Name of the Island. Use the Three pillars of sustainability to evaluate the options of generating power.

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1 Name Period Name of the Island A newly populated island off the South American cost needs a new power station. The president, Dési Bouterse has asked the local leaders split themselves up to research options. Each group looked at one of 9 options. Use the Three pillars of sustainability to evaluate the options of generating power. Read the information on one type Energy and identify Pros and Cons about the energy source. Put an S next to the issues that are related to Social, an E next to the issues that are Environmental and a $ next to the issues that are Economic. List at least one pros and cons for each pillar below. Three pillars of Sustainability Pros/Cons: For each pillar give at least one pro/con for your energy source. Environmental: Pros: Cons: Social: Pros: Cons: Economic: Pros: Cons: Option one: Three paragraph letter to President Dési Bouterse giving your recommendation Paragraph one: Give some background on your Energy Source. What is it? How is it used? Is it nonrenewable/renewable? Paragraph two: Based on the three pillars of sustainability, give three reasons why your Energy source may be a good/bad choice (**if you are going to recommend using your energy source, then start with the cons. If you are NOT going to recommend, then start with the pro) Paragraph three: Based on the three pillars of sustainability give three reasons why your Energy source may be good/bad choice. End with your recommendation! Make it convincing! Option Two: (only if you are going you recommend for energy source) Include all of the above information in a trifold brochure with at least three illustrations.

2 Biomass Energy Advantages of Biomass Energy 1. No Harmful Emissions: Biomass energy, for the most part, creates no harmful carbon dioxide emissions. Many energy sources used today struggle to control their carbon dioxide emissions, as these can cause harm to the ozone layer and increase the effects of greenhouse gases, potentially warming the planet. 2. Clean Energy: Because of its relatively clean use, biomass energy, when used in commercial businesses such as airlines, receives tax credit from the US government. This is good for the environment and good for business. 3. Abundant and Renewable: Biomass products are abundant and renewable. Since they come from living sources, and life is cyclical, these products potentially never run out. 4. Reduce Dependency on Fossil Fuels: It has developed as an alternate source of fuel for many homeowners and have helped them to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels. 5. Reduce Landfills: Another benefit of this energy is that it can take waste that is harmful to the environment and turn it into something useful. 6. Can be used to Create Different Products: Biomass energy is also versatile, as different forms of organic matter can be used to create different products. Ethanol and similar fuels can be made from corn and other crops. Disadvantages of Biomass Energy 1. Expensive: Firstly, it s expensive. Living things are expensive to care for, feed, and house, and all of that has to be considered when trying to use waste products from animals for fuel. 2. Inefficient as Compared to Fossil Fuels: Ethanol, as a biodiesel is terribly inefficient when compared to gasoline, and it often has to be mixed with some gasoline to make it work properly anyway. On top of that, ethanol is harmful to combustion engines over long term use. 3. Harmful to Environment: Using animal and human waste to power engines may save on carbon dioxide emissions, but it increases methane gases, which are also harmful to the Earth s ozone layer. And speaking of using waste products, there is the smell to consider. While it is not physically harmful, it is definitely unpleasant, and it can attract unwanted pests (rats, flies) and spread bacteria and infection. 4. Consume More Fuel: Finally, using trees and tree products to power machines is inefficient as well. Not only does it take a lot more fuel to do the same job as using conventional fuels, but it also creates environmental problems of its own. To amass enough lumber to power a nation full of vehicles or even a power plant, companies would have to clear considerable forest area. This results in major topological changes and destroys the homes of countless animals and plants. 5. Require More Land: Combustion of biomass products require some land where they can easily be burnt. Since, it produces gases like methane in atmosphere; therefore it can be produced in those areas which are quite far from residential homes.

3 Hydropower energy Hydropower Energy Advantages 1. No Fuel Cost Hydro Energy does not require any fuel like most other sources of energy. This is a huge advantage over other fossil fuels whose costs are increasing at a drastic rate every year. 2. Low Operating Costs and little Maintenance Operating labor cost is also usually low, as plants are automated and have few personnel on site during normal operation. 3. Low Electricity Cost The Electricity produced from Hydro Power is quite low making it very attractive to construct hydro plants. Hydro Plants also have long lives of between years which means that they are extremely profitable 4. No Greenhouse Gas Emissions/Air Pollution Hydroelectricity does not produce any GHG emissions or cause air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels unlike coal, oil or gas. 5. Energy Storage Pumped Hydro Storage is possible with most of the hydro power plants. This makes them ideal storage for wind and solar power which are intermittent in nature. 6. Small Size Possible Hydroelectricity can be produced in almost any size from 1 MW to MW which makes it very versatile. Small Hydro Plants are being encouraged by government as they cause less ecological affects than large hydro plants. Even micro hydro plants are possible 7. Reliability Hydro Power is much more reliable than wind and solar power though less than coal and nuclear as a base load source of power. Hydroelectricity is more or less predictable. 8. Long Life Hydro Plants has a very long life of around years which is much longer than that of even Nuclear Power Plants. The long life implies that the lifecycle cost of a Hydro Power Plant becomes very low in the long term Hydropower Energy Disadvantages 1. Environmental, Dislocation and Tribal Rights Large Dam construction especially in populated areas leads to massive Tribal Displacement, Loss of Livelihood and Religious Infringement as potentially sacred Land is occupied by the Government. 2. Wildlife and Fishes get affected The Fishes are the most affected species from Dam Construction as the normal flow of the river is completely changed form its river character to a lake one. Submergence of land also leads to ecological destruction of the habitat of land based wildlife. 3. Earthquake Vulnerability Large Dam Construction has been linked to increased propensity of Earthquakes. 4. Dam Failure Because large conventional dammed-hydro facilities hold back large volumes of water, a failure due to poor construction, terrorism, or other cause can be catastrophic to downriver settlements and infrastructure. Dam failures have been some of the largest manmade disasters in history. 5. Cannot be Built Anywhere Hydro Energy can only be built in particular places though enough of those places exist globally

4 6. Long Gestation Time The time to construct a large hydro power project can take between 5-10 years which leads to time and cost overruns. Natural Gas Energy Advantages of Natural Gas 1. Less Harmful than Coal or Oil: As compared to petroleum or coal, natural gas causes less damage to the environment. It is made up of methane and results in less carbon emissions. In fact emissions of carbon dioxide are 45% lesser than other conventional fuels and 30% less than oil. 2. Easy Storage and Transport: Natural gas is easier to preserve than other fuels. It can be stored and transported through pipelines, small storage units, cylinders or tankers on land and sea. 3. Residential Use: Natural gas can be piped into houses for heating and cooking purposes and running a variety of appliances. Where there are no pipes, it can be supplied in small tanks. 4. Vehicle Fuel: Natural gas can be used as a fuel for vehicles (cars, trucks, jet engines). It is a cleaner, cheaper fuel than diesel or gasoline. 5. Burns Cleaner: Natural gas burns cleaner without leaving any smell, ash or smoke. 6. Instant energy: Natural gas is an economic and instant fuel for heating water and large areas as well as cooking. It is ideal because it provides precise control and quick results. It helps in oven cooking as it does not require pre-heating. 7. Abundant: It is relatively abundant compared to other fossil fuels, burns more cleanly and is easy to distribute. 8. Safer: It is lighter than air and tends to dissipate when there is a leakage unlike Propane, which being heavier than air, collects into explosive pockets. 9. Cheaper: Natural gas is cheaper than electricity. It is quicker when used for cooking and heating water and majority of gas appliances are cheaper than electric appliances. Disadvantages of Natural Gas 1. Toxic and Flammable: Leaks of natural gas are tremendously dangerous. Such leaks may cause explosions or fire. When inhaled, the gas is highly toxic. The main danger is that it is odorless and leaks cannot be detected unless some odorant has been added to the gas. 2. Damage to Environment: Burning of natural gas also releases carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other carbon compounds which are greenhouse gases that cause global warming and climate change. 3. Complex Processing: For use as fuel, except for methane, all other constituents of natural gas have to be extracted. Processing results in many byproducts: hydrocarbons (propane, ethane etc.), sulfur, water, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. 4. Non-Renewable: Like all fossil fuels, natural gas though found in abundance is non-renewable and hence likely to be exhausted at some point of time. It is not a long term solution to our energy problems.

5 5. Expensive Installation: The infrastructure for natural gas production and distribution is fairly expensive. This includes separate plumbing systems and specialized tanks. 6. Inefficiency in Transportation: Natural gas when used as a fuel in vehicles provides less mileage than gasoline. Petroleum Energy Advantages of Petroleum 1. Petroleum has a higher energy density. An average of one kilogram of burnt oil can give about 10,000 kilo calorie (kcal). 2. Technologies for petroleum have been well developed. Extracting oil from the ground can certainly be exploited in varied geological conditions. 3. The cost for extraction of petroleum is relatively low and this requires reduced physical and technical effort. 4. Since petroleum is on liquid state, this can be easily transported and stored. Managing petroleum is also said to be relatively easy. 5. Petroleum got broad application areas including transport, chemical and finishing with its widespread use as resource of energy used in power plants. 6. Another advantage of petroleum is that this is used as diesel fuel or gasoline to power all types of motors including trucks, buses and cars. This is also beneficial in terms of satisfying individuals need to quickly move from one location to the other. 7. Petroleum can move vehicles longer and faster as compared to other types of energy sources. 8. Petroleum is abundant and easy to use. Disadvantages of Petroleum 1. Petroleum got limited resource and there is a possibility that petroleum sources will run out for the coming decades. Based on studies, almost half of oil reserves have been utilized and that is about 2 trillion barrels and only one trillion barrels are left. There might be some other sources of petroleum in the world but experts are afraid that these sources cannot produce enough oil or petroleum to sustain human needs. 2. Processing and extracting oil can contribute to pollution and environmental degradation. 3. Oil is said to be non-renewable resource, meaning once individuals consumed a portion of this, there will no replacement. In the long run, this may also cause depletion and this can no longer be regenerated once depleted. 4. Oil spill is another disadvantage linked to petroleum. If oil or petroleum spills, adverse effects in oceans and marine life can be expected.

6 Solar Energy Advantages of Solar Power? 1. Solar energy is a clean and renewable energy source. 2. Once a solar panel is installed, solar energy can be produced free of charge. 3. Solar energy will last forever whereas it is estimated that the world s oil reserves will last for 30 to 40 years. 4. Solar energy causes no pollution. 5. Solar cells make absolutely no noise at all. On the other hand, the giant machines utilized for pumping oil are extremely noisy and therefore very impractical. 6. Very little maintenance is needed to keep solar cells running. There are no moving parts in a solar cell which makes it impossible to really damage them. 7. In the long term, there can be a high return on investment due to the amount of free energy a solar panel can produce, it is estimated that the average household will see 50% of their energy coming in from solar panels. Disadvantages of Solar Power? 1. Solar panels can be expensive to install resulting in a time-lag of many years for savings on energy bills to match initial investments. 2. Electricity generation depends entirely on a countries exposure to sunlight; this could be limited by a countries climate. 3. Solar power stations do not match the power output of similar sized conventional power stations; they can also be very expensive to build. 4. Solar power is used to charge batteries so that solar powered devices can be used at night. The batteries can often be large and heavy, taking up space and needing to be replaced from time to time.

7 Nuclear Energy Advantages of Nuclear Energy 1. Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Nuclear energy by far has the lowest impact on the environment since it does not releases any gases like carbon dioxide, methane which are largely responsible for greenhouse effect. 2. Powerful and Efficient: The other main advantage of using nuclear energy is that it is very powerful and efficient than other alternative energy sources. 3. Reliable: Unlike traditional sources of energy like solar and wind which require sun or wind to produce electricity, nuclear energy can be produced from nuclear power plants even in the cases of rough weather conditions. They can produce power 24/7 and need to be shut down for maintenance purposes only. 4. Cheap Electricity: The cost of uranium which is used as a fuel in generating electricity is quite low. Also, set up costs of nuclear power plants is relatively high while running cost is low. The average life of nuclear reactor range from years depending upon its usage. 5. Supply: This energy has a continuous supply. It is widely available, has huge reserves and expected to last for another 100 years while coal, oil and natural gas are limited and are expected to vanish soon. 6. Easy Transportation: Production of nuclear energy needs very less amount of raw material. Since it s required in small quantities, transportation of fuel is much easier than fossil fuels. Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy 1. Radioactive Waste: The waste produced by nuclear reactors needs to be disposed off at a safe place since they are extremely hazardous and can leak radiations if not stored properly. Such kind of waste emits radiations from tens to hundreds of years. 2. Nuclear Accidents: While so many new technologies have been put in place to make sure that such disasters won t happen again like the ones Chernobyl or more recently Fukushima but the risk associated with them are relatively high. Even small radiation leaks can cause devastating effects. 3. High Cost: Another practical disadvantage of using nuclear energy is that it needs a lot of investment to set up a nuclear power station. 4. National Risk: Nuclear power plants are hot targets for militants and terrorist organizations. Security is a major concern here. A little lax in security can prove to be lethal and brutal for humans and even for this planet. 5. Major Impact on Human Life: We all remember the disaster caused during the Second World War after the nuclear bombs were dropped over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Even after five decades of the mishap, children are born with defects. 6. Fuel Availability: Unlike fossil fuels which are available to most of the countries, uranium is very scarce resource and exist in only few of the countries. 7. Non Renewable: Nuclear energy uses uranium which is a scarce resource and is not found in many countries.

8 Coal Energy Advantages of Coal 1. Abundance Coal is located almost universally, it can be found on every continent in over 70 countries, with the biggest reserves in the USA, Russia, China and India. 2. Continuous, Predictable, Reliable Source of Power Coal Based Energy can be generated almost 24 7 unlike other forms of renewable energy like wind and solar that are intermittent in nature. 3. Low Capital Investment Coal Mines are also quite cheap to build and Mine with Open Cast Mines providing Coal at a very Low Cost. 4. Low Cost Coal is one of the cheapest forms of energy making it the energy of choice in developing countries like India and China 5. High Load Factor Thermal Power Plants have very high load factors in excess of 80%. They can generate power almost 24/7 and only require shutdown for periodic maintenance. 6. Large Potential compared to Oil Coal Energy Potential is quite large compared to other Fossil Fuels like Oil and Gas. Coal Reserves globally are estimated to be around 1 trillion tons which implies that Coal can be consumed at the current rates for another 200 years. 7. Big Industrial Base Coal Energy has been present since the start of the Industrial Revolution with the development of the Steam Engine based on Coal. This allows a rapid deployment of Coal Power in most places in the world. Disadvantages of Coal 1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions One of the biggest cons of Coal Energy is that it releases Carbon Dioxide which has been sequestered for millions of years in the dead bodies of plant and animals. This transfer the Carbon from the Earth to the Environment leading to the Global Warming Effect. 2. Coal Mining Deaths Coal Mining has resulted in thousands of deaths each year ever since man discovered coal. 3. Devastation of Earth and Scenery Near Coal Mines Open Cast Mining of Coal has resulted in destruction of the habitat and destruction of the scenery. It leads to removal of trees and pollution of air and water in areas surrounding the mines. Coal Mine Fires have burned for hundreds of year underground and make living in those areas hazardous. 4. Displacement of Humans due to Mining Destruction People are being displaced in huge numbers as the hollowing of the earth due to underground coal mining has made those places unsafe. 5. Emission of Harmful Substances like Sulfur Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Mercury, Selenium, Arsenic, Acid Rain Thermal Plants emit harmful substances such as Mercury and Sulfur Dioxide which cause health hazards among the surrounding population and Acid Rain. While modern equipment has reduced the emission of these harmful substances, it is still very harmful to humans.

9 Geothermal Energy Advantages of Geothermal Energy: 1. Significant Cost Saving : Geothermal energy generally involves low running costs since it saves 80% costs over fossil fuels and no fuel is used to generate the power. Since, no fuel is require so costs for purchasing, transporting and cleaning up plants is quite low. 2. Reduce Reliance on Fossil Fuels : Dependence on fossil fuels decreases with the increase in the use of geothermal energy. With the sky-rocketing prices of oil, many countries are pushing companies to adopt these clean sources of energy. Burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases which are responsible for global warming 3. No Pollution : This is one of the main advantage of using geothermal energy since it does not create any pollution and help in creating clean environment. Being the renewable source of energy, geothermal energy has helped in reducing global warming and pollution. Moreover, Geothermal systems does not create any pollution as it releases some gases from deep within the earth which are not very harmful to the environment 4. Direct Use : Since ancient times, people having been using this source of energy for taking bath, heating homes, preparing food and today this is also used for direct heating of homes and offices. This makes geothermal energy cheaper and affordable. Although the initial investment is quite steep but in the long run with huge cost saving it proves quite useful 5. Job Creation and Economic Benefits : Government of various countries are investing hugely in creation of geothermal energy which on other hand has created more jobs for the local people Disadvantages of Geothermal Energy 1. Not Widespread Source of Energy : Since this type of energy is not widely used therefore the unavailability of equipment, staff, infrastructure, training pose hindrance to the installation of geothermal plants across the globe. 2. High Installation Costs : To get geothermal energy, requires installation of power plants, to get steam from deep within the earth and this require huge one time investment and require to hire a certified installer and skilled staff needs to be recruited and relocated to plant location. Moreover, electricity towers, stations need to set up to move the power from geothermal plant to consumer. 3. Can Run Out Of Steam : Geothermal sites can run out of steam over a period of time due to drop in temperature or if too much water is injected to cool the rocks and this may result huge loss for the companies which have invested heavily in these plants. 4. Suited To Particular Region : It is only suitable for regions which have hot rocks below the earth and can produce steam over a long period of time. 5. May Release Harmful Gases: Geothermal sites may contain some poisonous gases and they can escape deep within the earth, through the holes drilled by the constructors. 6. Transportation : Geothermal Energy can not be easily transported. Once the tapped energy is extracted, it can be only used in the surrounding areas. Other sources of energy like wood, coal or oil can be transported to residential areas but this is not a case with geothermal energy. Also, there is a fear of toxic substances getting released into the atmosphere.

10 Wind Energy Advantages to Wind Energy 1. It's a clean fuel source. Wind energy doesn't pollute the air like power plants that rely on combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas. Wind turbines don't produce atmospheric emissions that cause acid rain or greenhouse gasses. 2. Wind energy is a domestic source of energy. The nation's wind supply is abundant: over the past 10 years, cumulative wind power capacity in the United States increased an average of 30% per year, outpacing the 28% growth rate in worldwide capacity. 3. It's sustainable. Wind is actually a form of solar energy; winds are caused by the heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the rotation of the earth, and the earth's surface irregularities. For as long as the sun shines and the wind blows, the energy produced can be harnessed to send power across the grid. 4. Wind power is cost effective. It is one of the lowest-priced renewable energy technologies available today, costing between four and six cents per kilowatt-hour, depending upon the wind resource and project financing of the particular project. 5. Wind turbines can be built on existing farms or ranches. This greatly benefits the economy in rural areas, where most of the best wind sites are found. Farmers and ranchers can continue to work the land because the wind turbines use only a fraction of the land. Wind power plant owners make rent payments to the farmer or rancher for the use of the land providing landowners with additional income. Disadvantages to Wind Energy 1. Wind power must still compete with conventional generation sources on a cost basis. Depending on how energetic a wind site is, the wind farm may or may not be cost competitive. Even though the cost of wind power has decreased dramatically in the past 10 years, the technology requires a higher initial investment than fossil-fueled generators. 2. Good wind sites are often located in remote locations, far from cities where the electricity is needed. Transmission lines must be built to bring the electricity from the wind farm to the city. 3. Wind resource development may not be the most profitable use of the land. Land suitable for wind turbine installation must compete with alternative uses for the land, which may be more highly valued than electricity generation. 4. Turbines may cause noise and aesthetic pollution. Although wind power plants have relatively little impact on the environment compared to other conventional power plants, there is some concern over the noise produced by the rotor blades, aesthetic (visual) impacts. 5. The turbine blades may damage local wildlife. Sometimes birds have been killed by flying into the rotors. Most of these problems have been resolved or greatly reduced through technological development or by properly siting wind plants.

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