assigns the object a numerical value that indicates its order relative to other objects with an otherwise identical description (objects that have the same values for all properties specified in the mandatory and assistive property lists). This ordered value enables UFT to create a unique description when the mandatory and assistive properties are not sufficient to do so. In addition, even if UFT learns an ordinal identifier, it will use the identifier during the run session only if: The learned description and the Smart Identification mechanism are not sufficient to identify the object in your application. A visual relation identifier is not defined for the test object. UFT can use the following types of ordinal identifiers to identify an object: 1. Index - Indicates the order in which the object appears in the application code relative to other objects with an otherwise identical description. 2. Location - Indicates the order in which the object appears within the parent window, frame, or dialog box relative to other objects with an otherwise identical description. 3. CreationTime (Browser object only) - Indicates the order in which the browser was opened relative to other open browsers with an otherwise identical description. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 17

18 By default, an ordinal identifier type exists for each test object class. To modify the default ordinal identifier, you can select the desired type from the Ordinal identifier box. Object Identification Process Workflow: The following flowchart provides a general overview of the main process of UFT object identification. Fig: Object Identification Process Workflow How UFT Applies the Test Object Model Concept A Test Object is an object that UFT creates in a test or component to represent the actual object in your application. UFT stores information on the object that will help it identify and check the object during the run session. A Run-Time object is the actual object in your application on which methods are performed during the run session. When UFT learns an object in your application, it adds the corresponding test object to an object repository, which is a storehouse for objects. When you add an object to an object repository, UFT: Identifies the UFT test object class that represents the learned object and creates the appropriate test object. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 18

19 Reads the current value of the object's properties in your application and stores the list of identification properties and values with the test object. Chooses a unique name for the test object, generally using the value of one of its prominent properties. Example: Suppose you add a Search button with the HTML source code, <INPUT TYPE="submit" NAME="Search" VALUE="Search"> UFT identifies the object as a WebButton test object. In the object repository, UFT creates a WebButton object with the name Search, learns a set of identification properties for the object. For example, UFT records that you performed a Click method on the WebButton. In an action UFT displays your step in the Editor like this: Browser("Search Results: Search").Page("Search Results: Search").WebButton("Search").Click Test Object Descriptions For each test object class, UFT learns a set of identification properties when it learns an object, and selects a subset of these properties to serve as a unique Object Description. UFT then uses this description to identify the object when it runs a test or component. When the test or component runs, UFT searches for the object that matches the description it learned. If it cannot find any object that matches the description, or if it finds more than one object that matches, UFT may use the Smart Identification mechanism to identify the object. You can configure the mandatory, assistive, and ordinal identifier properties that UFT uses to learn the descriptions of the objects in your application, and you can enable and configure the Smart Identification mechanism. UFT Test Object Hierarchy The UFT test object hierarchy comprises one or more levels of test objects. The top level object may represent a window, dialog box, or browser type object, depending on the environment. The actual object on which you perform an operation may be learned as a top level object, a second level object, for example, Window.WinToolbar, or a third level object, for example, Browser().Page().WebButton(). In some cases, even though the object in your application may be embedded in several levels of objects, the hierarchy does not include these objects. For example, if a WebButton object in your application is actually contained in several nested WebTable objects, which are all contained within a Browser and Page, the learned object hierarchy is only Browser.Page.WebButton. An object that can potentially contain a lower-level object is called a Container Object. All top-level objects in the object hierarchy are container objects. If a second-level object contains third-level objects according to the UFT object hierarchy, then that object is also considered a container object. For example, in the step Browser.Page.Edit.Set "Noor", Browser and Page are both container objects Object Repositories - Local, Shared Object Repository is a collection of object and properties with which QTP will be able to recognize the objects and act on it. When a user records a test, the objects By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 19

20 and its properties are captured by default. Without understanding objects and its properties, QTP will NOT be able to play back the scripts. The Object Repository window displays a tree of all test objects, and all checkpoint and output objects in the current action or component, including all local objects and all objects in associated shared object repositories. For each object you select in the tree, the Object Repository window displays information on the object, including its type, the repository in which it is stored, and its object details. Local objects are editable (black); shared objects are read-only (gray). You can continue using UFT while the Object Repository window is open, including modifying objects and object repositories. The Object Repository window reflects changes you make to it in real time. UFT has two types of Object Repositories for storing object information: 1. Local Object Repository 2. Shared Object Repository Local Object Repository Local Object Repository stores objects information in a file that is associated with one specific action, so that only that action can access the stored objects. Resources > Object Repository Local Object Repository is the default object repository. It is specific to actions and can be used only for a particular action. Local Object Repository is preferable when application is not dynamic with respect to time. Local Object Repository cannot be reused. You can perform many operations in the local object repository such as - Highlight an object stored in repository on the application under test. Check whether a particular object in your AUT is stored in the Object Repository. Cut, Copy, Paste, Modify and Delete Objects. In case you have accidentally modified the value of a property you can update its description from the application using update function. Shared Object Repository A shared object repository stores objects in a file that can be accessed by multiple tests (in read-only mode). Resources > Object Repository Manager A shared object repository contains information that enables UFT to identify the objects in your application. When objects in your application change, the Object Repository Manager provides a single, central location in which you can update test object information for multiple tests or components. Advantages of Shared Object Repositories Use the same shared object repository with multiple actions or components. Use multiple shared object repositories with each action or component. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 20

21 If shared object repositories are stored in ALM, can apply version control to them. Creating, Opening, Modifying, and Saving Shared Object Repositories Creating a Shared Object Repository - To create a Shared Object Repository, in the Object Repository Dialog Box: Resources > Object Repository Manager Object Repository Manager > New Then click on Add Objects. Mouse pointer gets turned to hand symbol and then click the object to be added. Added objects are displayed in a tree structure. Shared Object Repository files save an extension.tsr (Test Script Repository). Enabling Editing - If you opened the shared object repository in read-only mode, you must enable editing for the shared object repository before you can modify it. This locks the shared object repository and prevents it from being modified simultaneously by multiple users. Unlocking - To enable other users to modify the shared object repository, you must first unlock it (by disabling edit mode, or by closing it). If a shared object repository is already locked by another user, if it is saved in read-only format, or if you do not have the permissions required to open it, you cannot enable editing for it. Applying Changes - All changes you make to a shared object repository are automatically updated in all tests or components open on the same computer that use the shared object repository as soon as you make the change even if you have not yet saved the shared object repository with your changes. If you close the shared object repository without saving your changes, the changes are rolled back in any open tests or components that were open at the time. Updating Changes - When you open a test or component on the same computer on which you modified the shared object repository, the test or component is automatically updated with all saved changes made in the associated shared object repository. To see saved changes in a test or component or repository open on a different computer, you must open the test or component or shared object repository file or lock it for editing on your computer to load the changes. Merging - You can modify a shared object repository by merging it with another shared object repository. When you merge two shared object repositories, a new shared object repository is created, containing the content of both shared object repositories. If you merge a shared object repository with a local object repository, the shared object repository is updated with the content of the local object repository. Example: 'Using FireEvent Logout from amazon.com RepositoriesCollection.Add "E:\SQA\Docs\Unified Functional Testing\Repository\pom.tsr" SystemUtil.Run "iexplore.exe"," Browser("Amazon.com: Online Shopping").Page("Amazon.com: Online Shopping").WebElement("Sign in").fireevent "onmouseover" Browser("Amazon.com: Online Shopping").Page("Amazon.com: Online Shopping").Link("Sign in").click By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 21

22 Browser("Amazon.com: Online Shopping").Page("Amazon.com Sign In").WebEdit(" ").Set Browser("Amazon.com: Online Shopping").Page("Amazon.com Sign In").WebEdit("password").Set "abcd123" Browser("Amazon.com: Online Shopping").Page("Amazon.com Sign In").WebButton("Sign in using our secure").click Browser("Amazon.com: Online Shopping").Page("Amazon.com: Online Shopping").WebElement("Sign in").fireevent "onmouseover" Browser("Amazon.com: Online Shopping").Page("Amazon.com: Recommended").Link("Not Noor? Sign Out").Click Importing and Exporting Shared Object Repositories Using XML You can import and export shared object repositories from and to XML files. XML provides a structured, accessible format that enables you to make changes to shared object repositories using the XML editor of your choice and then import them back into UFT. You can import and export object repositories from and to XML files. You import and export the files using the File > Import from XML and File > Export to XML options in the Object Repository Manager. XML provides a structured, accessible format that enables you to make changes to object repositories using the XML editor of your choice and then import them back into UFT. UFT uses a defined XML schema for object repositories (ObjectRepository.xsd), which is located in the <UFT installation folder>\dat folder. This document describes each of the elements and complex types defined for the object repository schema. You must follow this schema when creating or modifying object repository files in XML format. You can import and export files from and to the file system or an ALM project (if UFT is connected to ALM). Creating Scripts without Object Repository To create scripts without Object Repository you can use: Descriptive Programming Xpath CSS Path HTML DOM Synchronization Synchronization makes available specified amount of time for an object to process prior to moving on to the next step. Synchronization point is the time interface between Tool and Application under test. Synchronization point is to give waiting time to the tool before executing next step in Test script. Different Way of Synchronization in UFT: Sometimes the application we are automating is very slow, and UFT may run very fast. Now how can we synchronize the application with UFT. Following are the five methods to synchronize the application with UFT. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 22

23 1. WaitProperty 2. Exist 3. Wait 4. Sync (only for web based apps) 5. Inserting QTP Inbuilt Synchronization Points METHOD 1: WAITPROPERTY WaitProperty is a method that takes the property name, Value and Timeout value as input to perform the sync. It is a dynamic wait and hence this option is encouraged. ' Method 1 - WaitProperty with 25 seconds Dim obj Set obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator") obj.link("numbers").click obj.link("simple Interest").WaitProperty "text", "Simple Interest",25000 obj.link("simple Interest").Click METHOD 2: EXIST Exist is a method that takes the Timeout value as input to perform the sync. Again it is a dynamic wait and hence this option is encouraged. ' Method 2 : Exist Timeout - 30 Seconds If (Browser(":: PeopleNTech, LLC. ::").Page("- Index").WebElement("Logout").Exist) Then ws.cells(2,"e")="passed" else ws.cells(2,"e")="failed" End If METHOD 3: WAIT Wait is a hardcoded sync point which waits independent of the event happened or NOT. Hence usage of Wait is discouraged and can be used for shorter wait time such as 1 or 2 seconds. ' Method 3 : Wait Timeout - 30 Seconds SystemUtil.Run "iexplore.exe"," Browser("title:=.*").page("title:=.*").webedit("html tag:=input","name:=user","type:=text").set "training1" Wait 2 Browser("title:=.*").page("title:=.*").webedit("html tag:=input","name:=passwrd","type:=password").set "abcd1234" Wait 2 Browser("title:=.*").page("title:=.*").webbutton("html tag:=input","name:=login","type:=submit").click Wait 10 Browser("title:=.*").page("title:=.*").Link("html tag:=a","text:=logout").click Browser("title:=.*").Close METHOD 4: SYNC Sync Method can be used only for web applications where there is always a lag between page loads. ' Method 4 : Dim obj Set obj = Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator") obj.link("numbers").click Browser("Math Calculator").Sync Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Simple Interest").Click By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 23

24 METHOD 5: INSERTING QTP INBUILT SYNCHRONIZATION POINTS Step 1: Get into Recording Mode. This Option Would is disabled if the user is NOT in Recording Mode. Step 2: Goto Design > Synchronization Point Step 3: We need to select the object which we want to be the Sync Point. After selecting the object, object window opens as shown below: Step 4: Click Ok, the "Add Synchronization Window" Opens up. Select the Property, Value and Time out value and click ok as shown below: Step 5: The Script would be generated as shown below which is the same as that of the WaitProperty(Method 1) that we had already discussed: Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Numbers").Click Browser("Math Calculator").Page("Math Calculator").Link("Simple Interest").WaitProperty "text", "Simple Interest", Default Synchronization: When user hasn't used any of the above sync methods, still QTP has in built Object synchronization timeout which can be adjusted by the user. Object Synchronization Timeout: Sets the maximum time (in seconds) that UFT waits for an object to load before running a step in the test. When Object is not existing UFT wait for some time is called Object Synchronization Timeout. By default it is 20 secs. It can be modified by: File > Settings > Run > Object synchronization timeout: Object Spy Tool Object Spy Tool helps to learn the objects in the application under test (AUT). By simple click on the object, Object Spy displays Properties and Operations of Native and Identification objects. Object Spy Dialog Box: Tools > Object Spy First, activate the AUT window which has the objects to learn. Then click on hand icon in the Object Spy window as shown below. Your mouse pointer turns into hand icon. Simply click on the object that you want to learn. Object Spy window displays its properties and methods as shown below. Fig: Object Spy Dialog Box By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 24

25 This dialog box enables you to view the native properties and operations of any object in an open application, as well as the test object hierarchy, identification properties, and operations of the test object that UFT uses to represent that object. You can also check if an object is in a repository associated with your action or component (via its application area), add the selected object to the local object repository (or a shared object repository if you are using the Object Spy from the Object Repository Manager), and highlight an object in the application. After Spying the Object: After spying the object, the object hierarchy will be shown. Let us say, we are spying the "Numbers" link. The Object properties will be as shown below. Highlight Object: After spying an object, we can click on "Highlight" option to highlight the object in the application. Add Objects: For adding the object into the Object Repository, one should click on "Add objects" button in the Object spy dialog. Properties and Values: The properties and its values are displayed for the selected object in the dialog box which should be Unique for QTP to recognize the objects while the script executes. Operations: The supported operations on the object can be retrieved by clicking on the operation tab. Operations such as "click" for a button, "Set" for a text box are retrieved from the "operations" tab. Advantages of Object Spy 1. It will give the complete hierarchy of an Object. 2. It will give the Native and Identification properties and its values. 3. It will give the Operations/Methods of an Object. If UFT is NOT Identifying the Object Properly You should open the AUT only after opening QTP. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 25

26 Make sure your Browser zoom settings are set to 100%. Make sure all the appropriate Add-in are added. In your IE Browser open Internet Options > Security and uncheck Enable Protected Mode checkbox. For Windows 7 Users, type UAC in the Control Panel search box and open User Account Control Settings. Change the Setting level to Never Notify and restart the system Virtual Objects Application under any test may contain standard window object but may NOT recognized by UFT. At this situation objects can be identified as Virtual Object (VO) type button, link etc so that user actions can be simulated on the virtual objects during execution. How Virtual Objects are Defined and Recognized UFT identifies a virtual object according to its boundaries. Marking an object's boundaries specifies its size and position on a Web page or application window. When you assign a test object as the parent of your virtual object, you specify that the coordinates of the virtual object boundaries are relative to that parent object. When you record a test or scripted component, UFT recognizes the virtual object within the parent object and adds it as a test object in the object repository so that UFT can identify the object during the run session. UFT also recognizes the virtual object as a test object when you add it manually to the object repository. To perform an operation in the Active Screen on a marked virtual object, you must first record it, so that its properties are saved in the test object description in the object repository. If you perform an operation in the Active Screen on a virtual object that has not yet been recorded, UFT treats it as a standard object. You can use virtual objects only when recording and running a test or scripted component. You cannot insert any type of checkpoint on a virtual object, or use the Object Spy to view its properties. You can enable and disable recognition of virtual objects during recording, in the General pane of the GUI Testing tab in the Options dialog box (Tools > Options > GUI Testing tab > General node). During a run session, make sure that the application window is the same size and in the same location as it was during recording, otherwise the coordinates of the virtual object relative to its parent object may be different, and this may affect the success of the run session. Creating a Virtual Object Step 1: In such scenarios, virtual Objects are created using Virtual Object Manager or New Virtual Object. Tools > Virtual Object > New Virtual Object Click "Next" Button. Step 2: Map the Object against the Class Type and click "Next". Step 3: Click "Mark Object" Button, cross hair cursor would appear and mark the object that you would like to map and click "Next". Step 4: Selecting the parent of the Virtual object and click "Next". By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 26

27 Step 5: Name the collection in which you would like to store the virtual object and click "Finish". Virtual Object Manager Virtual object Manager manages the collections of Virtual objects. Testers can add or Delete the Virtual Objects from the Navigation to Virtual object Manager. Tools > Virtual Object Manager Using Virtual Objects: After creating the Virtual Objects the created object can be used as shown below: Window("Microsoft Word").WinObject("Ribbon").VirtualButton("button").Click Limitations of Virtual Object QTP doesn't support virtual objects for analog or low-level recording. Checkpoints cannot be added on Virtual Objects. Virtual Object is NOT controlled by Object Repository. Though we map an object to a particular class (button or List), all the methods of the native objects are not supported by Virtual objects. Object Spy cannot be used on Virtual Object. The test execution will fail if the screen resolution changes as the co-ordinates change. Application Window should be of same screen size so that Virtual objects are captured correctly Descriptive Programming (Static, Dynamic) Descriptive Programming (also known as Programmatic Description) provides a way to perform operations on objects that are not present in object repository. In simple words, Descriptive Programming is the type of programming where you DON T use Object Repository while writing your test scripts. Manually specifying the properties and values using Object Spy tool by which the relevant object will be identified. When to Uses of Descriptive Programming? Dynamic Object Property - When the object properties in the Application Under Test (AUT) are very dynamic in nature and need special handling to identify the object. External Function Library - When you are creating functions in an external file. Huge Object Repository - When the Object Repository grows big, it results in poor Performance as the size of the Object Repository increases. Object Repository in Run Time - When the application under Test is having objects that are adding in the Run Time. Not to Use Object Repository - When the framework is built such that it has been decided not to use Object Repository at all. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 27

28 When Application is Not Ready Yet - Suppose we need to start Automation before Build Release. Objects Repository in Read only or Shared Mode - wish to modify a UFT script but the Object repository for the same is read-only or in shared mode i.e. changes may affect other scripts as well. Similar Type of Objects - If Application under test is having similar type of objects or similar name objects. Advantages of Descriptive Programming 1. Version Free: Script can be executed in any version of QTP without any changes. 2. Code Portability: Just code is enough to run script. We can copy and paste in other scripts for any other new requirement. 3. Reusability of Properties: We can assign properties to a global variable and reuse it for same type of objects. 4. Plug & Play: Any time scripts will be in ready to run state. No need to worry about any other settings or files. 5. Just Maintenance of variables: Store the object properties in the form of variables in a txt / vbs file, need to maintain the file. Types of Descriptive Programming 1. Static Programming 2. Dynamic Programming 1. Static Programming: Provide the set of properties and values that describe the object directly in a VBScript statement. The general syntax for static descriptive programming is: TestObject("PropertyName1:=PropertyValue1", "PropertyName2:=PropertyValue2",, "PropertyNameN:=PropertyValueN") Example: Browser("title:=.*").page("title:=.*").WebEdit("html tag:=input", "name:=user", "type:=text").set "training1" qbrowser("title:=.*").page("title:=.*").webedit("html tag:=input", "name:=passwrd", "type:=password").set "abcd1234" Browser("title:=.*").page("title:=.*").webbutton("html tag:=input", "name:=login", "type:=submit").click Browser("title:=.*").page("title:=.*").Link("html tag:=a","text:=logout").click 2. Dynamic Programming: Add a collection of properties and values to a Description object, and then enter the Description object name in the statement. For Example: Set pnt=browser("title:=.*").page("title:=.*") Function WebEditSet(name,value) Set objwebedit=description.create objwebedit("html tag").value="input" objwebedit("name").value=name pnt.webedit(objwebedit).set value End Function WebEditSet "firstname","noor" By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 28

29 4.7 - Test Cases with Descriptive Programming Test Case: Login to piit.us using valid credential. 'Static Descriptive Programming SystemUtil.CloseProcessByName "iexplore.exe" SystemUtil.Run "iexplore.exe"," Browser("title:=.*").Page("title:=.*").Link("html tag:=a","innerhtml:=my Forum").Click Browser("title:=.*").Page("title:=.*").WebEdit("html tag:=input","name:=user","type:=text").set "training1" Browser("title:=.*").Page("title:=.*").WebEdit("html tag:=input","name:=passwrd","type:=password").set "abcd1234" Browser("title:=.*").Page("title:=.*").WebButton("html tag:=input","name:=login","type:=submit").click Browser("title:=.*").Page("title:=.*").Link("html tag:=a","text:=logout").click Browser("title:=.*").Close Test Cases Using Dynamic Descriptive Program with User-Defined Functions Test Cases: Register New User in Etsy.com SystemUtil.CloseProcessByName "iexplore.exe" Set Etsy=Browser("title:=.*").Page("title:=.*") Function LaunchApplication(BrowserName,AppURL) Select Case BrowserName Case "IE" SystemUtil.Run "iexplore.exe",appurl Case "Firefox" Systemutil.Run "firefox.exe",appurl Case "Chrome" SystemUtil.Run "chrome.exe",appurl End Select End Function Function LinkClick(htmlid) Set LinkClickObject=Description.Create LinkClickObject("html tag").value="a" LinkClickObject("html id").value=htmlid Etsy.Link(LinkClickObject).Click End Function Function WebEditSet(htmlid,value) Set WedEditObject=Description.Create WedEditObject("html tag").value="input" WedEditObject("html id").value=htmlid Etsy.WebEdit(WedEditObject).Set value End Function Function WebRadioSet(radvalue) Set WebRadioObject=Description.Create WebRadioObject("html tag").value="label" WebRadioObject("innerhtml").Value=radvalue Etsy.WebElement(WebRadioObject).Click End Function Function WebButtonClick(htmlid) Set WebButtonObject=Description.Create WebButtonObject("html tag").value="input" WebButtonObject("html id").value=htmlid By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 29

30 Etsy.WebButton(WebButtonObject).Click End Function LaunchApplication "IE"," LinkClick "register" WebEditSet "first-name","noor" WebEditSet "last-name","hossin" WebRadioSet "Male" Wait 3 WebEditSet WebEditSet "password","abcd123" WebEditSet "password-repeat","abcd123" WebEditSet "username","nhrajib84" WebButtonClick "register_button" ************************************************************ CH-5: Checkpoints & Output Values A checkpoint is a verification that compares the current value for specified properties or current state of other characteristics of an object with the expected value or characteristics. This helps you to identify whether your application is functioning correctly Checkpoint Introduction A checkpoint verifies that expected information is displayed in your application while the test is running. When you add a checkpoint, UFT inserts a checkpoint step to the current row in the Keyword View, and for tests and scripted components, also adds a Check CheckPoint statement in the Editor. By default, UFT names the checkpoint using the name of the test object on which the checkpoint was created. You can choose to specify a different name for the checkpoint or accept the default name. When you run the test or component, UFT compares the expected results of the checkpoint to the current results. If the results do not match, the checkpoint fails. You can view the results of the checkpoint in the Run Results Viewer Checkpoint Type You can insert the following checkpoint types to check objects in an application: 1. Standard Checkpoint (Image Checkpoint, Page Checkpoint) 2. Text Checkpoint 3. Text Area Checkpoint 4. Bitmap Checkpoint 5. Accessibility Checkpoint 6. Database Checkpoint 7. XML Checkpoint (From Application) 8. XML Checkpoint (From Resource) 9. File Content Checkpoint Different Types of Checkpoints (1) Standard Checkpoint By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 30

31 Checks property values of an object in your application. For example, you can check that a radio button is activated after it is selected or you can check the value of an edit box. You can check the object property values in your application using standard checkpoints. Standard checkpoints compare the expected values of object properties to the object's current values during a run session. You can check that a specified object in your application has the property values you expect, by adding a standard checkpoint step to your test or component while recording or editing it. To set the options for a standard checkpoint, you use the Checkpoint Properties Dialog Box. For tests and scripted components: You can also use standard checkpoints to perform checks on images, tables, Web page properties, and other objects within your application. Standard checkpoints are supported for all add-in environments. Image Checkpoint (tests and scripted components only): Checks the value of an image in your application. For example, you can check that a selected image's source file is correct. You create an image checkpoint by inserting a standard checkpoint on an image object. Image checkpoints are supported for the Web add-in environment. Page Checkpoint (tests and scripted components only) - Checks the characteristics of a Web page. For example, you can check how long a Web page takes to load or whether a Web page contains broken links. You create a page checkpoint by inserting a standard checkpoint on a page object. Page checkpoints are supported for the Web add-in environment. Table Checkpoint (tests and scripted components only) - Checks information within a table. For example, suppose your application contains a table listing all available flights from New York to San Francisco. You can add a table checkpoint to check that the time of the first flight in the table is correct. You create a table checkpoint by inserting a standard checkpoint on a table object. Table checkpoints are supported for all add-in environments that have a *Table test object. Table checkpoints are also supported for some list view objects, such as WinListView and VbListView, as well as other list view objects in add-in environments. (2) Text Checkpoint (tests and scripted components only) Checks a text string is displayed in the appropriate place in an application. For example, suppose a Web page displays the sentence Flight departing from New York to San Francisco. You can create a text checkpoint that checks that the words "New York" are displayed between "Flight departing from" and "to San Francisco". Text checkpoints are supported for most add-in environments. (3) Textarea Checkpoint (tests and scripted components only) By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 31

32 Checks that a text string is displayed within a defined area in a Windows/Web based application, according to specified criteria. Text area checkpoints are supported for all Windows-based environments, such as Standard Windows, Visual Basic, and ActiveX add-in environments (see Supported Checkpoints). Text area checkpoints are also supported for some other add-in environments, such as Java. (4) Bitmap Checkpoint Checks an area of your application as a bitmap. For example, suppose you have a Website that can display a map of a city the user specifies. The map has control keys for zooming. Using the bitmap checkpoint, you can check that the map zooms in correctly. You can also check that a specific bitmap exists in your application. For example, you can check that your company logo is displayed anywhere on your Web page. You can create a bitmap checkpoint for any area in your application. Bitmap checkpoints are supported for all add-in environments. (5) Accessibility Checkpoint (tests and scripted components only) Identifies areas of your Web site that may not conform to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines. For example, guideline 1.1 of the W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines requires you to provide a text equivalent for every non-text element. You can add an Alt property check to check whether objects that require the Alt property under this guideline, do in fact have this tag. Accessibility checkpoints are supported for the Web add-in environment. (6) Database Checkpoint (tests and scripted components only) Checks the contents of a database accessed by your application. For example, you can use a database checkpoint to check the contents of a database containing flight information for your Web site. Database checkpoints are supported for all add-in environments. (7) XML Checkpoint (tests and scripted components only) Checks the data content of.xml documents in xml files or.xml documents in Web pages and frames. The XML Checkpoint (Web Page/Frame) option is supported for the Web add-in environment. The XML Checkpoint option is supported for all add-in environments. (8) File Content Checkpoint (tests only) Checks the text in a dynamically generated (or accessed) file. For example, suppose your application generates a.pdf. You can check that the correct text is displayed on specific lines in on specific pages in that.pdf. File content checkpoints are supported for all add-in environments. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 32

33 5.4 - How to Insert a Checkpoint in a GUI Test 1. Start a recording session before inserting a checkpoint 2. Insert a checkpoint by doing one of the following: a. In the Record toolbar, click the Insert Checkpoint or Output Value button and select the type of checkpoint from the drop-down list. b. Select Design > Checkpoint and choose the relevant type of checkpoint. c. Click the Insert Checkpoint or Output Value button in the toolbar and select the type of checkpoint from the drop-down list. 3. UFT is hidden, and the pointer changes to a pointing hand. In your application, click the object that you want to check. Note: If the object in your application is associated with more than one location, the Object Selection dialog box opens. This dialog box enables you to select an object to check from the object tree. The objects in the tree are displayed with hierarchical order, based on the location you clicked in the Active Screen or application. Insert a Checkpoint Step While Editing Your Test or Scripted Component 1. You may need to open the application and display the relevant object before inserting a checkpoint. This depends on the environment and the object type you are checking. For details, see the prerequisite information for your specific checkpoint type. 2. Select the step where you want to add the checkpoint and do one of the following: a. Select Design > Checkpoint, and then select the relevant checkpoint option. b. Select Design > Checkpoint > Existing Checkpoint. c. Right-click any object in the Active screen and select the relevant checkpoint. You can create checkpoints for any object in the Active Screen even if the object is not part of any step in the Keyword View. If you use the Active Screen to insert a checkpoint, ensure that the Active Screen contains sufficient data for the object you want to check. Note: If the object in your application is associated with more than one location, the Object Select Dialog Box opens. This dialog box enables you to select an object to check from the object tree. The objects in the tree are displayed in hierarchical order, based on the location you clicked in the Active Screen or application. Set Options for the Checkpoint In the Checkpoint Properties Dialog Box, specify the settings for the checkpoint object. Move checkpoint objects from the local object repository to a shared object repository - optional After you insert a checkpoint step, the checkpoint object is added to the local object repository. If you are using shared object repositories, you can move the new checkpoint object to your shared object repository. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 33

34 Use programming to insert a checkpoint in a test or scripted component If you want to retrieve the return value of a checkpoint (a boolean value that indicates whether the checkpoint passed or failed), you must add parentheses around the checkpoint argument in the statement in the Editor. For example: a = Browser("MyBrowser").Page("MyPage").Check (CheckPoint("MyProperty")) You can also use the CheckProperty method and the CheckItemProperty method to check specific property or item property values. For details, see the HP UFT Object Model Reference for GUI Testing Output Values Introduction An output value is a step in which one or more properties of objects, database field values, text presenting objects are captured during test execution and can store on data table in test result window. You can output values like text, string from the objects, table cells, databases, and XML documents. Output values enable to view the values that the application talks during run time. When parameterized, the values change for each iteration. Thus by creating output values, we can capture the values that the application takes for each run and output them to the data table. Output Values can be stored into: 1. A Test or Action Parameter 2. The Run Time Data Table 3. An Environment Variable During run time, QTP stores output value in datasheet which is cleared as soon as test is over. Types of Output Values: 1. Standard Output Value 2. Text Output Value 3. Text Area Output Value 4. Database Output Value 5. XML Output Value (From Application) 6. XML Output Value (From Resource) 7. File Content Output Value Configuring, Storing & Using Output Values (1) Standard Output Value: A Standard output value can be used on any object to output value of any of its properties. You can select one or many properties from the same object as output. Steps to follow for Inserting Standard Output Value: Recording Mode > Insert Menu > Output Value > Standard Output Value > Show the Object > Click OK > Select Property > If required Change the Column Name > Click OK > Click OK > Stop Recording. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 34

35 Table Output Value: Table Output Value is used to get the data from specified cell in a WebTable. This option is not visible in QTP. But you can implement this by standard output value. (2) Text Output Value: We can use text Output Values to output text strings displayed on a Web page or application. When creating a text Output Value, We can output a part of the object's text. We can also specify the text before and after the output text. Steps to follow for Inserting Text Output Value: Recording Mode > Insert Menu > Output Value > Text Output Value > Show the Text > Select one of the Option{output text/text before/text after} > Click Modify if you want to Change the Column Name > Click OK Check in runtime table after executing. (3) Text Area Output Value: We can use text area Output Values to output text strings displayed within a defined area of a screen in a Windows application. Steps to follow for Inserting Text Area Output Value: Recording Mode > Insert Menu > Output Value > Textarea Output Value > Mark the Text Area > If required click modify the Column Name > Click OK > Again Click OK > Check in Run Time table after executing. (4) Database Output Value: We can use database Output Values to output the value of the contents of database cells, based on the results of a query (result set) that we define on a database. Steps to follow for Inserting Database Output Value: Recording Mode > Insert menu > Output Value > Database Output Value > Choose specify SQL statements manually > Click Next > Click Create > Select Machine Data source > Select Driver (QT_flight32) > Click OK > Enter SQL statement {select * from orders} > Click Finish > Select Data Cells > Click OK > Execute and see the results in run time table. (5) XML Output Value (From Application): We can use XML Output Values to output the values of XML elements and attributes in XML documents. Steps to follow for Inserting XML Output Value from application: Recording Mode > Insert Menu > Output Value > XML Output Value from Application > Show the XML Document > Select Elements > Click OK > Stop Recording. 6. XML Output Value (From Resource): Use to get the values from external XML file to parameterize your test. Steps to follow for Inserting XML Output Value from Resources: Recording Mode > Insert Menu > Output Value > XML Output Value from Resource > Show the XML Document > Select Elements > Click OK > Stop Recording. 7. File Output Value: By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 35

36 Steps to follow for Inserting File Output Value: Recording Mode > Insert Menu > Output Value > File Output Value > > Stop Recording. Output Values Test Script: Test Case: Write 1st Doctor's name, address, phone, distance, specialty from Environmental variables to Excel Sheet Browser("CareFirst Member - Find_2").Page("CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield_6").Link("Sethi, Kamaljit K, MD").Output CheckPoint("Sethi, Kamaljit K, MD") Browser("CareFirst Member - Find_2").Page("CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield_6").WebElement("6305 Castle Pl#3BFalls").Output CheckPoint("6305 Castle Pl#3BFalls Church, VA 22044") Browser("CareFirst Member - Find_2").Page("CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield_6").WebElement("(703) ").Output CheckPoint("(703) ") Browser("CareFirst Member - Find_2").Page("CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield_6").WebTable("24.0 miles").output CheckPoint("24.0 miles") Browser("CareFirst Member - Find_2").Page("CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield_6").WebElement("Nephrology").Output CheckPoint("Nephrology") Wait 7 Set excel=createobject("excel.application") Set Wb=excel.Workbooks.Open("E:\Docs\Unified Functional Testing\CarefirstRecording\Doctors Name Reording.xlsx") Set Ws=Wb.Worksheets("Sheet1") Ws.Cells(2,"A")=Environment.Value("drname") Ws.Cells(2,"B")=Environment.Value("address") Ws.Cells(2,"C")=Environment.Value("phone") Ws.Cells(2,"D")=Environment.Value("distance") Ws.Cells(2,"E")=Environment.Value("speciality") Wb.Save Wb.Close excel.quit Set Ws=Nothing Set Wb=Nothing Set excel=nothing *************************************************************************** CH-6: Debugging Test Script Debugging, in automation testing context, is a systematic process of spotting and fixing the coding issues in the automation scripts so that the script will be more robust and can spot the defects in the application Debugging Introduction A debugger is a tool to help you follow the logic of your test code as it runs. Debugging is attempting to figure out the cause of a problem in your test script, and then taking action to fix the problem. Debug Viewer: Debug Viewer is used for locating and rectifying or fixing errors. It can be used for debugging the tests by step by-step execution. Using the Debug command in UFT allows you to run your test line by line. To do so Microsoft Script Debugger must be installed. By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 36

37 To open the Debug Viewer pane: View > Debug The UFT Debugger has Seven Main Areas: 1. Breakpoints 2. Call Stack 3. Loaded Modules 4. Threads 5. Local Variables 6. Console 7. Watch (1) Breakpoints Breakpoints instruct UFT to pause a run session at a predetermined place in a component or function library. UFT pauses run when it reaches the breakpoint, before executing the step. We can then examine the effects of the run up to the breakpoint, make any necessary changes, and continue running the component or function library from the breakpoint. You can use Breakpoints: To pause a run session and observe or obtain certain information about your test. Mark a point from which to begin stepping through a component or function library using the step commands. Breakpoints are applicable only to the current UFT session and are not saved with component or function library. Options in Breakpoint: Various Options in Break Point can be accessed by Navigating 'Run' Menu. A. Insert/Remove BreakPoint (F9) B. Enable/Disable BreakPoint (Ctrl+F9) C. Clear All BreakPoint (Ctrl+Shift+F9) D. Enable/Disable All BreakPoints (Use Only Menu) (A) Insert/Remove BreakPoint (F9): You can add a breakpoint by clicking in the left gray margin next to the line of code that you want your script to stop on. Break Points can be inserted just by pressing "F9" or by using the Menu option Run > Inserting/Removing Break Point. After Inserting the Break point the "Red Coloured" Dot and the line will be highlighted in RED as shown below: By: Noor Hossin Web: Page: 37

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